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French (le français, or la langue française ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the of the , as did all Romance languages. French evolved from , the spoken Latin in , and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern and in southern , which French () has largely supplanted. French was also by native of Northern Roman Gaul like and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole. A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both English and French.

French is an official language in 29 countries across multiple continents, most of which are members of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie (OIF), the community of 84 countries which share the official use or teaching of French. It is spoken as a first language (in descending order of the number of speakers) in , the provinces of , and as well as other Francophone regions, ( and the -Capital Region), western (cantons of , , , Jura, Neuchâtel, Vaud, ), , partly in , the states of , , and in the , and in northwestern (region of ), and by various communities elsewhere.

In 2015, approximately 40% of the francophone population (including and partial speakers) lived in Europe, 35% in sub-Saharan Africa, 15% in North Africa and the Middle East, 8% in the Americas, and 1% in Asia and Oceania. French is the fourth most widely spoken mother tongue in the , Of Europeans who speak other languages natively, approximately one-fifth are able to speak French as a second language. French is the second most taught foreign language in the EU. French is also the 18th most natively spoken language in the world, 6th most spoken language by total number of speakers and the second or third most studied language worldwide (with about 120 million current learners). As a result of French and Belgian from the 16th century onward, French was introduced to new territories in the Americas, Africa and Asia. Most second-language speakers reside in Francophone Africa, in particular , , , , , and . La Francophonie dans le monde 2006–2007 published by the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie. Nathan, , 2007.

French is estimated to have about 76 million native speakers and about 235 million daily, fluent speakers« Estimation des francophones dans le monde en 2015. Sources et démarches méthodologiques. » archive PDF, sur Observatoire démographique et statistique de l’espace francophone archive. and another 77 to 110 million secondary speakers who speak it as a to varying degrees of proficiency, mainly in Africa. According to the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie (OIF), approximately 300 million people worldwide are "able to speak the language",« OIF synthèse français » archive PDF, Francophonie without specifying the criteria for this estimation or whom it encompasses. According to a demographic projection led by the Université Laval and the Réseau Démographie de l'Agence universitaire de la francophonie, the total number of French speakers will reach approximately 500 million in 2025 and 650 million by 2050. OIF estimates 700 million by 2050, 80% of whom will be in Africa.

French has a long history as an international language of literature and scientific standards and is a primary or second language of many international organisations including the , the , the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the World Trade Organization, the International Olympic Committee, and the International Committee of the Red Cross. In 2011, Bloomberg Businessweek ranked French the third most useful language for business, after and Standard Mandarin Chinese.


Geographic distribution

Europe
Spoken by 19.71% of the 's population, French is the third most widely spoken mother tongue or foreign language in the EU after English and German.

Under the Constitution of France, French has been the official language of the Republic since 1992 (although the ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts made it mandatory for legal documents in 1539). mandates the use of French in official government publications, public education except in specific cases (though these dispositions are often ignored) and legal ; advertisements must bear a translation of foreign words.

In , French is the official language of (excluding a part of the , which are ) and one of the two official languages—along with —of the Brussels-Capital Region, where it is spoken by the majority of the population often as their . – The linguistic situation in Belgium (and in particular various estimates of the population speaking French and Dutch in Brussels) is discussed in detail.

French is one of the four official languages of (along with , , and ) and is spoken in the western part of Switzerland, called , of which is the largest city. The language divisions in Switzerland do not coincide with political subdivisions, and some cantons have bilingual status: for example, cities such as Biel/Bienne and cantons such as Valais, Fribourg and Berne. French is the native language of about 23% of the Swiss population, and is spoken by 50%

(2019). 9782877478816 .
of the population.

French is also an official language of and , as well as in the region of Italy, while French dialects remain spoken by minorities on the . It is also spoken in and is the main language after in El Pas de la Casa. The language is taught as the primary second language in the German land of , with French being taught from pre-school and over 43% of citizens being able to speak French.


Africa
[[File:Francophone Africa.svg|thumb|left| ]]

The majority of the world's French-speaking population lives in Africa. According to the 2007 report by the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie, an estimated 115 million African people spread across 31 Francophone countries can speak French as either a or a . This number does not include the people living in non-Francophone African countries who have learned French as a foreign language. Due to the rise of French in Africa, the total French-speaking population worldwide is expected to reach 700 million people in 2050. French is the fastest growing language on the continent (in terms of either official or foreign languages). French is mostly a second language in Africa, but it has become a first language in some urban areas, such as the region of , Le français à Abidjan : Pour une approche syntaxique du non-standard by Katja Ploog, CNRS Editions, , 2002. and in , . There is not a single , but multiple forms that diverged through contact with various indigenous African languages. "En Afrique, il est impossible de parler d'une forme unique du français mais..."

