Eid al-Fitr has a particular Salat (Islamic prayer) consisting of two (units) and generally offered in an open field or large hall. It may be performed only in congregation ( Jama’at) and has an additional extra six (raising of the hands to the ears while saying "Allāhu Akbar", literally "God is great"), three of them in the beginning of the first raka'ah and three of them just before Ruku' in the second raka'ah in the Hanafi school of Sunni Islam. Other Sunni schools usually have twelve Takbirs, seven in the first, and five at the beginning of the second raka'ah. This Eid al-Fitr salat is, depending on which juristic opinion is followed, Fard فرض (obligatory), Mustahabb مستحب (strongly recommended, just short of obligatory) or mandoob مندوب (preferable).
According to certain Ahadith, these festivals were initiated in Medina after the migration of Muhammad from Mecca. Anas reports:
When the Prophet arrived in Madinah, he found people celebrating two specific days in which they used to entertain themselves with recreation and merriment. He asked them about the nature of these festivities at which they replied that these days were occasions of fun and recreation. At this, the Prophet remarked that the Almighty has fixed two days of instead of these for you which are better than these: Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-AdhaAhmad ibn Hanbal, Musnad, vol. 4, 141–142, (no. 13210).
For Muslims, both the festivals of Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha are occasions for showing gratitude to Allah and remembering Him, as well as giving alms to the poor.
Typically, practising Muslims wake up early in the morning—always before sunrise—offer Salatul Fajr (the pre-sunrise prayer), and in keeping with the Sunnah clean their teeth with a toothbrush, take a shower before Fajr, put on new clothes (or the best available), and apply perfume.
Eid gifts, known as Eidi, are frequently given at eid to children and immediate relatives.
Eid festivities in Saudi Arabia may vary culturally depending on the region, but one common thread in all celebrations is of generosity and hospitality. First, it is common Saudi tradition for families to gather at the patriarchal home after the Eid prayers. Before the special Eid meal is served, young children will line up in front of each adult family member, who dispense money as gifts to the children. Family members will also typically have a time where they will pass out gift bags to the children. These bags are often beautifully decorated and contain candies and toys.
Many shopkeepers will show their generosity at Eid providing free Eid gifts with each purchase. For example, during Eid, many of the chocolate shops will give each customer who buys a selection of candies a free crystal candy dish with their purchase.
In the spirit of Eid, many Saudis go out of their way to show their kindness and generosity. It is common for even complete strangers to greet one another at random, even by occupants of vehicles waiting at stop lights. Sometimes even toys and gifts will be given to children by complete strangers.
It is also traditional in some areas for Saudi men to go and buy large quantities of rice and other staples and then leave them anonymously at the doors of those who are less fortunate. Also, in some areas in the middle of Saudi Arabia, such as Al Qassim, it's a common tradition that during Eid morning and after the Eid prayer people will put large rugs on one of streets of their neighbourhood and each household will prepare a large meal where these meals will be shared by all neighbours, it's also a common practice that people will swap places to try more than one kind of meal.
It is a public holiday, where schools and government offices are generally closed for the entire three-day period of the celebrations. The celebrations of this bayram are infused with national traditions. It is customary for people to greet one another with Bayramınız kutlu olsun ("May your bayram be blessed") or Bayramınız mübarek olsun ("May your bayram be blessed"). Mutlu Bayramlar ("Happy Bayram") is an alternative phrase for celebrating this bayram. It is a time for people to attend prayer services, put on their best clothes (referred to as bayramlık, often purchased just for the occasion), visit all their loved ones (such as relatives, neighbours, and friends), and pay their respects to the deceased with organised visits to cemeteries, where large, temporary of flowers, water (for watering the plants adorning a grave), and prayer books are set up for the three-day occasion. The first day of the bayram is generally regarded as the most important, with all members of the family waking up early, and the men going to their neighbourhood mosques for the special bayram prayer.
It is regarded as especially important to honour elderly citizens by kissing their right hand and placing it on one's forehead while wishing them bayram greetings. It is also customary for young children to go around their neighbourhood, door to door, and wish everyone a "Happy Bayram", for which they are awarded candy, chocolates, traditional sweets such as baklava and Turkish Delight, or a small amount of money at every door, similar to the Hallowe'en custom in the United States.
Municipalities all around the country organise fund-raising events for the poor, in addition to public shows such as concerts or more traditional forms of entertainment such as the Karagöz and Hacivat Shadow play and even performances by the Mehter – a Janissary Band founded during the days of the Ottoman Empire.
The Eid day starts with a small snack followed by Eid prayers in congregation attended by men, women and children in which the sermon reminds Egyptians of the virtues and good deeds they should do unto others, even strangers, during Eid and throughout the year.
