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Kodagu (also known by its former name Coorg) is an administrative district in the state of India. Before 1956, it was an administratively separate , at which point it was merged into an enlarged .

(2022). 9781494282479 .

It occupies an area of in the of southwestern Karnataka. In 2001 its population was 548,561, 13.74% of which resided in the district's urban centre, making it the least populous of the 31 districts in Karnataka.

The nearest railway stations are , located around away, , and , the latter two located in at a distance of about . The nearest airports are Kannur International Airport in ( from Kodagu) and Mangalore International Airport ( from Kodagu).


Geography
Kodagu is located on the eastern slopes of the . It has a geographical area of . The district is bordered by Dakshina Kannada district to the northwest, to the north, to the east, district of Kerala in west and of to the southwest, and of Kerala to the south. It is a hilly district, the lowest elevation being above sea-level near . The highest peak, , rises to , with Pushpagiri, the second highest, at . The main river in Kodagu is the (Cauvery), which originates at , located on the eastern side of the Western Ghats, and with its tributaries, drains the greater part of Kodagu.


Rivers (Mouth)


Peaks


Administrative divisions

Taluks
The district is divided into five administrative :


Representation
Two members of the legislative assembly are elected from Kodagu to the Legislative Assembly, one each from the and . represents the Madikeri constituency while K. G. Bopaiah represents the Virajpet constituency; they are from the Bharatiya Janata Party. Kodagu, formerly part of the Kodagu-Dakshina Kannada (Mangalore) constituency, is now part of the parliamentary constituency. The current MP for this constituency is , from the Bharatiya Janata Party.

The Codava National Council and Kodava Rashtriya Samiti are campaigning for autonomy to Kodagu district.


History
The were the earliest inhabitants and agriculturists in Kodagu, having lived there for centuries. Kodavas Being a warrior community as well, they carried arms during times of war and had their own chieftains.
(2022). 9789383808274, Notion Press.

The earliest mention about Coorg can be seen in the works those date back to (300 BCE - 300 CE). The dynasty had jurisdiction over two Nadus - The coastal Poozhinadu and the hilly eastern Karkanadu.A Shreedhara Menon, A Survey of Kerala history According to the works of Sangam literature, Poozhinadu consisted much of the coastal belt between and . Karkanadu consisted of -Gudalur hilly region with parts of Kodagu (Coorg).

The Haleri dynasty, an offshoot of the Keladi Nayakas, ruled Kodagu between 1600 and 1834. Later the British ruled Kodagu from 1834, after the , until India's independence in 1947. A separate state (called ) until then, in 1956 Kodagu was merged with the Mysore State (now ).

(2022). 9788192914220, Codava Makkada Coota.
(2022). 9788192914213, Codava Makkada Coota.


Coorg in British India
In 1834, the East India Company annexed Kodagu into , after deposing Chikka Virarajendra of the Kodagu kingdom, as 'Coorg'.
(2022). 9788192914213, Codava Makkada Coota.
British rule led to the establishment of educational institutions, introduction of scientific coffee cultivation, better administration and improvement of the economy.
(2022). 9788192914213, Codava Makkada Coota.
(2022). 9788192914206, Pothi books.


Demographics
According to the 2011 census of India, Kodagu has a population of 554,519, roughly equal to the or the US state of . This ranks it 539 out of 640 districts in India in terms of population. The district has a population density of . Its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 1.13%. Kodagu has a sex ratio of 1019 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 82.52%. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes make up 13.27% and 10.47% of the population respectively.


Language
At the time of the 2011 census, 30.91% of the population spoke , 20.83% , 14.86% , 8.92% , 5.81% Are, 4.66% , 4.23% , 2.95% , 1.74% , 1.55% and 1.16% as their first language. Are Bhashe, a dialect of and are native to Kodagu district. Both use Kannada script for literature. K S Rajyashree, Kodava speech community : An ethnolinguistic study


Kodava tribe and other Kodava language speakers
According to Karnataka Kodava Sahitya Academy (Karnataka's Kodava Literary Academy), apart from Kodavas, and their related groups, the Amma Kodavas, the Kodava Peggade (Kodagu Heggade) and the Kodava Maaple (), 18 other smaller-numbered ethnic groups speak Kodava Takk in and outside the district including the Iri ( Airi, or the carpenters and the village smiths), the Koyava, the Banna, the Kodagu Madivala (washermen), the Kodagu Hajama (barber, also called Nainda), the Kembatti (household servants and labourers) and the Meda (basket and mat weavers and drummers).