Sub-Saharan Africa is the region where the French language is most likely to expand, because of the expansion of education and rapid population growth. France-Diplomatie "Furthermore, the demographic growth of Southern hemisphere countries leads us to anticipate a new increase in the overall number of French speakers." It is also where the language has evolved the most in recent years. "Le français, langue en évolution. Dans beaucoup de pays francophones, surtout sur le continent africain, une proportion importante de la population ne parle pas couramment le français (même s'il est souvent la langue officielle du pays). Ce qui signifie qu'au fur et à mesure que les nouvelles générations vont à l'école, le nombre de francophones augmente : on estime qu'en 2015, ceux-ci seront deux fois plus nombreux qu'aujourd'hui." c) Le sabir franco-africain: "C'est la variété du français la plus fluctuante. Le sabir franco-africain est instable et hétérogène sous toutes ses formes. Il existe des énoncés où les mots sont français mais leur ordre reste celui de la langue africaine. En somme, autant les langues africaines sont envahies par les structures et les mots français, autant la langue française se métamorphose en Afrique, donnant naissance à plusieurs variétés." Some vernacular forms of French in Africa can be difficult to understand for French speakers from other countries, République centrafricaine: Il existe une autre variété de français, beaucoup plus répandue et plus permissive : le français local. C'est un français très influencé par les langues centrafricaines, surtout par le sango. Cette variété est parlée par les classes non instruites, qui n'ont pu terminer leur scolarité. Ils utilisent ce qu'ils connaissent du français avec des emprunts massifs aux langues locales. Cette variété peut causer des problèmes de compréhension avec les francophones des autres pays, car les interférences linguistiques, d'ordre lexical et sémantique, sont très importantes. ( One example of a variety of African French that is difficult to understand for European French speakers). but written forms of the language are very closely related to those of the rest of the French-speaking world.


Americas
French is the second most common language in , after , and both are official languages at the federal level. It is the first language of 9.5 million people or 29% and the second language for 2.07 million or 6% of the entire population of Canada. French is the sole official language in the province of , being the mother tongue for some 7 million people, or almost 80% (2006 Census) of the province. About 95% of the people of Quebec speak French as either their first or second language, and for some as their third language. Quebec is also home to the city of , which is the world's 4th-largest French-speaking city, by number of first language speakers. and are the only officially bilingual provinces, though full bilingualism is enacted only in New Brunswick, where about one third of the population is Francophone. French is also an official language of all of the territories (Northwest Territories, , and ). Out of the three, Yukon has the most French speakers, comprising just under 4% of the population. Furthermore, while French is not an official language in , the French Language Services Act ensures that provincial services are to be available in the language. The Act applies to areas of the province where there are significant Francophone communities, namely and . Elsewhere, sizable French-speaking minorities are found in southern Manitoba, , Prince Edward Island and the Port au Port Peninsula in Newfoundland and Labrador, where the unique Newfoundland French dialect was historically spoken. Smaller pockets of French speakers exist in all other provinces. The city of Ottawa, the Canadian capital, is also effectively bilingual, as it is on the other side of a river from Quebec, opposite the major city of Gatineau, and is required to offer governmental services in French as well as English.

are not included.]] According to the United States Census Bureau (2011), French is the fourth most-spoken language in the United States after , , and , when all forms of French are considered together and all dialects of Chinese are similarly combined. French remains the second most-spoken language in the states of , , and . Louisiana is home to many distinct dialects, collectively known as . According to the 2000 United States Census, there are over 194,000 people in Louisiana who speak French at home, the most of any state if Creole French is excluded. U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 Summary File 3 – Language Spoken at Home: 2000. New England French, essentially a variant of , is spoken in parts of . was historically spoken in and (formerly known as ), but is nearly extinct today.

(1989). 9780899253565, Walter de Gruyter. .
French also survived in isolated pockets along the of what was previously French , such as Mon Louis Island, Alabama and DeLisle, Mississippi (the latter only being discovered by linguists in the 1990s) but these varieties are severely endangered or presumed extinct.

French is one of Haiti's two official languages. It is the principal language of writing, school instruction, and administrative use. It is spoken by all educated Haitians and is used in the business sector. It is also used for ceremonial events such as weddings, graduations and church masses. About 70–80% of the country's population have Haitian Creole as their first language; the rest speak French as a first language. The second official language is the recently standardized , which virtually the entire population of Haiti speaks. Haitian Creole is one of the French-based creole languages, drawing the large majority of its vocabulary from French, with influences from West African languages, as well as several European languages. Haitian Creole is closely related to Louisiana Creole and the creole from the .Ministère de l'Éducation nationale

French is the official language of both on the South American continent, and of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, an archipelago off the coast of Newfoundland in North America.


Asia

Southeast Asia
French was the official language of the colony of , comprising modern-day , , and . It continues to be an administrative language in Laos and Cambodia, although its influence has waned in recent years. In colonial Vietnam, the elites primarily spoke French, while many servants who worked in French households spoke a French pidgin known as "Tây Bồi" (now extinct). After French rule ended, continued to use French in administration, education, and trade. Since the Fall of Saigon and the opening of a unified Vietnam's economy, French has gradually been effectively displaced as the main foreign language of choice by English. French nevertheless maintains its colonial legacy by being spoken as a second language by the elderly and elite populations and is presently being revived in higher education and continues to be a diplomatic language in Vietnam. All three countries are official members of the OIF.


Western Asia

Lebanon
A former French mandate, designates as the sole official language, while a special law regulates cases when French can be publicly used. Article 11 of Lebanon's Constitution states that "Arabic is the official national language. A law determines the cases in which the French language is to be used". The French language in Lebanon is a widespread second language among the , and is taught in many schools along with Arabic and English. French is used on banknotes, on road signs, on Lebanese license plates, and on official buildings (alongside Arabic).

Today, French and English are secondary languages of , with about 40% of the population being and 40% Anglophone. The use of English is growing in the business and media environment. Out of about 900,000 students, about 500,000 are enrolled in Francophone schools, public or private, in which the teaching of mathematics and scientific subjects is provided in French. Actual usage of French varies depending on the region and social status. One-third of high school students educated in French go on to pursue higher education in English-speaking institutions. English is the language of business and communication, with French being an element of social distinction, chosen for its emotional value.