Afterwards, neighbours, friends and relatives start greeting one another. The most common greeting is "Eid Mubarak" (Blessed Eid). Family visits are considered a must on the first day of the Eid, so they have the other two days to enjoy by going to parks, cinemas, theatres or the beaches. Some like to go on tours or a Nile cruise, but Sharm El Sheikh is also considered a favourite spot for spending holidays in Egypt.
Children are normally given new clothes to wear throughout the Eid. Also, women (particularly mothers, wives, sisters and daughters) are commonly given special gifts by their loved ones. It is customary for children to also receive a Eid-ey-yah from their adult relatives. This is a small sum of money that the children receive and is used to spend on all their activities throughout the Eid. Children will wear their new clothes and go out to amusement parks, gardens or public courtyards based on how much their Eidyah affords. The amusement parks can range from the huge ones on the outskirts of Cairo-Nile, Felucca Nile rides is one common feature of Eid celebration in Egyptian villages, towns and cities.
The families gatherings involve cooking and eating all kinds of Egyptian food like Fata, but the items most associated with Eid al-Fitr are Ka'ak (singular = Kahka), which are cookies filled with nuts and covered with powdered sugar. Egyptians either bake it at home or buy it in the bakery. Thus, a bakery crowded in the last few days of Ramadan with Kahk buyers is a common scene. TV in Egypt celebrates Eid too, with a continuous marathon of movies as well as programmes featuring live interviews from all over Egypt of both public figures and everyday citizens, sharing their Eid celebrations.
For a lot of families from working neighbourhoods, the Eid celebration also means small mobile neighbourhood rides, much like a neighbourhood carnival. In a lot of neighbourhood courtyards, kids also gather around a storyteller, a puppeteer or a magician mesmerised by Egyptian folktales or by a grownup's sleight of hand. It is also customary for kids to rent decorated bikes to ride around town.
Different members of a family visit each other. Usually, children accompany their father and visit aunts, uncles, grandparents and friends to congratulate them on the Eid. They will be offered drinks and special cookies. Women will stay at home with some of the children in order to welcome members of the family that come to visit and congratulate for the end of the fasting.
The festival of Eid al-Fitr is celebrated by first attending the mosque in the morning for Eid prayer. This is followed by visiting relatives and neighbours. Children receive presents and money from elder members of the family, relatives and neighbours. Most people wear new clothes with bright colours, while biscuits, cakes, , pies and are presented to visitors as treats. Lunch is usually served in family groups. It is also customary to exchange gifts.
Afghans start preparing for the Eid al-Fitr festival up to ten days prior by cleaning up their homes. The practice is called Khana Takani in Dari. Afghans visit their local bazaars to buy new clothes, sweets and snacks. Special treats served to guests during the festivities during Eid are: Jelabi (Jalebi), Shor-Nakhod (made with chickpeas), and Cake wa Kolcha (a simple cake, similar to pound cake).
On the day of Eid al-Fitr, Afghans will first offer their Eid prayers and then gather in their homes with their families, greeting one another by saying " Eid Mubarak" and usually adding " Eidet Mobarak Roza wa Namazet Qabool Dakhel Hajiha wa Ghaziha," which means "Happy Eid to you; may your fasting and prayers be accepted by Allah, and may you be counted among those who will go to the Hajj-pilgrimage." Family elders will give money and gifts to children. It is also common practice to visit families and friends, which may be difficult to do at other times of the year. Children walk from home to home saying " Khala Eidet Mubarak" ("aunt happy Eid"), and they receive cookies or Pala.
For Eid prayer, people gather at large open areas like sports grounds, parks or large open area. After Eid Salat people meet and greet each other with traditional hug of friendship and the greeting "Eid Mubarak". Before going home people give charity to needy and the poor, to further make it possible to have everybody be able to enjoy the day. On their way home, people buy sweets, gas balloons for kids, and gifts for the family. At home family members enjoy special Eid breakfast with various types of sweets and desserts, including traditional dessert sheer khurma, which is made of vermicelli, milk, butter, dry fruits and dates, etc.
Eid is mainly enjoyed by the kids, as they mostly receive money in cash called "Eidi" as gift by every elder in the family and relatives when they visit their places. On Eid day kids are allowed to spend their gift money (Eidi) as they want. Media also cover Eid festivities all day and air various special programmes on TV for all age groups.
Games and outdoor amusements such as fairground rides are enjoyed all day. People visit their elders relatives first then others and friends all day and share the joy of the day. Some go to parks, seaside, rivers or lake fronts to enjoy and relax. Family get together in the evening to enjoy Eid dinner, and plan how to celebrate second and third day of Eid.
