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Hewlett-Packard Company or HP (styled as hp) is an American corporation headquartered in , , . It provides hardware, software and services to consumers, small- and medium-sized businesses () and large enterprises, including customers in the government, health and education sectors.

The company was founded in a in Palo Alto by and starting with a line of electronic test equipment. HP was the world's from 2007 to Q2 2013, after which remained ranked ahead of HP. Lenovo Shares Jump As PC Shipments Overtake HP. 7/11/2013 It specializes in developing and manufacturing computing, data storage, and networking hardware, designing software and delivering services. Major product lines include personal computing devices, enterprise and industry standard servers, related storage devices, networking products, software and a diverse range of printers and other imaging products. HP markets its products to households, small- to medium-sized businesses and enterprises directly as well as via online distribution, consumer-electronics and office-supply retailers, software partners and major technology vendors. HP also has services and consulting business around its products and partner products.

Hewlett-Packard company events have included the of its electronic and bio-analytical measurement instruments part of its business as in 1999, its with in 2002, the sponsor of in 2003, and the acquisition of in 2008, which led to combined revenues of $118.4 billion in 2008 and a ranking of 9 in 2009. In November 2009, HP announced the acquisition of , with the deal closing on April 12, 2010. On April 28, 2010, HP announced the buyout of for $1.2 billion. On September 2, 2010, HP won its for with a $33 a share offer ($2.07 billion), which declined to match.

On October 6, 2014, Hewlett-Packard announced plans to split the PC and printers business from its enterprise products and services business. The split is expected to close by October 2015 and will result in two publicly traded companies: Hewlett-Packard Enterprise and HP, Inc.


History

Founding
and graduated with degrees in from in 1935. The company originated in a in nearby during a fellowship they had with a past professor, at Stanford during the . Terman was considered a mentor to them in forming Hewlett-Packard. ξ1 In 1939, Packard and Hewlett established Hewlett-Packard (HP) in Packard's garage with an initial capital investment of US$538. Hewlett and Packard tossed a coin to decide whether the company they founded would be called Hewlett-Packard or Packard-Hewlett. HP incorporated on August 18, 1947, and went public on November 6, 1957.

Of the many projects they worked on, their very first financially successful product was a precision audio , the Model . Their innovation was the use of a small incandescent (known as a "pilot light") as a temperature dependent in a critical portion of the circuit, the negative feedback loop which stabilized the amplitude of the output sinusoidal waveform. This allowed them to sell the Model 200A for $54.40 when competitors were selling less stable oscillators for over $200. The Model 200 series of generators continued until at least 1972 as the 200AB, still tube-based but improved in design through the years.

One of the company's earliest customers was which bought eight Model 200B (at $71.50 each) for use in certifying the systems installed in theaters for the movie .


Early years
They worked on counter-radar technology and artillery shell fuses during World War II, which allowed Packard (but not Hewlett) to be exempt from the draft.


1960s
HP is recognized as the symbolic founder of , although it did not actively investigate semiconductor devices until a few years after the "" had abandoned to create in 1957. Hewlett-Packard's HP Associates division, established around 1960, developed semiconductor devices primarily for internal use. Instruments and calculators were some of the products using these devices.

HP partnered in the 1960s with Sony and the companies in Japan to develop several high-quality products. The products were not a huge success, as there were high costs in building HP-looking products in Japan. HP and Yokogawa formed a joint venture (Yokogawa-Hewlett-Packard) in 1963 to market HP products in Japan. HP bought Yokogawa Electric's share of Hewlett-Packard Japan in 1999.

HP spun off a small company, Dynac, to specialize in digital equipment. The name was picked so that the HP logo "hp" could be turned upside down to be a reverse reflect image of the logo "dy" of the new company. Eventually Dynac changed to Dymec, then was folded back into HP in 1959. HP experimented with using (DEC) minicomputers with its instruments, but after deciding that it would be easier to build another small design team than deal with DEC, HP entered the computer market in 1966 with the / series of minicomputers. These had a simple -based design, with registers arranged somewhat similarly to the architecture still used today. The series was produced for 20 years, in spite of several attempts to replace it, and was a forerunner of the and series of desktop and business computers.


1970s
The was an advanced stack-based design for a business computing server, later redesigned with technology. The series of smart and intelligent terminals introduced forms-based interfaces to terminals, and also introduced , now commonly used on gas pumps and bank ATMs. The series included one of the first bit mapped graphics displays that when combined with the 21MX F-Series microcoded Scientific Instruction Set enabled the first commercial , that later became the program HP-Draw on the . Although scoffed at in the formative days of computing, HP would eventually surpass even IBM as the world's largest technology vendor, in terms of sales.