Israel
A significant French-speaking community is also present in , primarily among the communities of French Jews in Israel, Moroccan Jews in Israel and . Many secondary schools offer French as a foreign language.


United Arab Emirates and Qatar
The UAE has the status in the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie as an observer state, and has the status in the organization as an associate state. However, in both countries, French is not spoken by almost any of the general population or migrant workers, but spoken by a small minority of those who invest in Francophone countries or have other financial or family ties. Their entrance as observer and associate states respectively into the organization was aided a good deal by their investments into the Organisation and France itself. A country's status as an observer state in the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie gives the country the right to send representatives to organization meetings and make formal requests to the organization but they do not have voting rights within the OIF. A country's status as an associate state also does not give a country voting abilities but associate states can discuss and review organization matters.


Oceania and Australasia
French is an official language of the nation of , where 45% of the population can speak it. In the French special collectivity of , 97% of the population can speak, read and write French while in this figure is 95%, and in the French collectivity of Wallis and Futuna, it is 84%.

In French Polynesia and to a lesser extent Wallis and Futuna, where oral and written knowledge of the French language has become almost nearly universal (95% and 84% respectively), French increasingly tends to displace the native Polynesian languages as the language most spoken at home. In French Polynesia, the percentage of the population who reported that French was the language they use the most at home rose from 67% at the 2007 census to 74% at the 2017 census. In Wallis and Futuna, the percentage of the population who reported that French was the language they use the most at home rose from 10% at the 2008 census to 13% at the 2018 census.


Dialects


History
French is a (meaning that it is descended primarily from ) that evolved out of the Gallo-Romance dialects spoken in northern France. The language's early forms include Old French and Middle French.


Vulgar Latin in Gallia
Due to Roman rule, Latin was gradually adopted by the inhabitants of Gaul, and as the language was learned by the common people it developed a distinct local character, with grammatical differences from Latin as spoken elsewhere, some of which being attested on graffiti. This local variety evolved into the Gallo-Romance tongues, which include French and its closest relatives, such as .

The evolution of Latin in Gaul was shaped by its coexistence for over half a millennium beside the native , which did not go extinct until the late 6th century, long after the Fall of the Western Roman Empire.

(2019). 9782729864705, Ellipses Edition Marketing S.A..
The population remained 90% indigenous in origin,
(1993). 9780415080712 .
(2019). 9781588113139, John Benjamins Publishing. .
and instead of Roman settlers, the Romanizing class was the local native elite, whose children learned Latin in Roman schools; at the time of the collapse of the Empire, this local elite had been slowly abandoning Gaulish entirely, but the rural and lower class populations remained Gaulish speakers who could sometimes also speak Latin or Greek.Mufwene, Salikoko S. "Language birth and death." Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 33 (2004): 201-222. The final language shift from Gaulish to Vulgar Latin among rural and lower class populations occurred later, when both they and the incoming Frankish ruler/military class adopted the Gallo-Roman Vulgar Latin speech of the urban intellectual elite.

The Gaulish language likely survived into the 6th century in France, despite considerable Romanization. Coexisting with Latin, Gaulish helped shape the dialects that developed into French, with effects including loanwords and (including oui, the word for "yes"), sound changes shaped by Gaulish influence,Henri Guiter, "Sur le substrat gaulois dans la Romania", in Munus amicitae. Studia linguistica in honorem Witoldi Manczak septuagenarii, eds., Anna Bochnakowa & Stanislan Widlak, Krakow, 1995.Eugeen Roegiest, Vers les sources des langues romanes: Un itinéraire linguistique à travers la Romania (Leuven, Belgium: Acco, 2006), 83. and influences in conjugation and word order.

(2019). 9780511482977
Recent computational studies suggest that early gender shifts may have been motivated by the gender of the corresponding word in Gaulish.


Old French
The beginning of French in Gaul was greatly influenced by Germanic invasions into the country. These invasions had the greatest impact on the northern part of the country and on the language there. A language divide began to grow across the country. The population in the north spoke langue d'oïl while the population in the south spoke langue d'oc. Langue d'oïl grew into what is known as Old French. The period of Old French spanned between the 8th and 14th centuries. Old French shared many characteristics with Latin. For example, Old French made use of different possible word orders just as Latin did because it had a case system that retained the difference between nominative subjects and oblique non-subjects. The period is marked by a heavy influence from the Germanic Frankish language, which non-exhaustively included the use in upper-class speech and higher registers of V2 word order,Rowlett, P. 2007. The Syntax of French. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Page 4 a large percentage of the vocabulary (now at around 15% of modern French vocabulary Pope, Mildred K. (1934). From Latin to Modern French with Especial Consideration of Anglo-Norman Phonology and Morphology. Manchester: Manchester University Press.) including the impersonal singular pronoun on (a calque of Germanic man), and the name of the language itself.


Middle French
Within Old French many dialects emerged but the Francien dialect is one that not only continued but also thrived during the Middle French period (14th century–17th century). Modern French grew out of this Francien dialect. Grammatically, during the period of Middle French, noun declensions were lost and there began to be standardized rules. published the first Latin-French dictionary, which included information about phonetics, etymology, and grammar. Politically, the Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts (1539) named French the language of law.


