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Kodagu (also known by its former name Coorg) is an administrative district in , India. Coorg is home to the native speakers of the .

Before 1956, it was an administratively separate , at which point it was merged into an enlarged . In 2001 its population was 548,561, 13.74% of which resided in the district's urban centres, making it the least populous of the 30 districts in Karnataka.


History
The words Kodagu (the land) and Kodava (the indigenous people, language and culture) come from the same roots, either meaning 'hills', or 'west', related to the Western Ghats' location. The (Coorgs) are ethnically and culturally distinct people. For centuries, the Kodavas have lived in Kodagu cultivating paddy fields, maintaining cattle herds and carrying arms during war. Historians agree that the Kodavas have lived in for over a thousand years, hence they are the earliest agriculturists and probably the oldest settled inhabitants of the area.K.S. Rajyashree. Kodava Speech Community: an ethnolinguistic study. LanguageIndia.com, October 2001


Rajas and Sultans
inscriptions speak of this region as being called Kudagu nad (parts of Kodagu, Western Mysore and Kerala) as well. Both the name of the natives and of the region are synonymous (Kodava-Kodavu; Kodaga-Kodagu; Coorgs-Coorg). In 1398 AD, when Vijaynagar ruled South India, Mangaraja, a Kannada poet, wrote in his lexicon about the Kodavas saying that they were a warrior people who were fond of hunting game for sport.

The , an offshoot of the Keladi Nayakas, ruled Kodagu between 1600 and 1834. When Linga Raja I of Haleri died, imprisoned the royal family and took direct control of Kodagu. This enraged the Kodavas who took power back from Hyder Ali in 1782. In the same year, Hyder Ali died. In 1784, his son attacked Kodagu, while returning from to Srirangapattana, his capital city. The Coorg capital of was renamed to Zafarabad by the Sultan in the meanwhile. The Muslim descendants of the Kodavas who converted into Islam, after Tipu Sultan's army on various forays into Coorg are called Kodava Mappila.

In 1788, Dodda Vira Rajendra of Haleri, who had been taken prisoner, escaped and defeated Tippu and recovered his kingdom. In 1790 Dodda Vira Rajendra signed a treaty with the British, who promised to protect his kingdom against Tippu’s onslaught. In 1792 Kodagu became independent of Mysore once again. In addition to the kings' samadhis (tombs), samadhis were built for the Diwans. Samadhis were built for army chief Biddanda Bopu, who was the commander-in-chief for the army of Dodda Vira Rajendra, and his son Biddanda Somaiah. On the samadhi of Biddanda Bopu, there is a plate carved in Kannada praising him for his bravery shown in the wars fought against Tipu Sultan.


Coorg in British India
Later the British ruled Kodagu from 1834, after the , until India's independence in 1947. A separate state (called ) until then, in 1956 Kodagu was merged with the Mysore State (now ).

In 1834 the last of the Haleri Rajas Chikka Vira Raja fell out of favour with the British East India Company who then intervened by invading Kodagu. A short but bloody campaign occurred in which a number of British men and officers were killed. Near Somwarpet where the Coorgs were led by Mathanda Appachu the resistance was most furious. But this came to a quick end when the Raja sent his Diwan Apparanda Bopu to surrender to the British and lead them from Kushalnagar into Madikeri. Thereafter Kodagu was annexed by the East India Company into , after deposing the Raja who was exiled. Apparanda Bopu and Cheppudira Ponnappa were retained as the Dewans of Coorg. British rule led to the establishment of educational institutions, introduction of scientific coffee cultivation, better administration and improvement of the economy.

Guddemane Appaiah Gowda along with many other freedom fighters from different communities revolted against the in an armed struggle which covered entire Kodagu and Dakshina Kannada. This was one of the earliest freedom movements against the British called South Kanara, 1799–1860 By N. Shyam Bhatt ( Amara Sulya Dhange formally called the 'Coorg Rebellion' by the British) started in 1837.http://www.thehindu.com/2004/10/31/stories/2004103102280300.htmhttp://www.hindu.com/2005/05/19/stories/2005051901540300.htmhttp://www.deccanherald.com/content/316458/account-uprising.htmlhttp://www.deccanherald.com/content/316455/fate-insurgents.html


Geography
Kodagu is located on the eastern slopes of the . It has a geographical area of . The main river in Kodagu is the (Cauvery), which originates at , located on the eastern side of the Western Ghats, and with its tributaries, drains the greater part of Kodagu.

The district is bordered by Dakshina Kannada district to the northwest, to the north, to the east, district in west and of to the southwest, and of Kerala to the south. It is a hilly district, the lowest elevation of which is above sea-level. The highest peak, , rises to , with Pushpagiri, the second highest, at .