Although was the first commercial "", HP is identified by magazine as the producer of the world's first device to be called a personal computer, the , introduced in 1968. HP called it a desktop calculator, because, as Bill Hewlett said, "If we had called it a computer, it would have been rejected by our customers' computer gurus because it didn't look like an . We therefore decided to call it a calculator, and all such nonsense disappeared." An engineering triumph at the time, the logic circuit was produced without any ; the assembly of the CPU having been entirely executed in discrete components. With display, magnetic-card storage, and printer, the price was around $5,000. The machine's keyboard was a cross between that of a scientific calculator and an adding machine. There was no alphabetic keyboard.

, co-founder of , originally designed the computer while working at HP and offered it to them under their to his work, but they did not take it up as the company wanted to stay in scientific, business, and industrial markets. Wozniak said that HP "turned him down 5 times." Wozniak said his loyalty to HP made him hesitant to start Apple with Steve Jobs.

The company earned global respect for a variety of products. They introduced the world's first handheld scientific electronic in 1972 (the ), the first handheld programmable in 1974 (the ), the first alphanumeric, programmable, expandable in 1979 (the ), and the first symbolic and graphing calculator, the . Like their scientific and business calculators, their , , and other measurement instruments have a reputation for sturdiness and usability (the latter products are now part of spin-off 's product line). The company's design philosophy in this period was summarized as "design for the guy at the next bench".

The series of technical desktop computers started in 1975 with the 9815, and the cheaper 80 series, again of technical computers, started in 1979 with the 85. These machines used a version of the which was available immediately after they were switched on, and used a proprietary magnetic tape for storage. HP computers were similar in capabilities to the much later , although the limitations of available technology forced prices to be high.


1980s
In 1984, HP introduced both and for the desktop. Along with its product line, these have later been developed into successful products, the most significant being single-unit printer/scanner/copier/fax machines. The print mechanisms in HP's tremendously popular line of laser printers depend almost entirely on 's components (print engines), which in turn use technology developed by . HP develops the hardware, firmware, and software that convert data into dots for the mechanism to print. HP transitioned from the to the series minicomputers with attached storage such as the hard drive holding 404 MiB.

On March 3, 1986, HP registered the HP.com domain name, making it the domain ever to be registered.

In 1987, the garage where Hewlett and Packard started their business was designated as a California State historical landmark.


1990s
In the 1990s, HP expanded their computer product line, which initially had been targeted at university, research, and business users, to reach consumers.

HP also grew through acquisitions, buying in 1989 and in 1995.

Later in the decade, HP opened hpshopping.com as an independent subsidiary to sell online, direct to consumers; in 2005, the store was renamed "HP Home & Home Office Store."

From 1995 to 1998, Hewlett-Packard were sponsors of the English football team .

In 1999, all of the businesses not related to computers, storage, and imaging were spun off from HP to form Technologies. Agilent's spin-off was the largest in the history of .Arensman, Russ. "Unfinished business: managing one of the biggest spin-offs in corporate history would be a challenge even in the best of times. But what Agilent's Ned Barnholt got was the worst of times. (Cover Story)." Electronic Business 28.10 (October 2002): 36(6). The spin-off created an $8 billion company with about 30,000 employees, manufacturing , , optical networking devices, and for and wireless and production.

In July 1999, HP appointed as , the first female CEO of a company in the . Fiorina served as CEO during the technology industry downturn of the early 2000s. During her tenure, the market value of HP halved and the company incurred heavy job losses.HP's share price moved from 45.36 to 20.14 during Fiorina's leadership, a performance of −56% (share price data from Bloomberg); the market as a whole, as measured by the benchmark Values Dow Jones U.S. Large Cap Technology Index, fell by 51% between July 19, 1999 and February 9, 2005. The HP Board of Directors asked Fiorina to step down in 2005, and she resigned on February 9, 2005.


2000s
On September 3, 2001, HP announced that an agreement had been reached with to merge the two companies. In May, 2002, after passing a shareholder vote, HP officially merged with Compaq. Prior to this, plans had been in place to consolidate the companies' product teams and product lines.

In 1998, Compaq had already taken over Digital Equipment Corporation. HP therefore still offers support for the former Digital Equipment products PDP-11, VAX and AlphaServer.

The merger occurred after a proxy fight with Bill Hewlett's son Walter, who objected to the merger. Compaq itself had bought in 1997 (which had been started by ex-HP employees), and in 1998. Following this strategy, HP became a major player in , laptops, and servers for many different markets. After the merger with Compaq, the new became "HPQ", a combination of the two previous symbols, "HWP" and "CPQ", to show the significance of the alliance and also key letters from the two companies Hewlett- Packard and Compa q (the latter company being famous for its "Q" logo on all of its products.)