Among other Kodava speaking communities are: the Heggades, cultivators from shimogga; the Kodava Nair, cultivators from Malabar; the Ayiri, who constitute the artisan caste; the Medas, who are basket and mat-weavers and act as drummers at feasts; the Binepatta, originally wandering musicians from Malabar, now farmers; and the Kavadi, cultivators settled in Yedenalknad (Virajpet). All these groups speak the and conform generally to Kodava customs and dress.


Kodagu Aarebashe Gowda
Less frequent are Tulu speakers , , Bunts, Goud Saraswat Brahmins.

The Arebhashe gowdas, or Kodagu Gowdas, and Tulu Gowdas, are an ethnic group of and Kodagu. They live in Sulya (in Dakshina Kannada) and in parts of Somwarpet, Kushalanagar, Bhagamandala and Madikeri. They speak a language known as Arebhashe a dialect of . Guddemane Appaiah Gowda along with many other freedom fighters from different communities revolted against the in an armed struggle which covered entire Kodagu and Dakshina Kannada. This was one of the earliest freedom movements against the British called ""South Kanara, 1799–1860 By N. Shyam Bhatt ( Amara Sulya Dhange formally called the 'Coorg Rebellion' by the British) started in 1837.


Religion
Hindus are the vast majority. They include the Kodava tribe, other Kodava language speakers, Arebhashe Gowdas, Brahmins, most Yeravas and Kurubas.

A huge minority of Muslims dot the Coorg district, especially the towns of , and . A sizeable of them are the who shifted in the eighties from and in order to pursue coffee & arecanut plantations and textile business. The numerous mosque dotting the landscape is the testimony of Muslim presence in the district.

A small number of Mangalorean Catholics are also found in Coorg. They are mostly descended from those Catholics who fled the roundup and, later, captivity by . These immigrants were welcomed by Raja Veerarajendra (himself a former captive of Tippu Sultan, having escaped six years of captivity in 1788) who realising their usefulness and expertise as agriculturists, gave them lands and tax breaks and built a church for them. Sarasvati's Children: A History of the Mangalorean Christians, Alan Machado Prabhu, I.J.A. Publications, 1999, p. 229


Tourism
Kodagu is rated as one of the top hill station destinations in India. Some of the most popular tourist attractions in Kodagu include Talakaveri, Bhagamandala, Nisargadhama, , , Nagarahole National Park, , and the Tibetan Buddhist Golden Temple.

  • is the place where the originates. The temple on the riverbanks here is dedicated to Lord Brahma, and is one of only two temples dedicated to Brahma in India and Southeast Asia. is situated at the Sangama (confluence) of two rivers, the Kaveri and the Kannika. A third river, the Sujyothi, is said to join from underground, and hence this spot is called the Triveni Sangama. is a sacred Kodagu Hindu spot in South Kodagu in the Brahmagiri hill range. The Lakshmana Tirtha River, with the waterfalls, flows nearby and has a Rameshwara temple on its banks. It is said that this sacred river was created when Laxmana, prince of Ayodhya and younger brother of Lord Rama, shot an arrow into nearby hill, the Brahmagiri hill. Chelavara falls and Thadiandamol peak are also in South Kodagu. Nagarahole is a national park and wildlife resort.
  • is the capital of the district and Raja's Seat park is popular with tourists. Kootu Poley dam is also popular among tourists. Omkareshwara Temple is a beautiful temple built in the Indo-Sarcenic style in Coorg. A legend is associated with the temple, built by Lingarajendra II in 1820 CE. The king put to death a pious Brahmin who dared to protest against his misdeeds. The spirit of the dead man began to plague the king day and night. On the advice of wise men, the king built this temple and installed a Shivalinga procured from Kashi, North India. St. Mark's Church is located within the and was raised in 1859, by the officers and men of the East India Company. The building was funded by the Government of Madras, and placed under the Church of England in India, Diocese of Madras. The Church was closed after Indian independence, and taken over by the Government of Karnataka in 1971. The building now houses the Madikeri Fort Museum, managed by the Karnataka State Archaeological Department.
  • is mainly an elephant-capturing and training camp of the Forest Department at the edge of Dubare forest; on the bank of the river along the – Siddapura road. is a man-made island and picnic spot near , formed by the river . The Tibetan Buddhist Golden Temple is at Bylakuppe near Kushalnagara (Mysore district), in the Tibetan refugee settlement.
  • is a scenic waterfall 5 km from . is 25 km from Somawarapet, downhill of the Pushpagiri hills. Mandalapatti is 28 km from Madikeri. On the way to Abbey Falls, before 3 km from Abbey Falls take right, from there 25 km. Kote Betta temple, Kote Abbey falls are also in North Kodagu. Abbi waterfall and other are best during season, typically some days after it starts raining in June up to the end of , while there is more water gushing in the streams and rivers.