Modern French
During the 17th century, French replaced as the most important language of diplomacy and international relations (). It retained this role until approximately the middle of the 20th century, when it was replaced by English as the United States became the dominant global power following the Second World War. The World's 10 Most Influential Languages Top Languages. Retrieved 11 April 2011.
(2019). 9780203417966, Taylor & Francis. .
Stanley Meisler of the Los Angeles Times said that the fact that the Treaty of Versailles was written in English as well as French was the "first diplomatic blow" against the language.Meisler, Stanley. "Seduction Still Works : French – a Language in Decline." Los Angeles Times. March 1, 1986. p. 2. Retrieved on May 18, 2013.

During the Grand Siècle (17th century), France, under the rule of powerful leaders such as Cardinal Richelieu and Louis XIV, enjoyed a period of prosperity and prominence among European nations. Richelieu established the Académie française to protect the French language. By the early 1800s, Parisian French had become the primary language of the aristocracy in France.

Near the beginning of the 19th century, the French government began to pursue policies with the end goal of eradicating the many minorities and regional languages () spoken in France. This began in 1794 with Henri Grégoire's " Report on the necessity and means to annihilate the patois and to universalize the use of the French language". When public education was made compulsory, only French was taught and the use of any other (patois) language was punished. The goals of the Public School System were made especially clear to the French-speaking teachers sent to teach students in regions such as and : "And remember, Gents: you were given your position in order to kill the Breton language" were instructions given from a French official to teachers in the French department of Finistère (western ).

(2019). 9782859104269, Institut d'études occitanes.
The prefect of Basses-Pyrénées in the French Basque Country wrote in 1846: "Our schools in the Basque Country are particularly meant to replace the with French...". Students were taught that their ancestral languages were inferior and they should be ashamed of them; this process was known in the Occitan-speaking region as .

Among the historic reformers of the French language, such as Louis Maigret, Marle M., Marcelin Berthelot, , Jacques Peletier du Mans, and Somaize, nowadays the most striking reform is proposed by , a Franco-American linguist of Hungarian origin who wants to eliminate accents, silent letters, double letters and more.


Current status and importance
French is taught in universities around the world, and is one of the world's most influential languages because of its wide use in the worlds of , , the , and .Kai Chan, Distinguished Fellow, Innovation and Policy Initiative, "These are the most powerful languages in the world", World Economic Forum, December 2016 In diplomacy, French is one of the six official languages of the (and one of the 's only two working languagesRodney Ball, Dawn Marley, The French-Speaking World: A Practical Introduction to Sociolinguistic Issues, Taylor & Francis, 2016, page 6), one of twenty official and three working languages of the , an official language of , the International Olympic Committee, the Council of Europe, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization of American States (alongside Spanish, Portuguese and English), the Eurovision Song Contest, one of eighteen official languages of the European Space Agency, World Trade Organization and the least used of the three official languages in the North American Free Trade Agreement countries. It is also a working language in nonprofit organisations such as the Red Cross (alongside English, German, Spanish, Portuguese, Arabic and Russian), Amnesty International (alongside 32 other languages of which English is the most used, followed by Spanish, Portuguese, German, and Italian, Médecins sans Frontières (used alongside English, Spanish, Portuguese and Arabic), and Médecins du Monde (used alongside English). Given the demographic prospects of the French-speaking nations of Africa, researcher Pascal-Emmanuel Gobry wrote in 2014 that French "could be the language of the future".

Significant as a judicial language, French is one of the official languages of such major international and regional courts, tribunals, and dispute-settlement bodies as the African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights, the Caribbean Court of Justice, the Court of Justice for the Economic Community of West African States, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, the International Court of Justice, the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea the International Criminal Court and the . It is the sole internal working language of the Court of Justice of the European Union, and makes with English the European Court of Human Rights's two working languages.On the Linguistic Design of Multinational Courts – The French Capture, forthcoming in 14 INT’L J. CONST. L. (2016), Mathilde Cohen

In 1997, George Werber published, in Language Today, a comprehensive academic study entitled "The World's 10 most influential languages". The World's 10 most influential languages, George Werber, 1997, Language Today, retrieved on scribd.com In the article, Werber ranked French as, after English, the second most influential language of the world, ahead of Spanish. His criteria were the numbers of native speakers, the number of secondary speakers (especially high for French among fellow ), the number of countries using the language and their respective populations, the economic power of the countries using the language, the number of major areas in which the language is used, and the linguistic prestige associated with the mastery of the language (Werber highlighted that French in particular enjoys considerable linguistic prestige). In a 2008 reassessment of his article, Werber concluded that his findings were still correct since "the situation among the top ten remains unchanged."

Knowledge of French is often considered to be a useful skill by business owners in the ; a 2014 study found that 50% of British managers considered French to be a valuable asset for their business, thus ranking French as the most sought-after foreign language there, ahead of (49%) and (44%). MIT economist Albert Saiz calculated a 2.3% premium for those who have French as a foreign language in the workplace.

In English-speaking , the , and the Republic of Ireland, French is the first foreign language taught and in number of pupils is far ahead of other languages. In the , Spanish is the most commonly taught foreign language, though French is next.

The future of the French language is often discussed in the news. For example, in 2014, The New York Times documented an increase in the teaching of French in New York, especially in K-12 dual-language programs where Spanish and Mandarin are the only second-language options more popular than French. In a study published in March 2014 by , the investment bank said that French could become the world's most spoken language by 2050. It noted that French is spreading in areas where the population is rapidly increasing, especially in sub-Saharan Africa.