Demography
According to the 2011 census of India, Kodagu has a population of 554,762, roughly equal to the or the US state of . This ranks it 539 out of 640 districts in India in terms of population. The district has a population density of . Its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 1.13%. Kodagu has a of 1019 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 82.52%.

is the spoken language native to Kodagu. Are Bhashe, a dialect of , is native to in Dakshina Kannada. Both use Kannada script for literature.K S Rajyashree, Kodava speech community : An ethnolinguistic study Less frequent are speakers , , Bunts, Goud Saraswat Brahmins.


Kodava speakers
According to Karnataka Kodava Sahitya Academy (Karnataka's Kodava Literary Academy), apart from , and their related groups, the Amma Kodavas, the Kodava Peggade (Kodagu Heggade) and the Kodava Maaple (), 18 other smaller-numbered ethnic groups speak Kodava Takk in and outside the district including the Iri ( Airi, or the carpenters and the village smiths), the Koyava, the Banna, the Kodagu Madivala (washermen), the Kodagu Hajama (barber, also called Nainda), the Kembatti (household servants and labourers) and the Meda (basket and mat weavers and drummers).

Among other Kodava speaking communities are: the Heggades, cultivators from Malabar; the Kodava Nair, cultivators from Malabar; the Ayiri, who constitute the artisan caste; the Medas, who are basket and mat-weavers and act as drummers at feasts; the Binepatta, originally wandering musicians from Malabar, now farmers; and the Kavadi, cultivators settled in Yedenalknad (Virajpet). All these groups speak the and conform generally to Kodava customs and dress.


Kodagu Aarebashe Gowda people
The Arebhashe gowdas, or Kodagu Gowdas, and Tulu Gowdas, are an ethnic group of and Kodagu. They live in Sulya (in Dakshina Kannada) and in parts of Somwarpet, Kushalanagar, Bhagamandala and Madikeri.


Muslims and Christians
During the Third Anglo-Mysore War (1789–1792), one night in 1791, 5,000 Asadulai (convert) Kodava men, who were seized by at Coorg and other places, along with their families, all numbering 10,000 people, escaped from captivity in Seringapatam and returned to their native country (Coorg). These converts remained Muslims as they didn't reconvert to Hinduism. The descendants of these Muslims, inter-married with Mappilas of Kerala and Bearys of . In spite of their change in faith, they maintained their original clan names and dress habits and know Kodava takk, although now they do follow some customs also. Today, many of them bear Kodava family names in .
(2013). 9788192788487 .

Mangalorean Catholics, mostly descended from those Catholics who fled the roundup and, later, captivity by , were welcomed by Kodagu's king Raja Veerarajendra (himself a former captive of Tippu Sultan, having escaped six years of captivity in 1788) who realising their usefulness and expertise as agriculturists, gave them lands and tax breaks and built a church for them. Sarasvati's Children: A History of the Mangalorean Christians, Alan Machado Prabhu, I.J.A. Publications, 1999, p. 229


Government and Politics
The district is divided into the three administrative :

Two members of the legislative assembly are elected from Kodagu to the Legislative Assembly, one each from the and . Kodagu, formerly part of the Kodagu-Dakshina Kannada (Mangalore) constituency, is now part of the Kodagu- parliamentary constituency.

, from the Bharatiya Janata Party, represents Kodagu-Mysore Parliamentary constituency. represents the Madikeri constituency while K. G. Bopaiah represents the Virajpet constituency; they are from the Bharatiya Janata Party.

The Codava National Council and Kodava Rashtriya Samiti are campaigning for autonomy to Kodagu district.


Notable people
  • Field Marshal Kodandera M. Cariappa, first Indian C-in-C, High Commissioner of Australia and New Zealand
  • General Kodandera Subayya Thimayya, head of Indian Army, chairman of Korean Repatriation Committee, head of UN Peacekeeping force
  • C. B. Muthamma, first woman Indian Foreign Service officer
  • M. P. Ganesh, Indian hockey captain, player and coach
  • Prema, Indian film actress
  • Rashmika Mandanna, model and actress


See also


Further reading
  • Belliappa, C. P. Tale of a Tiger's Tail & Others Yarns from Coorg. English.
  • Belliappa, C. P. Victoria Gowramma. English.
  • Bopanna, P. T. Kodagu: Mungaru Maleya Vismayada Nadu/ Discover Coorg. Kannada/ English.
  • Bopanna, P. T. Coorg State: Udaya-Pathana / Coorg State. Kannada/ English.
  • Ganapathy, B. D. Kodagu mattu Kodavaru. Kannada. 1962.
  • Ganapathy, B. D. Nanga Kodava. Kodava. 1973.
  • Murphy, Devrala. On a Shoestring to Coorg.
  • . Kutaku kurippukal (Coorg Notes). Kannur: Kairali Books.


External links

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