or upward compatibility
is a design characteristic that allows a system
to accept input intended for a later version of itself. The concept can be applied to entire systems, electrical User interface
, telecommunication signals, data communication protocols,
, and computer
programming languages. A standard supports forward compatibility if a product that complies with earlier versions can "graceful exit
" process input designed for later versions of the standard.
The objective for forward compatible technology is for old devices to recognise when data has been generated for new devices.
Forward compatibility for the older system implies backward compatibility for the new system, i.e. the ability to process data from the old system; the new system effectively has full compatibility with the older one, by being able to both process and generate data in the format of the older system.
Forward compatibility is not the same as extensibility. A forward compatible design can process at least some of the data from a future version of itself. An extensible design makes upgrading easy. An example of both design ideas can be found in web browsers. At any point in time, a current browser is forward compatible if it gracefully accepts a newer version of HTML. Whereas how easily the browser code can be upgraded to process the newer HTML determines how extensible it is.
The introduction of FM stereo transmission, or color television, allowed forward compatibility, since monophonic FM radio receivers and black-and-white TV sets still could receive a signal from a new transmitter.
It also allowed backward compatibility since new receivers could receive monophonic or black-and-white signals generated by old transmitters.
The Game Boy is able to play certain games released for the Game Boy Color. These games utilize the same cartridge design as games for the original Game Boy, though the plastic used is typically black rather than gray and feature the GBC's logo on the label and packaging; Nintendo officially refers to such titles as being "Dual Mode".
[ Game Boy - Compatibility Chart. Nintendo of America. Retrieved 3 October 2017.]
The Leapster is able to play Leapster L-Max games.
The Leapster L-Max is able to play Leapster2 games.
The original PlayStation is compatible with the DualShock 2 controller.
Likewise the PlayStation 3 can be played with a DualShock 4 controller.
is designed to treat all tags in the same way (as inert, unstyled
) unless their appearance or behavior is overridden; either by the browser's default settings, or by scripts or styles included in the page.
[ Really undoing html.css by Eric A. Meyer.]
This makes most new features degrade gracefully in older browsers. One case where this did not work as intended was script and style blocks, whose content is meant to be interpreted by the browser instead of being part of the page. Such cases were dealt with by enclosing the content within comment blocks.
[ HTML Tag at w3schools.com: 'You can also use the comment tag to "hide" scripts from browsers without support for scripts ...'.]
NUC (not upwardly compatible)
Some products are not designed to be forward compatible, which has been referred to as NUC (not upwardly compatible). In some cases this might be intentional by the designers as a form of vendor lock-in
or software regression.
For example, a cubicle producer considers changing their cubicle design. One designer promotes changing the footprint from 4 foot square to 1.2 meter square. Immediately, the sales manager calls "NUC" and the problem is understood: if the footprint changes and existing customers are considering buying more from the producer, they will have to fit a different sized unit in an office designed for the 4 foot square cubicle.
Planned obsolescence is a type of upward compatibility, but rather than adopting a policy of backwards compatibility, companies adopt a commercial policy of backwards incompatibility so that newer apps require newer devices.