In 2004, HP released the DV 1000 Series, including the and 1040 two years later in May 2006, HP began its campaign, The Computer is Personal Again. The campaign was designed to bring back the fact that the is a personal product. The campaign utilized viral marketing, sophisticated visuals, and its own website (www.hp.com/personal). Some of the ads featured , , , , , , , and .

On May 13, 2008, HP and (EDS) announced that they had signed a definitive agreement under which HP would purchase EDS. On June 30, HP announced that the waiting period under the of 1976 had expired. "The transaction still requires EDS stockholder approval and regulatory clearance from the European Commission and other non-U.S. jurisdictions and is subject to the satisfaction or waiver of the other closing conditions specified in the merger agreement." The agreement was finalized on August 26, 2008, and it was publicly announced that EDS would be re-branded "EDS an HP company." As of September 23, 2009, EDS is known as .

On November 11, 2009, and Hewlett-Packard announced that Hewlett-Packard would be acquiring 3Com for $2.7 billion in cash. The acquisition is one of the biggest in size among a series of takeovers and acquisitions by technology giants to push their way to become one-stop shops. Since the beginning of the financial crisis in 2007, tech giants have constantly felt the pressure to expand beyond their current market niches. purchased recently to invade into the technology consulting business area previously dominated by . Hewlett-Packard's latest move marked its incursion into enterprise networking gear market dominated by .


2010s

On April 28, 2010, and Hewlett-Packard announced that HP would buy Palm for $1.2 billion in cash and debt. Before this announcement, it was rumored that either , , or HP would buy Palm. Adding Palm handsets to the HP product line created some overlap with the series of mobile devices but was thought to significantly improve HP's mobile presence as iPAQdevices had not been selling well. Buying Palm gave HP a library of valuable patents, as well as the mobile operating platform known as . On July 1, 2010, the acquisition of Palm was final.VentureBeat, Dean Takahashi. " HP Closes deal on $1.2B acquisition of Palm." July 1, 2010. The purchase of 's began a big gamble – to build HP's own ecosystem.Cliff Edwards and Aaron Ricadela, businessweek. " HP's Plan to Make TouchPad a Hit." June 23, 2011. Retrieved June 24, 2011. On July 1, 2011, HP launched its first tablet named , bringing to tablet devices. On September 2, 2010, HP won its for with a $33 a share offer ($2.07 billion) which declined to match. After HP's acquisition of Palm, it phased out the brand.

On August 6, 2010, CEO and assumed the role of interim CEO. Hurd had turned HP around and was widely regarded as one of 's star CEOs, but was accused of against a colleague. Although the allegations were deemed baseless, the investigation led to questions concerning between $1000 and $20000 of his private expenses and his lack of disclosure related to the friendship. Some observers have argued that Hurd was innocent, but the board asked for his resignation to avoid . Public analysis was divided between those who saw it as a commendable tough action by HP in handling expenses irregularities, and those who saw it as an ill-advised, hasty and expensive reaction, in ousting a remarkably capable leader who had turned the business around.http://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/10/technology/10hp.html Shares of HP dropped by 8.4% in after-hours trading, hitting a 52-week low with $9 billion in market capitalization shaved off. publicly attacked HP's board for his ousting.

On September 30, 2010, was named as HP's new CEO and President. Apotheker's appointment sparked a strong reaction from chief executive , who complained that Apotheker had been in charge of SAP when one of its subsidiaries was systematically stealing software from Oracle. SAP accepted that its subsidiary, which has now closed, illegally accessed Oracle intellectual property. Following Hurd's departure, HP was seen by the market as problematic, with margins falling and having failed to redirect and establish itself in major new markets such as cloud and mobile services. Apotheker's strategy was broadly to aim at disposing of hardware and moving into the more profitable . On August 18, 2011, HP announced that it would strategically exit the and business, focusing on higher-margin "strategic priorities of Cloud, solutions and software with an emphasis on enterprise, commercial and government markets" They also contemplated selling off their personal computer division or spinning it off into a separate company, quitting the 'PC' business, while continuing to sell servers and other equipment to business customers, was a strategy already undertaken by in 2005.

