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Haptophyte
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The haptophytes, classified either as the Haptophyta, Haptophytina or Prymnesiophyta (named for ), are a of .

The names Haptophyceae or Prymnesiophyceae are sometimes used instead. This ending implies classification at the class rather than as a division. Although the of this group has become much better understood in recent years, there remains some dispute over which rank is most appropriate.


Characteristics
The are pigmented similarly to those of the , but the structure of the rest of the cell is different, so it may be that they are a separate line whose chloroplasts are derived from similar endosymbionts.

The cells typically have two slightly unequal , both of which are smooth, and a unique organelle called a , which is superficially similar to a flagellum but differs in the arrangement of and in its use. The name comes from the hapsis, touch, and nema, thread. The have tubular .


Significance
The best-known haptophytes are , which have an exoskeleton of calcareous plates called . Coccolithophores are some of the most abundant marine , especially in the open ocean, and are extremely abundant as microfossils. Other planktonic haptophytes of note include and , which periodically form toxic marine , and , blooms of which can produce unpleasant foam which often accumulates on beaches.

Haptophytes are economically important, as species such as Pavlova lutheri and sp. are widely used in the industry to feed and larvae. They contain a large amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and alpha-linolenic acid. Tisochrysis lutea contains betain lipids and .


Classification
The haptophytes were first placed in the class (golden algae), but ultrastructural data have provided evidence to classify them separately.
(1997). 9783211830352 .
Both molecular and morphological evidence supports their division into five orders; coccolithophores make up the Isochrysidales and Coccolithales. Very small (2-3μm) uncultured pico-prymnesiophytes are ecologically important.

Haptophytes was discussed to be closely related to .

Haptophytes are closely related to the clade.

Subphylum Haptophytina Cavalier-Smith 2015 Haptophyta

  • Clade Kim et al. 2011
  • Clade (Margulis & Schwartz 1998) Haptophyta
    • Class Cavalier-Smith 1986 Pavlovophycidae
    • Class Christensen 1962 emend. Cavalier-Smith 1996 Haptophyceae
      • Family †Eoconusphaeraceae Kristan-Tollmann 1988 Conusphaeraceae
      • Family † Deflandre 1957
      • Family † Black, 1971
      • Family †Microrhabdulaceae Deflandre 1963
      • Family † Deflandre 1959
      • Family †Polycyclolithaceae Forchheimer 1972 emend Varol, 1992
      • Family †Lithostromationaceae Deflandre 1959
      • Family † Bown, 2005
      • Family Braarudosphaeraceae Deflandre 1947
      • Family Norris 1965 emend Young & Bown 2014 Triquetrorhabdulaceae
      • Family Young et al., 2003
      • Family Jordan & Young 1990 emend Andruleit & Young 2010
      • Family Umbellosphaeraceae Young et al., 2003 Umbellosphaeroideae
      • Order † Hay 1977
      • Order Medlin 2000
      • Order Papenfuss 1955 emend. Edvardsen and Eikrem 2000
        • Family Chrysochromulinaceae Edvardsen, Eikrem & Medlin 2011
        • Family Conrad 1926 ex Schmidt 1931
      • Subclass Calcihaptophycidae
        • Order Pascher 1910 Prinsiales
          • Family † Hay & Mohler 1967 emend. Young & Bown, 1997
          • Family Parke 1949 Chrysotilaceae;
          • Family Noëlaerhabdaceae Jerkovic 1970 emend. Young & Bown, 1997 Gephyrocapsaceae
        • Order † Rood, Hay & Barnard 1971 (loxolith; imbricating murolith)
        • Order Stephanolithiales Bown & Young 1997 (protolith; non-imbrication murolith)
          • Family Parhabdolithaceae Bown 1987
          • Family †Stephanolithiaceae Black 1968 emend. Black 1973
        • Order Young & Bown 1997 Crepidolithales
        • Order Ostenfeld 1899 emend. Young et al., 2003 Rhabdosphaerales
          • Family Calciosoleniaceae Kamptner 1927
          • Family Syracosphaeraceae Lohmann, 1902 Halopappiaceae (caneolith & cyrtolith; murolith)
          • Family Rhabdosphaeraceae Haeckel, 1894 (planolith)
        • Order † Bown 1987 (imbricating placolith)
        • Order † Bown & Hampton 1997
          • Family †Arkhangelskiellaceae Bukry 1969
          • Family † Bown & Hampton 1997
        • Order † Rood 1971 Biscutales (non-imbricating or radial placolith)
        • Order Schwartz 1932 Coccolithophorales
          • Family Reticulosphaeraceae Cavalier-Smith 1996 Reticulosphaeridae
          • Family Young & Bown 1997
          • Family Poche 1913 emend. Young & Bown, 1997 Coccolithophoraceae
          • Family Pleurochrysidaceae Fresnel & Billard 1991
          • Family Senn 1900 Ochrosphaeraceae


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