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Tag Wiki 'Flowering Plant'.

Flowering plants are that bear and , and form the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. They include all (flowering plants without a woody stem), and grass-like plants, a vast majority of broad-leaved trees, and , and most . The term "angiosperm" is derived from the words ἀγγεῖον /angeion ('container, vessel') and σπέρμα / sperma ('seed'), meaning that the are enclosed within a fruit. They are by far the most diverse group of with 64 orders, 416 families, approximately 13,000 known and 300,000 known . Angiosperms were formerly called Magnoliophyta ().

Angiosperms are distinguished from the other plants, the , by having , xylem consisting of instead of , within their seeds, and fruits that completely envelop the seeds. The ancestors of flowering plants diverged from the common ancestor of all living gymnosperms before the end of the , over 300 million years ago. In the , angiosperms diversified explosively, becoming the dominant group of plants across the planet.

is almost entirely dependent on angiosperms, and a small number of flowering plant families supply nearly all plant-based and feed. , , and provide half of the world's intake, and all three plants are cereals from the family (colloquially known as grasses). Other families provide materials such as , and , and supply numerous ingredients for traditional and modern medicines. Flowering plants are also commonly grown for decorative purposes, with certain flowers playing a significant role in many cultures.

Out of the "Big Five" in Earth's history, only the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event had occurred while angiosperms dominated plant life on the planet. Today, the Holocene extinction affects all kingdoms of complex life on Earth, and conservation measures are necessary to protect plants in their habitats in the wild ( ), or failing that, ex situ in or artificial habitats like . Otherwise, around 40% of plant species may become due to human actions such as habitat destruction, introduction of , unsustainable and collection of or . Further, is starting to impact plants and is likely to cause many species to become extinct by 2100.

Distinguishing features
Angiosperms are terrestrial vascular plants; like the gymnosperms, they have , , , and . They differ from other in several ways.

'' flower in section. and are replaced here by a fused tube, the corona, and tepals.]]
The gametophytes are smaller than those of gymnosperms.
(2023). 9780716710073, W. H. Freeman. .
The smaller size of the reduces the time between pollination and , which in gymnosperms is up to a year.
is a reduced female .]]
Endosperm forms after fertilization but before the divides. It provides food for the developing , the , and sometimes the .
vessels (long tubes).]]


Ecological diversity
File:MountainAshWithCars.jpg| Eucalyptus regnans,
a tree almost 100 m tall File:WolffiaArrhiza2.jpg| , a rootless floating freshwater plant under 2 mm across

The largest angiosperms are gum trees of Australia, and Shorea faguetiana, dipterocarp rainforest trees of Southeast Asia, both of which can reach almost in height. The smallest are duckweeds which float on freshwater, each plant less than across.

File:Sunlight on a gunnera leaf, 'Quarry Garden', Belsay estate - - 1384733.jpg| captures sunlight for over the large surfaces of its leaves, which are supported by strong veins. File:Orobanche purpurea.jpg| , a broomrape with no leaves, obtains all its food from other plants.

Considering their method of obtaining energy, some 99% of flowering plants are , deriving their energy from sunlight and using it to create molecules such as . The remainder are , whether on fungi like the for part or all of their life-cycle, or , either wholly like the broomrapes, , or partially like the witchweeds, .

File:Carnegiea gigantea Saguaro cactus plant (cropped).jpg| Carnegiea gigantea, the saguaro cactus, grows in hot dry in Mexico and the southern United States. File:Dryas octopetala (Colorado, USA).jpg| , the mountain avens, lives in cold arctic and montane habitats in the far north of America and Eurasia. File:Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (47502598342).jpg| , the sacred lotus, grows in warm freshwater across tropical and subtropical Asia. File:Zostera.jpg| seagrass grows on the seabed in sheltered coastal waters.

In terms of their environment, flowering plants are cosmopolitan, occupying a wide range of on land, in fresh water and in the sea. On land, they are the dominant plant group in every habitat except for frigid moss-lichen and coniferous forest. The in the grow in marine environments, spreading with that grow through the mud in sheltered coastal waters.

(2023). 9780128237311

File:Drosera anglica ne2.jpg| , a sundew, lives in nutrient-poor acid , deriving nutrients from trapped insects. File:Gentiana verna.jpg| , the spring gentian, flourishes in dry limestone habitats.