HP's stock continued to drop, by about a further 40% (including 25% on one day, 19 August 2011), after the company abruptly announced a number of decisions: to discontinue its device business (mobile phones and tablet computers), the intent to sell its division (at the time HP was the largest personal computer manufacturer in the world), and to acquire British software firm for a 79% , seen externally as an "absurdly high" price for a business with known concerns over its accounts. Media analysts described HP's actions as a "botched strategy shift" and a "chaotic" attempt to rapidly HP and enhance earnings that ultimately cost Apotheker his job. Why Hewlett-Packard's Impulse Buy Didn't Pay Off, 29 November 2012: "Apotheker believed that HP's platform was sinking...and appeared to be in a hurry to transform the company... In a rapid series of moves announced in August 2011, Apotheker killed HP's six-week-old TouchPad tablet, explored plans for a spin-out of its PC business, and championed the $10.3 billion acquisition of Autonomy. One former HP executive who worked there at the time says it appeared that Apotheker and the board didn't know what to do, and were trying anything they could think of. It wasn't a strategy, he says. It was chaos... Oracle CEO Larry Ellison called Autonomy's asking price 'absurdly high'." HP closes Autonomy deal, , 2011-11-03: "Hewlett-Packard completed its $12 billion buy of British software firm Autonomy on Monday, the centerpiece of a botched strategy shift that cost ex-chief executive Leo Apotheker his job last month. HP said its 25.50 pounds-per-share cash offer -- representing a 79 percent premium that many HP shareholders found excessive -- had been accepted by investors." The Autonomy acquisition had been objected to even by HP's own .

On September 22, 2011, the HP Board of Directors fired Apotheker as chief executive, effective immediately, and replaced him with fellow board member and former chief , with as executive chairman. Though Apotheker served barely ten months, he received over $13 million in compensation. New Hewlett-Packard chief Meg Whitman gets $1 salary, Leo Apotheker gets $13m, The Australian, sept. 30 2011 HP lost more than $30 billion in market capitalization during his tenure. Weeks later, HP announced that a review had concluded their PC division was too integrated and critical to business operations, and the company reaffirmed their commitment to the Personal Systems Group. A year later in November 2012 almost $9 billion related to the Autonomy acquisition (see below: ), which became the subject of intense litigation as HP accused Autonomy's previous management of fraudulently exaggerating Autonomy's financial position and called in law enforcement and regulators in both countries, and Autonomy's previous management accused HP of "textbook" and to protect HP's executives from criticism and conceal HP culpability, their prior knowledge of Autonomy's financial position, and gross mismanagement of Autonomy after acquisition. Motion by Hussain, 2014-08-11 p.1-6

On March 21, 2012, HP said its printing and PC divisions would become one unit headed by Todd Bradley from the PC division. Printing chief Vyomesh Joshi is leaving the company.

On May 23, 2012, HP announced plans to lay off approximately 27,000 employees, after posting a profit decline of 31% in the second quarter of 2012. The profit decline is on account of the growing popularity of smart phones, tablets, and other mobile devices, that has slowed the sale of personal computers.

On May 30, 2012, HP unveiled its first net zero energy data center. HP data center plans to use solar energy and other renewable sources instead of traditional power grids.

On July 10, 2012, HP's Server Monitoring Software was discovered to have a . A security warning was given to customers about two vulnerabilities, and a released. One month later HP's official site of training center was hacked and defaced by a Pakistani hacker known to as 'Hitcher' to demonstrate a web vulnerability.

On September 10, 2012, HP revised their restructuring figures; they are now cutting 29,000 jobs. HP had already cut 3,800 jobs – around 7 percent of the revised 29,000 figure – as of July 2012.

On December 31, 2013, HP revised the amount of jobs cut from 29,000 to 34,000 up to October 2014. The current amount of jobs cut until the end of 2013 was 24,600. 31 Dec 2013: "Hewlett-Packard to cut 5,000 more jobs" G M At the end of 2013 the company had 317,500 employees. On May 22, 2014 HP announced it would cut a further 11,000 to 16,000 jobs, in addition to the 34,000 announced in 2013. "We are gradually shaping HP into a more nimble, lower-cost, more customer and partner-centric company that can successfully compete across a rapidly changing IT landscape," CEO Meg Whitman said at the time.

In June 2014, during the HP Discover customer event in , Meg Whitman and Martin Fink announced a project for a radically new computer architecture called The Machine. Based on and , The Machine is supposed to come in commercialization before the end of the decade, meanwhile representing 75% of the research activity in HP Labs.

On October 6, 2014, Hewlett Packard announced it was planning to break into two separate companies, separating its personal-computer and printer businesses from its technology services. The split, which was first reported by and confirmed by other media, will result in two publicly traded companies: Hewlett-Packard Enterprise and HP, Inc. Meg Whitman will serve as chairman of HP, Inc. and CEO of Hewlett-Packard Enterprise, will be chairman of the enterprise business, and Dion Weisler will be CEO of HP, Inc. The split is expected to be completed by the end of fiscal year 2015, in October 2015.

On October 29, 2014, Hewlett-Packard announced their new personal computer.


