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Forestry is the science and craft of creating, managing, using, conserving, and repairing , , and associated resources to meet desired goals, needs, and values for human and environment benefits. Forestry is practiced in and natural stands. The science of forestry has elements that belong to the biological, physical, social, political and managerial sciences.

(1982). 9780471064381, John Wiley & Sons.

Modern forestry generally embraces a broad range of concerns, in what is known as multiple-use management, including the provision of , fuel wood, , natural , , landscape and community protection, employment, aesthetically appealing , management, watershed management, , and preserving forests as 'sinks' for atmospheric . A practitioner of forestry is known as a . Other common terms are: a , or a silviculturalist. is narrower than forestry, being concerned only with forest plants, but is often used synonymously with forestry.

Forest ecosystems have come to be seen as the most important component of the , and forestry has emerged as a vital , , and .

Forestry is an important economic segment in various industrial countries. For example, in Germany, forests cover nearly a third of the land area, Bundeswaldinventur 2002 , Bundesministerium für Ernährung, Landwirtschaft und Verbraucherschutz (BMELV), retrieved, 17 January 2010 wood is the most important renewable resource, and forestry supports more than a million jobs and about €181 billion of value to the German economy each year. Unternehmen Wald, forests as an enterprise, German private forestry association website


History

Background
The preindustrial age has been dubbed by and others as the 'wooden age', as timber and firewood were the basic resources for energy, construction and housing. The development of modern forestry is closely connected with the rise of , economy as a science and varying notions of land use and property.compare Joachim Radkau Wood: A History, 2011

Roman , large agricultural estates, were quite successful in maintaining the large supply of wood that was necessary for the Roman Empire.The Nature of Mediterranean Europe: An Ecological History, by Alfred Thomas Grove, , Yale University Press, 2003, review at Yale university press Nature of Mediterranean Europe: An Ecological History (review) Brian M. Fagan, Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Volume 32, Number 3, Winter 2002, pp. 454-455 | Large came with respectively after the decline of the Romans. However already in the 5th century, in the then Byzantine on the coast, were able to establish plantations to provide and .

(1976). 9780253354624, Indiana University Press.
This was the beginning of the massive forest mentioned by in his 1308 poem .

Similar sustainable formal forestry practices were developed by the in the 7th century when, faced with the ever-increasing shortage of wood, they instituted a code concerned with the preservation of and forests. The use and management of many forest resources has a long history in as well, dating back to the and taking place under the landowning . A similar approach was used in . It was also later written about by the Chinese scholar (1562–1633).

In , land usage rights in medieval and early modern times allowed different users to access forests and pastures. and were important, as pitch (resin) was essential for the of ships, falking and hunting rights, firewood and building, timber gathering in , and for grazing animals in forests. The notion of "" (German "Allmende") refers to the underlying traditional legal term of . The idea of enclosed private property came about during modern times. However, most hunting rights were retained by members of the nobility which preserved the right of the nobility to access and use common land for recreation, like .


Early modern forestry development

Systematic management of forests for a sustainable yield of timber began in Portugal in the 13th century when Afonso III of Portugal planted the Pinhal do Rei near to prevent coastal erosion and soil degradation, and as a sustainable source for timber used in naval construction.

(2018). 9781843830634, Boydell Press. .
His successor Dom Dinis continued the practice and the forest exists still today.

Forest management also flourished in the German states in the 14th century, e.g. in , and in 16th-century . Typically, a forest was divided into specific sections and mapped; the harvest of timber was planned with an eye to regeneration. As allowed for connecting large continental forests, as in south western Germany, via Main, Neckar, Danube and Rhine with the coastal cities and states, early modern forestry and remote trading were closely connected. Large firs in the black forest were called „Holländer“, as they were to the Dutch ship yards. Large timber rafts on the Rhine were 200 to 400m in length, 40m in width and consisted of several thousand logs. The crew consisted of 400 to 500 men, including shelter, bakeries, ovens and livestock stables. Beschreibung eines großen Rheinfloßes Timber rafting infrastructure allowed for large interconnected networks all over continental Europe and is still of importance in Finland.