Notable people
  • K. G. Bopaiah, 18th Speaker of the Karnataka Legislative Assembly
  • A. S. Bopanna, Judge of Supreme court
  • , actress
  • , Indian tennis player
  • K. C. Cariappa, Air Marshal
  • K. C. Cariappa, professional cricketer
  • Field Marshal K. M. Cariappa, first Indian C-in-C, fourth Indian High Commissioner to Australia and New Zealand
  • , first woman Mayor of Bangalore, Rajya Sabha MP
  • Shwetha Chengappa, actress
  • Squadron Leader Ajjamada Boppayya Devayya, martyred in Indo-Pak war of 1965
  • , tribal rights activist
  • M. P. Ganesh, Indian hockey captain, player and coach
  • Guddemane Appaiah Gowda, 19th century freedom fighter
  • Kodagina Gowramma, noted writer
  • B. B. Ashok Kumar, Retd. Assistant Commissioner of Police of Bengaluru
  • Rashmika Mandanna, actress
  • Rao Bahadur Pemmanda K. Monnappa, first Inspector General of Police of following
  • C. B. Muthamma, first woman officer Indian Foreign Service
  • Lieutenant General Biddanda Chengappa Nanda, GOC-in-C Northern Command, Karnataka Rajyaotsava Awardee
  • , Indian badminton player
  • Lieutenant General , Adjutant General of the Indian Army.
  • Prema, actress
  • Nima Poovaya-Smith, museum curator, art historian and writer
  • , politician
  • , actress
  • General Kodandera Subayya Thimayya, head of Indian Army, chairman of Korean Repatriation Committee, head of UN Peacekeeping force
  • Lieutenant General Pattacheruvanda C. Thimayya, former in the Indian Army
  • , Indian Cricketer


See also
  • Pushpagiri Wildlife Sanctuary


Further reading
  • Belliappa, C. P. Tale of a Tiger's Tail & Others Yarns from Coorg. English.
  • Belliappa, C. P. Victoria Gowramma. English.
  • Bopanna, P. T. Kodagu: Mungaru Maleya Vismayada Nadu/ Discover Coorg. Kannada/ English.
  • Bopanna, P. T. Coorg State: Udaya-Pathana / Coorg State. Kannada/ English.
  • Ganapathy, B. D. Kodagu mattu Kodavaru. Kannada. 1962.
  • Ganapathy, B. D. Nanga Kodava. Kodava. 1973.
  • Kushalappa, Mookonda. “The early Coorgs”. Chennai: Notion Press. 2013.
  • Kushalappa, Mookonda. “Long ago in Coorg”. Chennai: Pothi books. 2014.
  • . On a Shoestring to Coorg.
  • Puttur Anantharaja Gowda (2015). IN PURSUIT OF OUR ROOTS Bengaluru: Tenkila Publications
  • . Kutaku kurippukal (Coorg Notes). Kannur: Kairali Books.


External links

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