Some specialised angiosperms are able to flourish in extremely acid or alkaline habitats. The , many of which live in nutrient-poor acid , are carnivorous plants, able to derive nutrients such as from the bodies of trapped insects. Other flowers such as , the spring gentian, are adapted to the alkaline conditions found on -rich and , which give rise to often dry such as limestone pavement.

(1995). 9780720004236, National Museum of Wales. .

File:GT Herb Robert.jpg| Geranium robertianum, herb-Robert, is an annual or herb of Europe and North America. File:Betula_pendula_001.jpg| , the silver birch, is a perennial tree of Eurasia. File:Lianas.jpg| , , and climbing trees in Australia

As for their , the flowering plants range from small, soft , often living as or that set seed and die after one growing season, to large woody that may live for many centuries and grow to many metres in height. Some species grow tall without being self-supporting like trees by on other plants in the manner of or .

Taxonomic diversity
The number of species of flowering plants is estimated to be in the range of 250,000 to 400,000. This compares to around 12,000 species of and 11,000 species of .
(2023). 9780716710073, W. H. Freeman and Company.
The seeks to determine the number of families, mostly by molecular phylogenetics. In the 2009 there were 415 families. The 2016 added five new orders (Boraginales, Dilleniales, Icacinales, Metteniusales and Vahliales), along with some new families, making a total of 64 angiosperm orders and 416 families.

The diversity of flowering plants is not evenly distributed. Nearly all species belong to the eudicot (75%), monocot (23%), and magnoliid (2%) clades. The remaining five clades contain a little over 250 species in total; i.e. less than 0.1% of flowering plant diversity, divided among nine families. The 25 most species-rich of 443 families, containing over 166,000 species between them in their APG circumscriptions, are:

+ The 25 largest angiosperm families


History of classification
The botanical term "angiosperm", from Greek words angeíon ( 'bottle, vessel') and spérma ( 'seed'), was coined in the form "Angiospermae" by Paul Hermann in 1690, including only flowering plants whose seeds were enclosed in capsules. The term angiosperm fundamentally changed in meaning in 1827 with Robert Brown, when angiosperm came to mean a seed plant with enclosed ovules. In 1851, with Wilhelm Hofmeister's work on embryo-sacs, Angiosperm came to have its modern meaning of all the flowering plants including Dicotyledons and Monocotyledons. The treats the flowering plants as an unranked clade without a formal Latin name (angiosperms). A formal classification was published alongside the 2009 revision in which the flowering plants rank as the subclass Magnoliidae. From 1998, the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG) has reclassified the angiosperms, with updates in the APG II system in 2003, the APG III system in 2009, and the APG IV system in 2016.


In 2019, a molecular phylogeny of placed the flowering plants in their evolutionary context:

The major groups of living angiosperms are:

Fossil history
Fossilised suggest that land plants () have existed for at least 475 million years. However, angiosperms appear suddenly and in great diversity in the fossil record in the Early Cretaceous (~130 mya). Claimed records of flowering plants prior to this are not widely accepted. Molecular evidence suggests that the ancestors of angiosperms diverged from the gymnosperms during the late , about 365 million years ago. The origin time of the crown group of flowering plants remains contentious. By the Late Cretaceous, angiosperms appear to have dominated environments formerly occupied by and . Large canopy-forming trees replaced as the dominant trees close to the end of the Cretaceous, 66 million years ago.
(2006). 9780716776741, Macmillan. .
The radiation of herbaceous angiosperms occurred much later.
(1993). 9780521233156, Cambridge University Press.


The characteristic feature of angiosperms is the flower. Its function is to ensure of the and development of containing . It may arise terminally on a shoot or from the of a leaf.
(2023). 9780122276200, Elsevier.
The flower-bearing part of the plant is usually sharply distinguished from the leaf-bearing part, and forms a branch-system called an .

Flowers produce two kinds of reproductive cells. , which divide to become , are the male cells; they are borne in the .

(1970). 9781349003648, Macmillan Education.
The female cells, , divide to become the egg cell. They are contained in the and enclosed in the ; one or more carpels form the .

The flower may consist only of these parts, as in plants like the , where each flower comprises only a few or two carpels. In or plants, other structures protect the and attract pollinators. The individual members of these surrounding structures are known as and (or in flowers such as where sepals and petals are not distinguishable from each other). The outer series (calyx of sepals) is usually green and leaf-like, and functions to protect the rest of the flower, especially the bud. The inner series (corolla of petals) is, in general, white or brightly colored, is more delicate in structure, and attracts pollinators by colour, , and .