Starting with the sixteenth century, enhanced world , a boom in housing construction in Europe and the success and further (rushes) of the mining industry increased timber consumption sharply. The notion of 'Nachhaltigkeit', in forestry, is closely connected to the work of Hans Carl von Carlowitz (1645–1714), a mining administrator in . His book Sylvicultura oeconomica, oder haußwirthliche Nachricht und Naturmäßige Anweisung zur wilden Baum-Zucht (1713) was the first comprehensive treatise about sustainable yield forestry. In the UK, and, to an extent, in continental Europe, the movement and the favored strictly enclosed private property.Radkau, Joachim. Nature and Power. A Global History of the Environment. Cambridge University Press. 2008. The Agrarian reformers, early economic writers and scientists tried to get rid of the traditional commons.Nature and Power, A Global History of the Environment, by Joachim Radkau, 2008, p. 72 At the time, an alleged tragedy of the commons together with fears of a , an imminent wood shortage played a watershed role in the controversies about cooperative land use patterns.The end of the commons as a watershed' The Age of Ecology, Joachim Radkau, John Wiley & Sons, 03.04.2014, p. 15 ff

The practice of establishing tree plantations in the was promoted by , though it had already acquired some popularity. Louis XIV's minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert's oak Forest of Tronçais, planted for the future use of the , matured as expected in the mid-19th century: "Colbert had thought of everything except the steamship," observed.

(1979). 9780520081154, University of California Press.
In parallel, schools of forestry were established beginning in the late 18th century in , , , , and elsewhere in Europe.


Forest conservation and early globalization
During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, forest preservation programs were established in British India, the United States, and Europe. Many foresters were either from continental Europe (like ), or educated there (like ). Sir is considered the father of tropical forestry, European concepts and practices had to be adapted in tropical and semi arid climate zones. The development of forestry was one of the (controversial) answers to the specific challenges in the tropical colonies. The enactment and evolution of and binding regulations occurred in most Western nations in the 20th century in response to growing conservation concerns and the increasing technological capacity of companies. Tropical forestry is a separate branch of forestry which deals mainly with equatorial forests that yield woods such as and .


Mechanization
Forestry mechanization was always in close connection to metal working and the development of mechanical tools to cut and transport timber to its destination. Rafting belongs to the earliest means of transport. Steel saws came up in the 15th century. The 19th century widely increased the availability of steel for and introduced and railways in general for transport and as forestry customer. Further human induced changes, however, came since World War II, respectively in line with the '1950s-syndrome'.Christian Pfister (Hrsg.), Das 1950er Syndrom: Der Weg in die Konsumgesellschaft, Bern 1995 The first portable chainsaw was invented in 1918 in Canada, but large impact of mechanization in forestry started after World War II. Forestry harvesters are among the most recent developments. Although drones, planes, laser scanning, satellites and robots also play a part in forestry.


Early journals which are still present
  • first published in 1820
  • Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Forstwesen first published in 1850.
  • The Indian Forester first published in 1875.
  • Šumarski list (Forestry Review, Croatia) was published in 1877 by Croatian Forestry Society. Šumarski list (Forestry Review), with full digital archive since 1877
  • Montes (Forestry, Spain) first published in 1877.
  • Revista pădurilor (Journal of Forests, Romania, 1881–1882; 1886–present), the oldest extant magazine in
(webpage has a translation button) (webpage has a translation button)
  • Forestry Quarterly, first published in 1902 by the New York State College of Forestry.
  • Šumarstvo (Forestry, Serbia) first published in 1948 by the Ministry of Forestry of Democratic Federal Yugoslavia, and since 1951 by Organ of Society of Forestry Engineers and Technicians of the Republic of Serbia (succeeding the former Šumarski glasnik published from 1907-1921)


Forestry in the 21st century
Today a strong body of exists regarding the management of and the genetic improvement of . Forestry studies also include the development of better methods for the planting, protecting, , , , extracting, and processing of . One of the applications of modern forestry is , in which trees are planted and tended in a given area.