Phonology
+Consonant phonemes of French
Vowel phonemes in French
{ class="wikitable" style="text-align: center;" + Oral
| valign="top" |
+Nasal ! rowspan="2"! colspan="2" ! rowspan="2"
|} Although there are many French regional accents, foreign learners normally use only one variety of the language.

  • There are a maximum of 17 vowels in French, not all of which are used in every dialect: plus the nasalized vowels and . In France, the vowels , and are tending to be replaced by , and in many people's speech, but the distinction of and is present in Meridional French. In Quebec and Belgian French, the vowels , , and are present.
  • Voiced stops (i.e., ) are typically produced fully voiced throughout.
  • Voiceless stops (i.e., ) are unaspirated.
  • The velar nasal can occur in final position in borrowed (usually English) words: parking, camping, swing. The palatal nasal can occur in word initial position (e.g., gnon), but it is most frequently found in intervocalic, onset position or word-finally (e.g., montagne).
  • French has three pairs of homorganic fricatives distinguished by voicing, i.e., labiodental , dental , and palato-alveolar . are dental, like the plosives and the nasal .
  • French has one rhotic whose pronunciation varies considerably among speakers and phonetic contexts. In general, it is described as a voiced uvular fricative, as in , "wheel". Vowels are often lengthened before this segment. It can be reduced to an approximant, particularly in final position (e.g., fort), or reduced to zero in some word-final positions. For other speakers, a uvular trill is also common, and an apical trill occurs in some dialects.
  • Lateral and central approximants: The lateral approximant is unvelarised in both onset ( lire) and coda position ( il). In the onset, the central approximants , , and each correspond to a high vowel, , , and respectively. There are a few where the approximant and corresponding vowel contrast, but there are also many cases where they are in free variation. Contrasts between and occur in final position as in , "pay", vs. , "country".

French pronunciation follows strict rules based on spelling, but French spelling is often based more on history than phonology. The rules for pronunciation vary between dialects, but the standard rules are:

  • Final single consonants, in particular s, x, z, t, d, n, p and g, are normally silent. (A consonant is considered "final" when no vowel follows it even if one or more consonants follow it.) The final letters f, k, q, and l, however, are normally pronounced. The final c is sometimes pronounced like in bac, sac, roc but can also be silent like in blanc or estomac. The final r is usually silent when it follows an e in a word of two or more syllables, but it is pronounced in some words ( hiver, super, cancer etc.).
    • When the following word begins with a vowel, however, a silent consonant may once again be pronounced, to provide a liaison or "link" between the two words. Some liaisons are mandatory, for example the s in les amants or vous avez; some are optional, depending on and register, for example, the first s in deux cents euros or euros irlandais; and some are forbidden, for example, the s in beaucoup d'hommes aiment. The t of et is never pronounced and the silent final consonant of a noun is only pronounced in the plural and in like pied-à-terre.
    • Doubling a final n and adding a silent e at the end of a word (e.g., chienchienne) makes it clearly pronounced. Doubling a final l and adding a silent e (e.g., gentilgentille) adds a j sound if the l is preceded by the letter i.
  • Some monosyllabic function words ending in a or e, such as je and que, drop their final vowel when placed before a word that begins with a vowel sound (thus avoiding a hiatus). The missing vowel is replaced by an apostrophe. (e.g., *je ai is instead pronounced and spelled → j'ai). This gives, for example, the same pronunciation for l'homme qu'il a vu ("the man whom he saw") and l'homme qui l'a vu ("the man who saw him"). However, for Belgian French the sentences are pronounced differently; in the first sentence the syllable break is as "qu'il-a", while the second breaks as "qui-l'a". It can also be noted that, in , the second example ( l'homme qui l'a vu) is more emphasized on l'a vu.


Writing system

Alphabet
French is written with the 26 letters of the basic , with four diacritics appearing on vowels ( accent, , , diaeresis) and the appearing in "ç".

There are two ligatures, "œ" and "æ", but they are now often not used because of the layout of the most common keyboards used in French-speaking countries. Yet, they cannot be changed to "oe" and "ae" in formal and literary texts.


Orthography
French spelling, like English spelling, tends to preserve obsolete pronunciation rules. This is mainly due to extreme phonetic changes since the Old French period, without a corresponding change in spelling. Moreover, some conscious changes were made to restore Latin orthography (as with some English words such as "debt"):
  • Old French doit > French doigt "finger" (Latin digitus)
  • Old French pie > French pied "foot" Latin

French is a morphophonemic language. While it contains 130 that denote only 36 , many of its spelling rules are likely due to a consistency in morphemic patterns such as adding suffixes and prefixes. Many given spellings of common morphemes usually lead to a predictable sound. In particular, a given vowel combination or diacritic generally leads to one phoneme. However, there is not a one-to-one relation of a phoneme and a single related grapheme, which can be seen in how tomber and tombé both end with the /e/ phoneme. Additionally, there are many variations in the pronunciation of consonants at the end of words, demonstrated by how the x in paix is not pronounced though at the end of Aix it is .

As a result, it can be difficult to predict the spelling of a word based on the sound. Final consonants are generally silent, except when the following word begins with a vowel (see Liaison (French)). For example, the following words end in a vowel sound: pied, aller, les, finit, beaux. The same words followed by a vowel, however, may sound the consonants, as they do in these examples: beaux-arts, les amis, pied-à-terre.