Most flowers are , producing both pollen and ovules in the same flower, but some use other devices to reduce self-fertilization. Heteromorphic flowers have carpels and stamens of differing lengths, so animal cannot easily transfer pollen between them. Homomorphic flowers may use a biochemical self-incompatibility to discriminate between self and non-self pollen grains. plants such as have male and female flowers on separate plants. plants have separate male and female flowers on the same plant; these are often wind-pollinated,

(2023). 9781439844366, CRC Press. .
as in , but include some insect-pollinated plants such as squashes.
(2023). 9780521820714, Cambridge University Press.

Fertilisation and embryogenesis
Double fertilization requires two sperm cells to fertilise cells in the ovule. A grain sticks to the stigma at the top of the pistil, germinates, and grows a long . A haploid generative cell travels down the tube behind the tube nucleus. The generative cell divides by mitosis to produce two haploid ( n) sperm cells. The pollen tube grows from the stigma, down the style and into the ovary. When it reaches the micropyle of the ovule, it digests its way into one of the synergids, releasing its contents including the sperm cells. The synergid that the cells were released into degenerates; one sperm makes its way to fertilise the egg cell, producing a diploid (2 n) zygote. The second sperm cell fuses with both central cell nuclei, producing a triploid (3 n) cell. The zygote develops into an embryo; the triploid cell develops into the endosperm, the embryo's food supply. The ovary develops into a fruit. and each ovule into a seed.

Fruit and seed
As the embryo and endosperm develop, the wall of the embryo sac enlarges and combines with the and to form the seed coat. The ovary wall develops to form the fruit or , whose form is closely associated with type of seed dispersal system.

Other parts of the flower often contribute to forming the fruit. For example, in the , the forms the edible flesh, surrounding the ovaries which form the tough cases around the seeds.

, setting seed without fertilization, is found naturally in about 2.2% of angiosperm genera. Some angiosperms, including many varieties, are able to produce fruits through a type of apomixis called nucellar embryony.

(2020). 9783030153083, Springer Nature. .

Interactions with humans

Practical uses
is almost entirely dependent on angiosperms, which provide virtually all plant-based food and feed. Much of this food derives from a small number of flowering plant families. For instance, half of the world's intake is supplied by just three plants - , and .

+ Major food-providing families
Most feedstocks, inc. , , , , , , , ,
, , ; for animal feed, ,
, , ,
, , ,
and its varieties, e.g. , ; ;
, , , , , ,
Oranges, ,
, , , , ,

Flowering plants provide a diverse range of materials in the form of , , fibers such as , , and , such as and , and decorative and landscaping plants. and are beverages from flowering plants.

Cultural uses
Both real and play a wide variety of roles in literature and film. Flowers are the subjects of many poems by poets such as , , and Rabindranath Tagore. Bird-and-flower painting () is a kind of that celebrates the beauty of flowering plants. Flowers have been used in literature to convey meaning by authors including William Shakespeare. Flowers are used in a variety of art forms which arrange cut or living plants, such as , , and flower arranging. have sometimes changed the course of history, as in . Many countries and regions have ; a survey of 70 of these found that the most popular flowering plant family for such emblems is Orchidaceae at 15.7% (11 emblems), followed by Fabaceae at 10% (7 emblems), and Asparagaceae, Asteraceae, and Rosaceae all at 5.7% (4 emblems each).
(2023). 9789810741471, Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research. .

Human impact on the environment has driven a range of species extinct and is threatening even more today. Multiple organizations such as and Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew suggest that around 40% of plant species are threatened with extinction. The majority are threatened by habitat loss, but activities such as logging of wild timber trees and collection of medicinal plants, or the introduction of non-native , also play a role. Relatively few plant diversity assessments currently consider , yet it is starting to impact plants as well: according to , about 3% of flowering plants are very likely to be driven extinct within a century at , and 10% at .Parmesan, C., M.D. Morecroft, Y. Trisurat et al. (2022) Chapter 2: Terrestrial and Freshwater Ecosystems and Their Services in
(2023). 9781009325844, Cambridge University Press. .
In worst-case scenarios, half of all tree species, or of all plant species, may be driven extinct by climate change over that timeframe.

Conservation in this context is the attempt to prevent extinction, whether by protecting plants and their habitats in the wild, or ex situ in or as living plants. Some 3000 around the world maintain living plants, including over 40% of the species known to be threatened, as an "insurance policy against extinction in the wild." The ' Global Strategy for Plant Conservation asserts that "without plants, there is no life". It aims to "halt the continuing loss of plant diversity" throughout the world.


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