Trees provide numerous environmental, social and economic benefits for people. In many regions the is of major ecological, economic, and social importance. Third-party systems that provide independent verification of sound forest and sustainable forestry have become commonplace in many areas since the 1990s. These certification systems developed as a response to criticism of some forestry practices, particularly deforestation in less-developed regions along with concerns over resource management in the . Some certification systems are criticized for primarily acting as marketing tools and for lacking in their claimed independence.

In topographically severe forested terrain, proper forestry is important for the prevention or minimization of serious soil or even . In areas with a high potential for landslides, forests can and prevent property damage or loss, human injury, or loss of life.

Public perception of forest management has become controversial, with growing public concern over perceived mismanagement of the forest and increasing demands that forest land be managed for uses other than for pure timber production, for example: indigenous rights, recreation, watershed management, and preservation of , and . Some of the advantages and disadvantages accruing to in farming also apply to monoculture in forestry. Sharp disagreements over the role of , , motorized recreation and other issues drive debate while the public demand for continues to increase.


Foresters
Foresters work for the , government agencies, conservation groups, local authorities, parks boards, citizens' associations, and private . The forestry profession includes a wide diversity of jobs, with educational requirements ranging from college bachelor's degrees to PhDs for highly specialized work. Industrial foresters plan forest regeneration starting with careful harvesting. Urban foresters manage trees in urban green spaces. Foresters work in growing for woodland creation or regeneration projects. Foresters improve tree . Forest engineers develop new building systems. Professional foresters and model the growth of forests with tools like . Foresters may combat infestation, disease, forest and , but increasingly allow these natural aspects of forest to run their course when the likelihood of or risk of life or property are low. Increasingly, foresters participate in wildlife conservation planning and protection. Foresters have been mainly concerned with timber management, especially reforestation, maintaining forests at prime conditions, and fire control.


Forestry plans
Foresters develop and implement forest management plans relying on mapped resource showing an area's features as well as its distribution of trees (by species) and other plant cover. Plans also include landowner objectives, roads, , proximity to human habitation, water features and hydrological conditions, and soils information. Forest management plans typically include recommended treatments and a timetable for their implementation. Application of digital maps in Geographic Informations systems (GIS) that extracts and integrates different information about forest terrains, soil type and tree covers, etc. using, e.g. laser scanning, enhances forest management plans in modern systems.

Forest management plans include recommendations to achieve the landowner's objectives and desired future condition for the property subject to ecological, financial, logistical (e.g. access to resources), and other constraints. On some properties, plans focus on producing quality wood products for processing or sale. Hence, tree species, quantity, and form, all central to the value of harvested products quality and quantity, tend to be important components of silvicultural plans.

Good management plans include consideration of future conditions of the stand after any recommended harvests treatments, including future treatments (particularly in intermediate stand treatments), and plans for natural or artificial regeneration after final harvests.

The objectives of and influence plans for harvest and subsequent site treatment. In Britain, plans featuring "good forestry practice" must always consider the needs of other stakeholders such as nearby communities or rural residents living within or adjacent to woodland areas. Foresters consider tree felling and environmental legislation when developing plans. Plans instruct the sustainable harvesting and replacement of trees. They indicate whether road building or other forest engineering operations are required.

and forest leaders are also trying to understand how the change legislation will affect what they do. The information gathered will provide the data that will determine the role of agriculture and forestry in a new climate change regulatory system.


Forestry as a science
Over the past centuries, was regarded as a separate science. With the rise of and environmental science, there has been a reordering in the applied sciences. In line with this view, forestry is a primary land-use science comparable with .Wojtkowski, Paul A. (2002) Agroecological Perspectives in Agronomy, Forestry and Agroforestry. Science Publishers Inc., Enfield, NH, 356p. Under these headings, the fundamentals behind the management of natural forests comes by way of natural ecology. Forests or tree plantations, those whose primary purpose is the extraction of forest products, are planned and managed utilizing a mix of ecological and agroecological principles.Wojtkowski, Paul A. (2006) Undoing the Damage: Silviculture for Ecologists and Environmental Scientists. Science Publishers Inc., Enfield, NH, 313p.


Genetic diversity in forestry
The of forest reproductive material used to plant forests has great influence on how the trees develop, hence why it is important to use forest reproductive material of good quality and of high genetic diversity.