French writing, as with any language, is affected by the spoken language. In Old French, the plural for animal was animals. The sequence was unstable and was turned into a diphthong . This change was then reflected in the orthography: animaus. The us ending, very common in Latin, was then abbreviated by copyists (monks) by the letter x, resulting in a written form animax. As the French language further evolved, the pronunciation of au turned into so that the u was reestablished in orthography for consistency, resulting in modern French animaux (pronounced first before the final was dropped in contemporary French). The same is true for cheval pluralized as chevaux and many others. In addition, castel pl. castels became château pl. châteaux.

  • : n and m. When n or m follows a vowel or diphthong, the n or m becomes silent and causes the preceding vowel to become nasalized (i.e., pronounced with the soft palate extended downward so as to allow part of the air to leave through the nostrils). Exceptions are when the n or m is doubled, or immediately followed by a vowel. The prefixes en- and em- are always nasalized. The rules are more complex than this but may vary between dialects.
  • Digraphs: French uses not only to specify its large range of vowel sounds and , but also specific combinations of vowels, sometimes with following consonants, to show which sound is intended.
  • : Within words, double consonants are generally not pronounced as geminates in modern French (but geminates can be heard in the cinema or TV news from as recently as the 1970s, and in very refined elocution they may still occur). For example, illusion is pronounced and not . But gemination does occur between words. For example, une info ("a news item" or "a piece of information") is pronounced , whereas une nympho ("a nymphomaniac") is pronounced .
  • are used sometimes for pronunciation, sometimes to distinguish similar words, and sometimes based on etymology alone.
    • Accents that affect pronunciation
      • The ( l'accent aigu) é (e.g., école—school) means that the vowel is pronounced instead of the default .
      • The ( l'accent grave) è (e.g., él ève—pupil) means that the vowel is pronounced instead of the default .
      • The ( l'accent circonflexe) ê (e.g. for êt—forest) shows that an e is pronounced and that an ô is pronounced . In standard French, it also signifies a pronunciation of for the letter â, but this differentiation is disappearing. In the mid-18th century, the circumflex was used in place of s after a vowel, where that letter s was not pronounced. Thus, forest became forêt, hospital became hôpital, and hostel became hôtel.
      • Diaeresis or tréma ( ë, ï, ü, ÿ): over e, i, u or y, indicates that a vowel is to be pronounced separately from the preceding one: naïve, Noël.
        • The combination of e with diaeresis following o ( N l ) is nasalized in the regular way if followed by n ( Sam ns )
        • The combination of e with diaeresis following a is either pronounced ( Raph l, Isr l ) or not pronounced, leaving only the a ( St l ) and the a is nasalized in the regular way if is followed by n ( Saint-S ns )
        • A diaeresis on y only occurs in some proper names and in modern editions of old French texts. Some proper names in which ÿ appears include Aÿ (commune in département de la Marne, formerly Aÿ-Champagne), Rue des Cloÿs (alley in the 18th arrondissement of Paris), Croÿ (family name and hotel on the Boulevard Raspail, Paris), Château du Feÿ (near ), Ghÿs (name of Flemish origin spelt Ghijs where ij in handwriting looked like ÿ to French clerks), L'Haÿ-les-Roses (commune between Paris and airport), Pierre Louÿs (author), Moÿ-de-l'Aisne (commune in département de l'Aisne and family name), and Le Blanc de Nicolaÿ (an insurance company in eastern France).
        • The diaeresis on u appears in the Biblical proper names Archélaüs, Capharnaüm, Emmaüs, Ésaü, and Saül, as well as French names such as Haüy. Nevertheless, since the 1990 orthographic changes, the diaeresis in words containing guë (such as aiguë or ciguë) may be moved onto the u: aigüe, cigüe, and by analogy may be used in verbs such as j'argüe.
        • In addition, words coming from German retain their umlaut ( ä, ö and ü) if applicable but use often French pronunciation, such as Kärcher (trademark of a pressure washer).
      • The ( la cédille) ç (e.g., gar çon—boy) means that the letter ç is pronounced in front of the back vowels a, o and u ( c is otherwise before a back vowel). C is always pronounced in front of the front vowels e, i, and y, thus ç is never found in front of front vowels.
    • Accents with no pronunciation effect
      • The circumflex does not affect the pronunciation of the letters i or u, nor, in most dialects, a. It usually indicates that an s came after it long ago, as in île ( isle, compare with English island). The explanation is that some words share the same orthography, so the circumflex is put here to mark the difference between the two words. For example, dites (you say) / dîtes (you said), or even du (of the) / (past participle for the verb devoir = must, have to, owe; in this case, the circumflex disappears in the plural and the feminine).
      • All other accents are used only to distinguish similar words, as in the case of distinguishing the adverbs and ("there", "where") from the article la ("the" feminine singular) and the conjunction ou ("or"), respectively.

Some proposals exist to simplify the existing writing system, but they still fail to gather interest. Fonétik.fr writing system proposal. Ortofasil writing system proposal. Alfograf writing system proposal. Ortograf.net writing system proposal.

In 1990, a reform accepted some changes to French orthography. At the time the proposed changes were considered to be suggestions. In 2016, schoolbooks in France began to use the newer recommended spellings, with instruction to teachers that both old and new spellings be deemed correct.


Grammar
French is a moderately language. and most are inflected for number (singular or plural, though in most nouns the plural is pronounced the same as the singular even if spelled differently); , for number and gender (masculine or feminine) of their nouns; and a few other pronouns, for person, number, gender, and ; and , for tense, aspect, , and the person and number of their subjects. Case is primarily marked using and , while certain verb features are marked using . According to the French lexicogrammatical system, French has a rank-scale hierarchy with clause as the top rank, which is followed by group rank, word rank, and morpheme rank. A French clause is made up of groups, groups are made up of words, and lastly, words are made up of morphemes.

