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Tag Wiki 'J'.

J is the tenth letter in the and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its normal name in English is jay or, now uncommonly, jy ."J", Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989)"J" and "jay", Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993) When used for the palatal approximant, it may be called yod ( or ) or yot ( or ).

The letter J originated as a swash letter I, used for the letter I at the end of when following another I, as in XXIIJ or xxiij instead of XXIII or xxiii for the Roman numeral representing 23. A distinctive usage emerged in Middle High German. Gian Giorgio Trissino (1478–1550) was the first to explicitly distinguish I and J as representing separate sounds, in his Ɛpistola del Trissino de le lettere nuωvamente aggiunte ne la lingua italiana ("Trissino's epistle about the letters recently added in the Italian language") of 1524. in Italian . Originally, 'I' and 'J' were different shapes for the same letter, both equally representing , , and ; but, Romance languages developed new sounds (from former and ) that came to be represented as 'I' and 'J'; therefore, J, acquired from the J, has a sound value quite different from (which represents the initial sound in the English word " yet").

Use in writing systems

In English, most commonly represents the . In , the phoneme was represented orthographically with and .
(1992). 9780521264761, Cambridge University Press. .
Under the influence of , which had a similar phoneme deriving from Latin , English scribes began to use (later ) to represent word-initial in Old English (for example, i est and, later jest), while using elsewhere (for example, he dge). Later, many other uses of (later ) were added in from French and other languages (e.g. ad join, 'j 'unta). The first book to make a clear distinction between and was published in 1633.English Grammar, Charles Butler, 1633 In loan words such as raj, may represent . In some of these, including , , , and , the regular pronunciation is actually closer to the native pronunciation, making the use of an instance of a .
(1982). 9780521297196, Cambridge University Press. .
Occasionally, represents the original sound, as in and (see for details). In words of Spanish origin, where represents the voiceless velar fricative (such as jalapeño), English speakers usually approximate with the voiceless glottal fricative .

In English, is the in words, being more frequent only than , , and . It is, however, quite common in proper nouns, especially personal names.

Other languages

Germanic and Eastern-European languages
The great majority of Germanic languages, such as , , Icelandic, , and Norwegian, use for the palatal approximant , which is usually represented by the letter in English. Notable exceptions are , and (to a lesser degree) Luxembourgish. also represents in Albanian, and those , and that use the Latin alphabet, such as Hungarian, , Estonian, , , , , and Lithuanian. Some related languages, such as Serbo-Croatian and Macedonian, also adopted into the Cyrillic alphabet for the same purpose. Because of this standard, the letter was chosen to be used in the IPA as the phonetic symbol for the sound.

Romance languages
In the Romance languages, has generally developed from its original palatal approximant value in to some kind of . In , Portuguese, , and Romanian it has been fronted to the postalveolar fricative (like in English mea sure). In , by contrast, it has been both devoiced and backed from an earlier to a present-day ,
(2018). 9780521011846, Cambridge University Press.
with the actual phonetic realization depending on the speaker's dialect/s.

In modern standard spelling, only words, proper nouns (such as , , etc.) or those borrowed from foreign languages have . Until the 19th century, was used instead of in , as a replacement for final -ii, and in vowel groups (as in Savoja); this rule was quite strict for official writing. is also used to render in dialect, e.g. Romanesque ajo for standard aglio (––) (garlic). The Italian novelist used in vowel groups in his works written in Italian; he also wrote in his native Sicilian language, which still uses the letter to represent (and sometimes also dʒ or gj, depending on its environment).

In , the represented by has a variety of realizations according to the regional dialect: (the last one is typical of ).

Non-European languages
Among non-European languages that have adopted the , stands for in and Azerbaijani, for in . stands for in Indonesian, , , , , , , and . It represents a voiced palatal plosive in , , and . In , stands for a voiceless alveolar plosive, .

In , stands for , the unaspirated equivalent of .

The Royal Thai General System of Transcription does not use the letter , although it is used in some proper names and non-standard transcriptions to represent either จ or ช (the latter following Pali/Sanskrit root equivalents).

In romanized , represents ځ, pronounced .

Related characters
  • 𐤉 : Semitic letter , from which the following symbols originally derive
  • I i : Latin letter I, from which J derives
  • ȷ :
  • ᶡ : Modifier letter small dotless j with stroke
  • ᶨ : Modifier letter small j with crossed-tail
  • IPA-specific symbols related to J:
  • Uralic Phonetic Alphabet-specific symbols related to J: , , and
  • J with : Ĵ ĵ ǰ Ɉ ɉ J̃ j̇̃

Computing codes
1 Also for encodings based on ASCII, including the DOS, Windows, ISO-8859 and Macintosh families of encodings.

Unicode also has a dotless variant, ȷ (U+0237). It is primarily used in Landsmålsalfabet and in mathematics. It is not intended to be used with diacritics since the normal j is softdotted in Unicode (that is, the dot is removed if a diacritic is to be placed above; Unicode further states that, for example i+ ¨ ≠ ı+¨ and the same holds true for j and ȷ). The Unicode Standard, Version 8.0, p. 293 (at the very bottom)

In Unicode, a duplicate of 'J' for use as a special phonetic character in historical linguistics is encoded in the Greek script block as ϳ (Unicode U+03F3). It is used to denote the in the context of Greek script. It is called "Yot" in the Unicode standard, after the German name of the letter J.Nick Nicholas, "Yot" An uppercase version of this letter was added to the Unicode Standard at U+037F with the release of version 7.0 in June 2014.

Wingdings smiley issue
In the font by , the letter "J" is rendered as a (note this is distinct from the Unicode code point U+263A, which renders as ☺). In Microsoft applications, ":)" is automatically replaced by a smiley rendered in a specific font face when composing rich text documents or HTML email. This autocorrection feature can be switched off or changed to a Unicode smiley.

Other uses
  • In international licence plate codes, J stands for .
  • In , j is one of the three imaginary units of .
  • In the , J is the symbol for the , the SI derived unit for .
  • In , electrical engineering and related fields, j is the symbol for the (the square root of -1) (in other fields the letter i is used, but this would be ambiguous as it is also the symbol for current).
  • A J can be a term for a ( cigarette)

Other representations

External links
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