Facilities

HP's global operations are directed from its headquarters in , USA. Its U.S. operations are directed from its facility in , Texas, near . Its Latin America offices in unincorporated , Florida, U.S., near and in , Colombia. Its Europe offices are in , Switzerland, near , but it has also a research center in the , 20 km in the south of Paris, France. Its Asia-Pacific offices are in ." utiles/Plan Commune Meyrin.pdf Plan de commune." . Retrieved on September 29, 2009.

It also has large operations in , ; ; ; Vancouver, Washington; San Diego; Tulsa, Oklahoma; and (the former headquarters of , which HP acquired). In the UK, HP is based at a large site in with offices in various UK locations, including a landmark office tower in London, . Its recent acquisition of will expand its employee base to . The company also has a large workforce and numerous offices at , , to address their back end and IT operations. , which is headquartered at Bangalore, also enabled HP to increase their footprint in the city as it was a subsidiary of EDS which the company acquired.


Products and organizational structure

HP produces lines of printers, scanners, digital cameras, calculators, , servers, workstation computers, and computers for home and small-business use; many of the computers came from the 2002 merger with . HP promotes itself as supplying not just hardware and software, but also a full range of services to design, implement, and support IT infrastructure.

HP's Imaging and Printing Group (IPG) is "the leading imaging and printing systems provider in the world for printer hardware, printing supplies and scanning devices, providing solutions across customer segments from individual consumers to small and medium businesses to large enterprises".

Products and technology associated with IPG include:

On December 23, 2008, HP released iPrint Photo for , a free downloadable software application that allows the printing of 4" x 6" photos. The HP iPrint Photo. Hp.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-26.

HP's Personal Systems Group (PSG) claims to be "one of the leading vendors of personal computers ("PCs") in the world based on unit volume shipped and annual revenue." PSG deals with:

  • business PCs and accessories
  • consumer PCs and accessories, (e.g., , Presario, )
  • handheld computing (e.g., iPAQ Pocket PC)
  • digital "connected" entertainment (e.g., HP MediaSmart TVs, HP MediaSmart Servers, HP MediaVaults, DVD RW drives)

HP resold the Apple until November 2005.

(EB) incorporates , (an amalgamation of the former , and what was known as HP Services), HP Enterprise Security Services oversees professional services such as network security, information security and information assurance/ compliancy, , and Enterprise Servers, Storage and Networking Group (ESSN). The Enterprise Servers, Storage and Networking Group (ESSN) oversees "back end" products like storage and servers. (former ) is responsible for the NW family of products. They are a business unit of ESSN.

is the company's enterprise software unit. For years, HP has produced and marketed its brand of enterprise-management software, . From September 2005 HP purchased several software companies as part of a publicized, deliberate strategy to augment its software offerings for large business customers. HP Software sells several categories of software, including:

HP Software also provides (SaaS), solutions, and software services, including consulting, education, professional services, and support.

HP's Office of Strategy and Technology has four main functions:

  1. steering the company's $3.6 billion research and development investment
  2. fostering the development of the company's global technical community
  3. leading the company's strategy and corporate development efforts,
  4. performing worldwide corporate marketing activities

Under the Office of Strategy and Technology comes , the research arm of HP. Founded in 1966, HP Labs aims to deliver new technologies and to create business opportunities that go beyond HP's current strategies. Examples of recent HP Labs technology includes the of 2006. HP IdeaLab further provides a web forum on early-state innovations to encourage open feedback from consumers and the development community.

HP also offers managed services by which they provide complete IT-support solutions for other companies and organizations. Some examples of these include:

  • offering "Professional Support" and desktop "Premier Support" for in the marketplace. This is done from the campus near , and . Support is offered on the line of Microsoft operation systems, Exchange, Sharepoint and some office-applications.
  • outsourced services for companies like , some UK banks, the U.S. defense forces.


Culture
The founders, known to friends and employees alike as Bill and Dave, developed a unique management style that came to be known as "The HP Way". In Bill's words, the HP Way is "a core ideology ... which includes a deep respect for the individual, a dedication to affordable quality and reliability, a commitment to community responsibility, and a view that the company exists to make technical contributions for the advancement and welfare of humanity." The following are the tenets of The HP Way:

  1. We have trust and respect for individuals.
  2. We focus on a high level of achievement and contribution.
  3. We conduct our business with uncompromising integrity.
  4. We achieve our common objectives through teamwork.
  5. We encourage flexibility and innovation.


Corporate social responsibility
In July 2007, the company announced that it had met its target, set in 2004, to one billion of , toner and . It has set a new goal of recycling a further two billion pounds of hardware by the end of 2010. In 2006, the company recovered 187 million pounds of electronics, 73 percent more than its closest competitor.

In 2008, HP released its supply chain emissions data — an industry first.