The term, describe differences in between individuals as distinct from variation caused by environmental influences. The unique genetic composition of an individual (its ) will determine its performance (its ) at a particular site.

Genetic diversity is needed to maintain the vitality of forests and to provide resilience to pests and . Genetic diversity also ensures that forest trees can survive, adapt and evolve under changing environmental conditions. Furthermore, genetic diversity is the foundation of biological diversity at species and levels. Forest genetic resources are therefore important to consider in forest management.

Genetic diversity in is threatened by , pests and diseases, habitat fragmentation, poor silvicultural practices and inappropriate use of forest reproductive material. Furthermore, the marginal populations of many tree species are facing new threats due to climate change.

Most countries in Europe have recommendations or guidelines for selecting species and provenances that can be used in a given site or zone.


Education

History of forestry education
The first dedicated forestry school was established by Georg Ludwig Hartig at in the , , in 1787, though forestry had been taught earlier in central Europe, including at the University of Giessen, in Hesse-Darmstadt.

In Spain, the first forestry school was the Forest Engineering School of Madrid (Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Montes), founded in 1844.

The first in , the Biltmore Forest School was established near , North Carolina, by Carl A. Schenck on September 1, 1898, on the grounds of George W. Vanderbilt's . Another early school was the New York State College of Forestry, established at Cornell University just a few weeks later, in September 1898. Early 19th century North American foresters went to Germany to study forestry. Some early German foresters also emigrated to North America.

In the first forestry school was established in Brazil, in Viçosa, , in 1962, and moved the next year to become a faculty at the Federal University of Paraná, in Curitiba.


Forestry education today

Today, forestry education typically includes training in general , , , , , , , and forest management. Education in the basics of and political science is often considered an advantage. Professional skills in conflict resolution and communication are also important in training programs.

In India, forestry education is imparted in the agricultural universities and in Forest Research Institutes (deemed universities). Four year degree programmes are conducted in these universities at the undergraduate level. Masters and Doctorate degrees are also available in these universities.

In the , forestry education leading to a Bachelor's degree or Master's degree is accredited by the Society of American Foresters.

In the Canadian Institute of Forestry awards silver rings to graduates from accredited university BSc programs, as well as college and technical programs.

In many European countries, training in forestry is made in accordance with requirements of the and the European Higher Education Area.

The International Union of Forest Research Organizations is the only international organization that coordinates forest science efforts worldwide.


Miscellaneous about Forestry research and education
  • List of forest research institutes
  • List of forestry technical schools
  • List of forestry universities and colleges
  • List of historic journals of forestry
  • Imperial Forestry Institute (disambiguation)


See also


Further reading
  • Eyle, Alexandra. 1992. Charles Lathrop Pack: Timberman, Forest Conservationist, and Pioneer in Forest Education. Syracuse, NY: ESF College Foundation and College of Environmental Science and Forestry. Distributed by Syracuse University Press. Available: Google books.
  • Hammond, Herbert. 1991. Seeing the Forest Among the Trees. Winlaw/Vancouver: Polestar Press, 1991.
  • Hart, C. 1994. Practical Forestry for the Agent and Surveyor. Stroud. Sutton Publishing.
  • Hibberd, B.G. (Ed). 1991. Forestry Practice. Forestry Commission Handbook 6. London. HMSO.
  • Kimmins, Hammish. 1992. Balancing Act: Environmental Issues in Forestry. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.
  • Maser, Chris. 1994. Sustainable Forestry: Philosophy, Science, and Economics. DelRay Beach: St. Lucie Press.
  • Miller, G. Tyler. 1990. Resource Conservation and Management. Belmont: Wadsworth Publishing.
  • Nyland, Ralph D. 2007. Silviculture: Concepts and Applications. 2nd ed. Prospect Heights: Waveland Press.
  • Wood: A History, , November 2011, Polity
  • Stoddard, Charles H. 1978. Essentials of Forestry. New York: Ronald Press.
  • [9]. Vira, B. et al. 2015. Forests and Food: Addressing Hunger and Nutrition Across Sustainable Landscapes. Cambridge: Open Book Publishers.


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