French grammar shares several notable features with most other Romance languages, including

  • the loss of
  • the loss of the neuter gender
  • the development of grammatical articles from Latin
  • the loss of certain Latin tenses and the creation of new tenses from auxiliaries.


Nouns
Every French is either masculine or feminine. Because French nouns are not inflected for gender, a noun's form cannot specify its gender. For nouns regarding the living, their grammatical genders often correspond to that which they refer to. For example, a male teacher is a "enseignant" while a female teacher is a "enseignante." However, plural nouns that refer to a group that includes both masculine and feminine entities are always masculine. So a group of two male teachers would be "enseignants." A group of two male teachers and two female teachers would still be "enseignants." In many situations, and in the case of "enseignant," both the singular and plural form of a noun are pronounced identically. The article used for singular nouns is different from that used for plural nouns and the article provides a distinguishing factor between the two in speech. For example, the singular "le professeur" or "la professeur(e)" (the male or female teacher, professor) can be distinguished from the plural "les professeurs" because "le," "la," and "les" are all pronounced differently. There are some situations where both the feminine and masculine form of a noun are the same and the article provides the only difference. For example, "le dentiste" refers to a male dentist while "la dentiste" refers to a female dentist.


Verbs

Moods and tense-aspect forms
The French language consists of both finite and non-finite moods. The finite moods include the (indicatif), the (subjonctif), the (impératif), and the (conditionnel). The non-finite moods include the mood (infinitif), the present participle (participe présent), and the (participe passé).


Finite moods

Indicative (Indicatif)
The indicative mood makes use of eight tense-aspect forms. These include the (présent), the (passé composé and passé simple), the past imperfective (), the (), the (), the (futur antérieur), and the (passé antérieur). Some forms are less commonly used today. In today's spoken French, the passé composé is used while the passé simple is reserved for formal situations or for literary purposes. Similarly, the plus-que-parfait is used for speaking rather than the older passé antérieur seen in literary works.

Within the indicative mood, the passé composé, plus-que-parfait, futur antérieur, and passé antérieur all use auxiliary verbs in their forms.

PrésentImparfaitPassé composéPassé simple
SingularPluralSingularPluralSingularPluralSingularPlural
1st Personj'aimenous aimonsj'aimaisnous aimionsj'ai aiménous avons aiméj'aimainous aimâmes
2nd Persontu aimesvous aimeztu aimaisvous aimieztu as aimévous avez aimétu aimasvous aimâtes
3rd Personil/elle aimeils/elles aimentil/elle aimaitils/elles aimaientil/elle a aiméils/elles ont aiméil/elle aimails/elles aimèrent
Futur simpleFutur antérieurPlus-que-parfaitPassé antérieur
SingularPluralSingularPluralSingularPluralSingularPlural
1st Personj'aimerainous aimeronsj'aurai aiménous aurons aiméj'avais aiménous avions aiméj'eus aiménous eûmes aimé
2nd Persontu aimerasvous aimereztu auras aimévous aurez aimétu avais aimévous aviez aimétu eus aimévous eûtes aimé
3rd Personil/elle aimerails/elles aimerontil/elle aura aiméils/elles auront aiméil/elle avais aiméils/elles avaient aiméil/elle eut aiméils/elles eurent aimé


Subjunctive (Subjonctif)
The subjunctive mood only includes four of the tense-aspect forms found in the indicative: present (présent), simple past (passé composé), past imperfective (imparfait), and pluperfect (plus-que-parfait).

Within the subjunctive mood, the passé composé and plus-que-parfait use auxiliary verbs in their forms.

PrésentImparfaitPassé composéPlus-que-parfait
SingularPluralSingularPluralSingularPluralSingularPlural
1st Personj'aimenous aimionsj'aimassenous aimassionsj'aie aiménous ayons aiméj'eusse aiménous eussions aimé
2nd Persontu aimesvous aimieztu aimassesvous aimassieztu aies aimévous ayez aimétu eusses aimévous eussiez aimé
3rd Personil/elle aimeils/elles aimentil/elle aimâtils/elles aimassentil/elle ait aiméils/elles aient aiméil/elle eût aiméils/elles eussent aimé


Imperative (Imperatif)
The imperative is used in the present tense (with the exception of a few instances where it is used in the perfect tense). The imperative is used to give commands to you (tu), we/us (nous), and plural you (vous).
Présent
SingularPlural
1st Person aimons
2nd Personaimeaimez


Conditional (Conditionnel)
The conditional makes use of the present (présent) and the past (passé).

The passé uses auxiliary verbs in its forms.

PrésentPassé
SingularPluralSingularPlural
1st Personj'aimeraisnous aimerionsj'aurais aiménous aurions aimé
2nd Persontu aimeraisvous aimerieztu aurais aimévous auriez aimé
3rd Personil/elle aimeraitils/elles aimeraientil/elle aurait aiméils/elles auraient aimé


Voice
French uses both the and the . The active voice is unmarked while the passive voice is formed by using a form of verb être ("to be") and the past participle.

Example of the active voice:

  • "Elle aime le chien." She loves the dog.
  • "Marc a conduit la voiture." Marc drove the car.
Example of the passive voice:
  • "Le chien est aimé par elle." The dog is loved by her.
  • "La voiture était conduite par Marc." The car was driven by Marc.