In September 2009, ranked HP No. 1 on its 2009 Green Rankings of America's 500 largest corporations. According to environmentalleader.com, "Hewlett-Packard earned its number one position due to its greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction programs, and was the first major IT company to report GHG emissions associated with its supply chain, according to the ranking. In addition, HP has made an effort to remove toxic substances from its products, though Greenpeace has targeted the company for not doing better."

HP took the top spot on Corporate Responsibility Magazines 100 Best Corporate Citizens List for 2010. "CR's 100 Best Corporate Citizens 2010". theCRO.com. CRO Corp. Retrieved June 1, 2010. The list is cited by PR Week as one of America's most important business rankings. HP beat out other companies because of its leadership in seven categories including environment, climate changes and corporate philanthropy. In 2009, HP was ranked fifth.Coster, Helen (March 3, 2010). "The 100 Best Corporate Citizens". Forbes.com. Retrieved March 3, 2010.

Fortune magazine named HP one of the World's Most Admired Companies in 2010, placing it No. 2 in the computer industry and No. 32 overall in its list of the top 50. This year in the computer industry HP was ranked No. 1 in social responsibility, long-term investment, global competitiveness, and use of corporate assets. "World's Most Admired Companies 2010: Hewlett-Packard snapshot". FORTUNE on CNNMoney.com. March 22, 2010. Retrieved June 1, 2010.

In May 2011, HP released a Global Responsibility report covering accomplishments during 2010. The report, the company's tenth, provides a comprehensive view of HP's global citizenship programs, performance, and goals and describes how HP uses its technology, influence, and expertise to make a positive impact on the world. The company's 2009 report won best corporate responsibility report of the year. The 2009 reports claims HP decreased its total energy use by 9 percent compared with 2008. HP recovered a total of 118,000 tonnes of electronic products and supplies for recycling in 2009, including 61 million print cartridges.

In an April 2010 article, HP was one of 12 companies commended for "designing products to be safe from the start, following the principles of green chemistry." The commendations came from Environment California, an environmental advocacy group, who praised select companies in the Golden State and the Bay Area for their efforts to keep our planet clean and green.Ross, Andrew S. (April 16, 2010). "State firms praised for purging toxic chemicals". San Francisco Chronicle.

In May 2010, HP was named one of the World's Most Ethical Companies by . This is the second year in a row HP has made the list. Ethisphere reviewed, researched and analyzed thousands of nominations in more than 100 countries and 35 industries to create the 2010 list. HP was one of only 100 companies to earn the distinction of top winner and was the only computer hardware vendor to be recognized. Ethisphere honors firms that promote ethical business standards and practices by going beyond legal minimums, introducing innovative ideas that benefit the public. "2010 World's Most Ethical Companies. Retrieved March 3, 2010.

HP is listed in 's Guide to Greener Electronics that ranks electronics manufacturers according to their policies on sustainability, energy and climate and green products. In November 2011, HP secured the 1st place (out of 15) in this ranking (climbing up 3 places) with an increased score of 5.9 (up from 5.5). It scored most points on the new Sustainable Operations criteria, having the best program for measuring and reducing emissions of greenhouse gases from its suppliers and scoring maximum points for its thorough paper procurement policy. In the November 2012 report, HP was ranked second, with a score of 5.7.

HP does especially well for its disclosure of externally verified greenhouse gas emissions and its setting of targets for reducing them. However, Greenpeace reports that HP risks a penalty point in future editions due to the fact that it is a member of trade associations that have commented against energy efficiency standards.

HP has earned recognition of its work in the area of data privacy and security. In 2010 the company ranked No. 4 in the Ponemon Institute's annual study of the most trusted companies for privacy. Since 2006, HP has worked directly with the U.S. Congress, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), and the Department of Commerce to establish a new strategy for federal legislation. HP played a key role in work toward the December 2010 FTC report "Protecting Consumer Privacy in an Era of Rapid Change."

After winning nine straight annual "Most Respected Company in China" awards from the Economic Observer and Peking University, HP China has added the "10 Year Contribution" award to its list of accolades. The award aims to identify companies doing business in China with outstanding and sustained performance in business operations, development and .

In its 2012 rankings of consumer electronics companies on progress relating to , the rated HP second out of 24 companies, calling it a "Pioneer of progress".


Brand
According to a BusinessWeek Study, HP was the world's 11th most valuable brand as of 2009. "100 Best Global Brands". BusinessWeek.com. Retrieved Sep. 16, 2011.

