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   » » Wiki: Myxedema
Tag Wiki 'Myxedema'.
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Myxedema (: Myxoedema) is a term used synonymously with severe . It is also to describe a change that can occur in hypothyroidism, and some forms of hyperthyroidism. This article discusses the dermatological changes.

In this context, myxoedema refers to deposition in the . This results in of the affected area. One manifestation of myxoedema occurring in the lower limb is , a hallmark of . Myxoedema can occur in and other long-standing forms of , as well as Graves disease, an autoimmune form of hyperthyroidism.

The word myxoedema originates from μύξα, taken from ancient Greek to convey 'mucus' or 'slimy substance' and ὁίδημα for swelling.


Signs and symptoms
Myxoedema can occur in the lower leg () and behind the eyes ().


Cause
Myxoedema is known to occur in various forms of , and also in . One of the hallmarks of Grave's disease is pretibial myxedema, myxoedema of the lower limb. ξ1

Myxoedema is more common in women than in men. ξ2

Myxedema can occur in:


Pathophysiology
Myxedema describes a specific form of and secondary to increased deposition of components. These can include , , and other . ξ1 The increased deposition of glycosaminoglycan is not fully understood, however two mechanisms predominate:
  • stimulation. It is thought that fibroblast stimulation by the (TSH) receptor increases the deposition of glycosaminoglycan. This results in an osmotic and fluid retention. It is thought that many cells responsible for forming connective tissue react to increases in TSH levels.
  • stimulation. In Basedow-Graves' thyroid disease, lymphocytes react against the TSH receptor. Lymphocytes react not only against thyroid receptors, but also any tissue with cells expressing the receptor. This can lead to tissue damage and scar tissue formation, explaining the deposition of glycosaminoglycans.


References
    ^ 9781437703146, Saunders/ Elsevier.
    ^ (2018). 9781451109061, Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

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