Syntax

Word order
French declarative word order is subject–verb–object although a pronoun object precedes the verb. Some types of sentences allow for or require different word orders, in particular inversion of the subject and verb like "Parlez-vous français?" when asking a question rather than just "Vous parlez français ?" Both questions mean the same thing; however, a rising inflection is always used on both of them whenever asking a question, especially on the second one. Specifically, the first translates into "Do you speak French?" while the second one is literally just "You speak French?" To avoid inversion while asking a question, 'Est-ce que' (literally 'is it that') may be placed in the beginning of the sentence. "Parlez-vous français ?" may become "Est-ce que vous parlez français ?" French also uses verb–object–subject (VOS) and object–subject–verb (OSV) word order. OSV word order is not used often and VOS is reserved for formal writings.


Vocabulary
The majority of French words derive from or were constructed from or roots. In many cases a single etymological root appears in French in a "popular" or native form, inherited from Vulgar Latin, and a learned form, borrowed later from . The following pairs consist of a native noun and a learned adjective:
  • brother: / from Latin /
  • finger: / from Latin /
  • faith: / from Latin /
  • eye: / from Latin /

However, a historical tendency to gallicise Latin roots can be identified, whereas English conversely leans towards a more direct incorporation of the Latin:

  • / radiation from Latin
  • / extinguish from Latin
  • / nucleus from Latin
  • / insolation from Latin

There are also noun-noun and adjective-adjective pairs:

  • thing/cause: / from Latin
  • cold: / from Latin

It can be difficult to identify the Latin source of native French words, because in the evolution from , unstressed syllables were severely reduced and the remaining vowels and consonants underwent significant modifications.

More recently the linguistic policy of the French language academies of France and Quebec has been to provide French equivalents to (mainly English) imported words, either by using existing vocabulary, extending its meaning or deriving a new word according to French morphological rules. The result is often two (or more) co-existing terms for describing the same phenomenon.

  • mercatique / marketing
  • finance fantôme / shadow banking
  • bloc-notes / notepad
  • ailière / wingsuit
  • tiers-lieu / coworking

It is estimated that 12% (4,200) of common French words found in a typical such as the or Micro-Robert Plus (35,000 words) are of foreign origin (where and learned words are not seen as foreign). About 25% (1,054) of these foreign words come from and are fairly recent borrowings. The others are some 707 words from , 550 from ancient Germanic languages, 481 from other Gallo-Romance languages, 215 from , 164 from , 160 from , 159 from , 153 from , 112 from and Sanskrit, 101 from Native American languages, 89 from other , 56 from other Afro-Asiatic languages, 55 from and , 10 from and 144 (about 3%) from other languages.

One study analyzing the degree of differentiation of Romance languages in comparison to Latin estimated that among the languages analyzed French has the greatest distance from Latin.

(2019). 9780397004003
Lexical similarity is 89% with Italian, 80% with Sardinian, 78% with Rhaeto-Romance, and 75% with Romanian, Spanish and Portuguese. Ethnologue report for language code:ita (Italy) – Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.), 2005. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International. Online version


Numerals
The French counting system is partially : twenty ( vingt) is used as a base number in the names of numbers from 70 to 99. The French word for 80 is quatre-vingts, literally "four twenties", and the word for 75 is soixante-quinze, literally "sixty-fifteen". This reform arose after the French Revolution to unify the counting systems (mostly vigesimal near the coast, because of Celtic (via ) and Viking influences). This system is comparable to the archaic English use of score, as in "fourscore and seven" (87), or "threescore and ten" (70).

In Old French (during the ), all numbers from 30 to 99 could be said in either base 10 or base 20, e.g. vint et doze (twenty and twelve) for 32, dous vinz et diz (two twenties and ten) for 50, uitante for 80, or nonante for 90.

(1974). 9780521098380, Cambridge University Press.

, , Jean-Pierre Martin, Description lexicale du français parlé en Vallée d'Aoste, éd. Musumeci, Quart, 1984. and the French used in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and are different in this respect. In the French spoken in these places, 70 and 90 are septante and nonante. In Switzerland, depending on the local dialect, 80 can be quatre-vingts (Geneva, Neuchâtel, Jura) or huitante (Vaud, Valais, Fribourg). Octante had been used in in the past, but is now considered archaic,. See also the English Wikipedia article on , especially the section "Counting system" and its note on the influence of in the French counting system. while in the 80 is huitante. In Belgium and in its former African colonies, however, quatre-vingts is universally used.

French, like most European languages, uses a space to separate thousands. The comma is used in French numbers as a decimal point, i.e. "2,5" instead of "2.5".

Notes


See also
  • Alliance Française
  • Français fondamental
  • French language in the United States
  • French language in Canada
  • French keyboard
  • Language education
  • List of countries where French is an official language
  • List of English words of French origin
  • List of French loanwords in Persian
  • List of French words and phrases used by English speakers
  • List of German words of French origin
  • Official bilingualism in Canada
  • Varieties of French
  • Influence of French on English


Further reading
  • Nadeau, Jean-Benoît, and Julie Barlow (2006). The Story of French. (First U.S. ed.) New York: St. Martin's Press.
  • (2017). Manuel des francophonies. Berlin/Boston: de Gruyter.
  • (2019). 9781590173756 .


External links

Organizations


Courses and tutorials


Online dictionaries


Grammar

Verbs


Vocabulary


Numbers

Books


Articles

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