HP has many sponsorships. One well known sponsorship is of 's Park's . From 1995 to 1999, and again from 2013, HP has been the shirt sponsor of club From 1997 to 1999 they were sponsors of club . They also sponsored the Formula 1 team until 2005 (a sponsorship formerly held by Compaq), and as of 2010 sponsor . Hewlett-Packard also had the naming rights arrangement for the , home of the hockey team until 2013, in which the arena's naming rights were acquired by , renaming the arena to the .

After the acquisition of in 2002, HP has maintained the "Compaq Presario" brand on low-end home desktops and laptops, the "HP Compaq" brand on business desktops and laptops, and the "" brand on Intel-architecture servers. (The "HP Pavilion" brand is used on home entertainment laptops and all home desktops.)

Tandem's "NonStop" servers are now branded as "HP Integrity NonStop".


HP Discover customer event
In 2011, , along with participating independent user groups, combined its annual HP Software Universe, HP Technology Forum and HP Technology@Work into a single event, HP Discover. There are two events annually, one for the Americas and one for Europe, Middle East and Africa (EMEA). HP Discover 2011 Americas took place June 6–10, in at the Venetian/Palazzo. Business Wire: "HP Unveils Premiere Client Event – HP Discover Americas, Nov. 16, 2010 The company demonstrated the TouchPad, introduced July 1, 2011.

The HP Discover 2011 event in EMEA took place in Vienna, Austria, on November 29 through December 1, 2011.


Controversies

Restatement
In March 2003, HP restated its first-quarter cash flow from operations, reducing it 18 percent because of an accounting error. Actual cash flow from operations was $647 million, not $791 million as reported earlier. HP shifted $144 million to net cash used in investing activities.


Spying scandal
On September 5, 2006, Shawn Cabalfin and David O'Neil of wrote that HP's , at the behest of chairwoman , contracted a team of independent security experts to investigate board members and several journalists in order to identify the source of an information leak. In turn, those security experts recruited private investigators who used a spying technique known as . The pretexting involved investigators impersonating HP board members and nine journalists (including reporters for , the and the ) in order to obtain their phone records. The information leaked related to HP's long-term strategy and was published as part of a article in January 2006. Most HP employees accused of criminal acts have since been acquitted.


Hardware
In November 2007, Hewlett-Packard released a BIOS update covering a wide range of laptops with the intent to speed up the computer fan as well as have it run constantly, whether the computer was on or off. The reason was to prevent the overheating of defective NVIDIA graphics processing units (GPUs) that had been shipped to many of the original equipment manufacturers, including Hewlett-Packard, Dell, and Apple. The defect concerned the new packaging material used by NVIDIA from 2007 onwards in joining the graphics chip onto the motherboard, which did not perform well under thermal cycling and was prone to develop stress cracks – effectively severing the connection between the GPU and the motherboard, leading to a blank screen. In July 2008, HP issued an extension to the initial one-year warranty to replace the motherboards of selected models. However this option was not extended to all models with the defective NVIDIA chipsets despite research showing that these computers were also affected by the fault. Furthermore the replacement of the motherboard was a temporary fix, since the fault was inherent in all units of the affected models from the point of manufacture, including the replacement motherboards offered by HP as a free 'repair'. Since this point, several websites have been documenting the issue, most notably www.hplies.com, a forum dedicated to what they refer to as Hewlett-Packard's "multi-million dollar cover up" of the issue, and www.nvidiadefect.com, which details the specifics of the fault and offers advice to the owners of affected computers. There have been several small-claims lawsuits filed in several states, as well as suits filed in other countries. Hewlett-Packard also faced a class-action lawsuit in 2009 over its i7 processor computers. The complainants stated that their systems locked up within 30 minutes of powering on, consistently. Even after being replaced with newer i7 systems, the lockups continued.


Lawsuit against Oracle
On June 15, 2011, HP filed a lawsuit in California Superior Court in Santa Clara, claiming that had breached an agreement to support the microprocessor used in HP's high-end enterprise servers.Jack Clark, ZDNet UK. " HP unleashes lawyers on Oracle over Itanium support." June 16, 2011. Retrieved June 17, 2011. On June 15, 2011, HP sent a "formal legal demand" letter to Oracle in an attempt to force the world's No. 3 software maker to reverse its decision to discontinue software development on Intel Itanium microprocessor.Poornima Gupta and Dan Levine, Reuters. " UPDATE 2-HP's latest lawsuit heightens rivalry with Oracle." June 15, 2011. Retrieved June 17, 2011.

