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Muslims (المسلمون, , ) are people who adhere to , a religion belonging to the Abrahamic tradition. They consider the , the foundational religious text of Islam, to be the verbatim word of the God of Abraham (or ) as it was revealed to , the main Islamic prophet. The majority of Muslims also follow the teachings and practices of Muhammad ( ) as recorded in traditional accounts ( ).

(2022). 9781594732225, SkyLight Paths Publishing. .

With an estimated population of almost 1.9 billion followers as of 2020 year estimation, Muslims comprise more than 24.9% of the world's total population. In descending order, the percentage of people who identify as Muslims on each continental landmass stands at: 45% of Africa, 25% of Asia and Oceania (collectively), 6% of Europe, and 1% of the Americas. Additionally, in subdivided geographical regions, the figure stands at: 91% of the Middle East–North Africa, 90% of Central Asia, 65% of the Caucasus, 42% of Southeast Asia, 32% of South Asia, and 42% of sub-Saharan Africa.

While there are several Islamic schools and branches, the two largest denominations are (75–90% of all Muslims)*

  • Sunni Islam: Oxford Bibliographies Online Research Guide "Sunni Islam is the dominant division of the global Muslim community, and throughout history it has made up a substantial majority (85 to 90 percent) of that community."
  • and (10–20% of all Muslims). By sheer numbers, South Asia accounts for the largest portion (31%) of the global Muslim population, primarily across three countries: Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh.
    (2022). 9780415448512, Routledge.
    By country, Indonesia is the largest in the , holding around 12% of all Muslims worldwide; outside of the Muslim-majority countries, India and China are home to the largest (11%) and second-largest (2%) Muslim populations, respectively. Due to high Muslim population growth, Islam is the fastest-growing religion in the world.

The word muslim (مسلم, ; , , or moslem , ) is the active participle of the same verb of which islām is a , based on the "to be whole, intact".Burns & Ralph, World Civilizations, 5th ed., p. 371.Entry for šlm, p. 2067, Appendix B: Semitic Roots, The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed., Boston, New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2000, . A female adherent is a muslima (مسلمة) (also as "Muslimah" Muslimah . Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. 2016 ). The plural form in Arabic is muslimūn (مسلمون) or muslimīn (مسلمين), and its feminine equivalent is muslimāt (مسلمات).

The ordinary word in English is "Muslim". In the 20th century the preferred spelling in English was "Moslem", but this has now fallen into disuse. The word Mosalman (مسلمان, alternatively Mussalman) is a common equivalent for Muslim used in and . In English it was sometimes spelled Mussulman and has become in usage. Until at least the mid-1960s, many English-language writers used the term or Mahometans.See for instance the second edition of A Dictionary of Modern English Usage by H. W. Fowler, revised by (Oxford, 1965). Although such terms were not necessarily intended to be , Muslims argue that the terms are offensive because they allegedly imply that Muslims worship Muhammad rather than God. Other obsolete terms include Muslimite and Muslimist. In Medieval Europe, Muslims were commonly called .

The Muslim philosopher said:

To become a Muslim and to convert to Islam, it is essential to utter the , one of the Five Pillars of Islam, a declaration of faith and trust that professes that there is God () and that is God's messenger. From the article on the Pillars of Islam in Oxford Islamic Studies Online It is a set statement normally recited in Arabic: ašhadu ʾal-lā ʾilāha ʾillā-llāhu wa ʾašhadu ʾanna muħammadan rasūlu-llāh (أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وأشهد أن محمداً رسول الله) "I testify that there is no god worthy except Allah, and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah."
(2022). 9781438117782 .

In , the shahada has two parts: la ilaha illa'llah (there is no god but ), and Muhammadun rasul Allah ( is the messenger of God),Lindsay, p. 140–141 which are sometimes referred to as the first shahada and the second shahada.Cornell, p. 9 The first statement of the shahada is also known as the .

(1999). 9781883991265, White Cloud Press. .

In , the shahada also has a third part, a phrase concerning , the first Shia Imam and the fourth of : وعليٌ وليُّ الله (), which translates to "Ali is the of God". The Later Mughals by William Irvine p. 130

In , the shahada is the testimony that there is no god but ( la ilaha illa'llah ).

The religious practices of Muslims are enumerated in the Five Pillars of Islam: the declaration of faith ( ), daily prayers ( ), almsgiving ( ), fasting during the month of ( ), and the pilgrimage to ( ) at least once in a lifetime.

In Islamic theology
The Qur'an describes many prophets and messengers within Judaism and Christianity, and their respective followers, as Muslim. Some of those that were mentioned are: Adam, , Abraham, Ishmael, , Moses, and Jesus and his are all considered to be Muslims in the Qur'an. The Qur'an states that these men were Muslims because they submitted to God, preached His message and upheld His values, which included praying, charity, fasting and pilgrimage. Thus, in Surah 3:52 of the Qur'an, Jesus' disciples tell him, "We believe in God; and you be our witness that we are Muslims ( wa-shahad be anna muslimūn)." In Islamic belief, before the Qur'an, God had given the () to Moses, the () to and the () to Jesus, who are all considered important Muslim prophets.

The most populous Muslim-majority country is Indonesia, home to 12.7% of the world's Muslims, followed by Pakistan (11.0%), Bangladesh (9.2%), Nigeria (5.3%) and Egypt (4.9%). About 20% of the world's Muslims live in the Middle East and North Africa.
(2002). 9780195157130, Oxford University Press. .
(2022). 9780195182668, Oxford University Press.

Sizable minorities are also found in India, China, Ethiopia, the Americas, Australia and parts of Europe. The country with the highest proportion of self-described Muslims as a proportion of its total population is Morocco.

Over 75–90% of Muslims are . The second and third largest sects, and , make up 10–20%, and 1% respectively.

With about 1.9 billion followers (2019), almost a quarter of , Islam is the second-largest and the fastest-growing religion in the world, primarily due to the young age and high of Muslims, with Muslims having a rate of (3.1) compared to the world average of (2.5). According to the same study, religious switching has no impact on Muslim population, since the number of people who embrace Islam and those who leave Islam are roughly equal.

A Pew Center study in 2016 found that Muslims have the highest number of adherents under the age of 15 (34% of the total Muslim population) of any major religion, while only 7% are aged 60+ (the smallest percentage of any major religion). According to the same study, Muslims have the highest (3.1) of any major religious group. The study also found that Muslims (tied with ) have the lowest average levels of with an average of 5.6 years of schooling, though both groups have made the largest gains in educational attainment in recent decades among major religions. About 36% of all Muslims have no formal schooling, and Muslims have the lowest average levels of of any major religious group, with only 8% having and degrees.

Muslim culture or Islamic culture are terms used to describe the cultural practices common to Muslims and historically Islamic people. The early forms of culture, from the Rashidun Caliphate to early period, were predominantly , , and . With the rapid expansion of the , Muslim culture has influenced and assimilated much from the , , , , , , , , , , and cultures.

See also

External links

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