On August 1, 2012, HP released the following statement after winning the court ruling in Itanium Litigation:

The Court ordered and declared as follows:

  1. In this action for declaratory relief, the Court finds in favor of HP and against Oracle on both the breach of contract and promissory estoppel causes of action brought by HP.
  2. The Settlement and Release Agreement entered into by HP, Oracle and Mark Hurd on September 20, 2010, requires Oracle to continue to offer its product suite on HP's Itanium-based server platforms and does not confer on Oracle the discretion to decide whether to do so or not.
  3. The terms "product suite" means Oracle software products that were offered on HP's Itanium-based servers at the time Oracle signed the September 20, 2010 Settlement and Release Agreement, including any new releases, versions or updates of those products.
  4. Oracle's obligation to continue to offer its products on HP's Itanium-based server platforms lasts until such time as HP discontinues the sales of its Itanium-based servers.
  5. Oracle is required to port its products to HP's Itanium-based servers without charge to HP.


Takeover of Autonomy
In November 2012, HP recorded a writedown of around $8.8 billion related to its acquisition a year earlier of the UK based . HP accused Autonomy of deliberately inflating the value of the company prior to its takeover. The former management team of Autonomy flatly rejected the charge.

Autonomy specialized in analysis of large scale unstructured "", and by 2010 also the UK's largest and most successful Autonomy board backs £7bn Hewlett-Packard offer, , August 19, 2011 . It maintained an aggressively marketing approach, and controls described as a "rod of iron", which was said to include and firing the weakest 5% of its sales force each quarter, while the best sales staff "like rock stars". Rage of the Titans: Whitman vs Lynch, , November 25, 2012

At the time, HP had fired its previous CEO for expenses irregularities a year ago, and appointed as CEO and President. HP was seen as problematic by the market, with margins falling and having failed to redirect and establish itself in major new markets such as cloud and mobile services. Apotheker's strategy was to aim at disposing of hardware and moving into the more profitable .

As part of this strategy, Autonomy was acquired by HP in October 2011. HP paid $10.3 billion for 87.3% of the shares, valuing Autonomy at around $11.7 billion (£7.4 billion) overall, a of around 79% over market price. The deal was widely criticized as "absurdly high", a "botched strategy shift" and a "chaotic" attempt to rapidly HP and enhance earnings, and had been objected to even by HP's own . Within a year, Apotheker himself had been fired, major became apparent and HP had $8.8 billion of Autonomy's value.

HP claim this resulted from ", and disclosure failures" by the previous management, who in turn accuse HP of a "textbook example of " to conceal evidence of its own prior knowledge and gross and undermining of the company, noting public awareness since 2009 of its financial reporting issues and that even HP's disagreed with the price paid. External observers generally state that only a small part of the write-off appears to be due to accounting mis-statements, and that HP had overpaid for businesses previously. The mysterious case of Hewlett-Packard's Autonomy deal, , August 19, 2014

The , and the joined the in investigating the potential anomalies. HP incurred much damage with its stock falling to decades' low. Three lawsuits were brought by shareholders against HP, for the fall in value of HP shares. In August 2014 a threw out a proposed settlement, which Autonomy's previous management had argued would be and intended to divert scrutiny of HP's own responsibility and knowledge, by essentially engaging the plaintiff's attorneys from the existing cases and redirecting them against the previous Autonomy vendors and management, for a fee of up to $48 million, with plaintiffs agreeing to end any claims against HP's management and similarly redirect those claims against the previous Autonomy vendors and management. In January 2015 the SFO closed its investigation as the likelihood of a successful prosecution was low. The dispute is still being litigated in the US, and is being investigated by the UK and Ireland .


Bribery
On April 9, 2014, an administrative proceeding before was settled by HP consenting to an order acknowledging that HP had violated the (FCPA) when HP subsidiaries in Russia, Poland, and Mexico made improper payments to government officials to obtain or retain lucrative public contracts.< Business Insider The SEC's order finds that HP's subsidiary in Russia paid more than $2 million through agents and various shell companies to a Russian government official to retain a multi-million dollar contract with the federal prosecutor's office. In Poland, HP's subsidiary provided gifts and cash bribes worth more than $600,000 to a Polish government official to obtain contracts with the national police agency. And as part of its bid to win a software sale to Mexico's state-owned petroleum company, HP's subsidiary in Mexico paid more than $1 million in inflated commissions to a consultant with close ties to company officials, and money was funneled to one of those officials. HP agreed to pay $108 million to settle the SEC charges and a parallel criminal case.


Divestment from HP regarding involvement in Israeli occupation and blockade of Palestinian territories
On June 20, 2014, the voted to from Hewlett-Packard and two other American companies, and .

The advisory opinion of the Presbyterian Peace Fellowship, which recommended divestment, cited HP's involvement in assisting Israel in maintaining the of the Palestinian and human rights abuses of the Palestinians in the West Bank and the through its hardware and information technology support to the Israeli military and settlements.


Notable people


See also


External links


References
    ^ (2018). 9781591841524, Portfolio Hardcover.

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