The traditional Eid greeting is Eid Mubarak, and it is frequently followed by a formal embrace. Gifts are frequently given—new clothes are part of the tradition—and it is also common for children to be given small sums of money ( Eidi) by their elders. It is common for children to offer S-L-M to parents and adult relatives.
After the Eid prayers, it is common for some families to visit graveyards and pray for the salvation of departed family members. It is also common to visit neighbours, family members, friends and to get together to share sweets, snacks and special meals including some special dishes that are prepared specifically on Eid. Special celebratory dishes in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh include Lachcha/ লাচ্চা or sivayyan/ শিমাই, a dish of fine, toasted sweet vermicelli noodles with milk and dried fruit (see Sheer khurma).
On Eid day before prayers, people distribute a charity locally known as fitra. Many people also avail themselves of this opportunity to distribute zakat, an Islamic obligatory alms tax of 2.5% of one's annual savings, to the needy. Zakat is often distributed in the form of food and new clothes.
In India, there are many popular places for Muslims to congregate to perform Eid prayers at this time include the Jama Masjid in Delhi, Mecca Masjid in Hyderabad, Aishbagh Idgah in Lucknow, Red Road and Nakhoda Masjid in Kolkata, Taj-ul Masjid in Bhopal, Jama Mosque in Mumbai, Hajratbal Mosque in Kashmir. Muslims turn out in the thousands, as there is a lot of excitement surrounding the celebration of this festival. It is common for some Hindus to visit their Muslim friends and neighbours on Eid to convey their greetings.
Lebaran represents one of the largest temporary human migrations globally, as workers particularly return to their home town or city to celebrate with their families and to ask forgiveness from parents, in-laws, and other elders. In 2013 about 30 million Indonesians travelled to their hometowns during the Lebaran holiday. This is known in Indonesia as mudik (go to udik, literally means: source area) or pulang kampung (homecoming). It is an annual tradition that people observe in big cities such as Greater Jakarta, Surabaya, or elsewhere in Indonesia. The government of Indonesia provides additional transportation to handle the huge amount of travelers. However, the impact is still tremendous as millions of cars and motorcycles jam the roads and highways, causing extensive traffic jams each year.
The night before Idul Fitri is called takbiran, it is filled with the sounds of many muezzin chanting the takbir in the mosques or musallahs, while often people fill the street also chanting takbir. In many parts of Indonesia, especially in the rural areas, obor (torches) and damar/pelita (oil lamps) are lit up and placed outside and around homes. Also, during takbiran, people usually light various firecrackers or fireworks.
On the Lebaran day, after performing Eid prayer in the morning, people dressed in their new or best clothes will gather to greet their family and neighbours. It is common to greet people with "Selamat Idul Fitri" which means "Happy Eid". Muslims also greet one another with "mohon maaf lahir dan batin", which literally means "Please forgive (me) outwardly and internally", because Idul Fitri is not only for celebrations but also a time for atonement to ask for forgiveness for sins which they may have committed but were cleansed as a result of the fasting in the Muslim month of Ramadan. During this Eid morning to afternoon, the zakat alms for the poor are usually distributed in the mosques.
Families usually will have special Lebaran meal; special dishes will be served such as ketupat, opor ayam, rendang, sambal goreng ati, sayur lodeh and lemang (a type of glutinous rice cake cooked in bamboo). Various types of kue, cookies and dodol sweet delicacies are also served during this day. Younger families usually visit their older neighbours or relatives to wish and greet them a Happy Eid also to ask for forgiveness. Idul Fitri is a very joyous day for children as adults give them money in colourful envelopes.
It is customary for Muslim-Indonesians to wear traditional cultural clothing on Eid al-Fitr. The Indonesian male outfit is known as baju koko: a collarless long or short-sleeve shirt with traditional embroidered designs with a "kilt" Sarong of songket, ikat or similar woven, plaid-cloth, and a headwear known as songkok. Alternatively, men may wear either Western-style business suits or more traditional loose-fitting trousers with colour-matched shirts, and either a peci hat. Traditional female dress is known as kebaya kurung. It consists of, normally, a loose-fitting kebaya blouse (which may be enhanced with brocade and embroidery), a long skirt both of which may be batik, or the sarung skirt made of batik, ikat or songket and either the jilbab (hijab) or its variant the stiffened kerudung.
Later, it is common for Muslims in Indonesia to visit the graves of loved ones. During this visit, they will clean the grave, recite Ya-Seen, a chapter ( sura) from the Quran and also perform the tahlil ceremony. Muslims also visit the living in a special ritual called halal bi-halal. This could be done during or several days after Idul Fitri. Individuals and families go to visit elder relatives, close family and neighbours during the first day of Idul Fitri, to honor them and ask forgiveness. They continue to pay respects to further relatives in the next day, and colleagues in days to weeks later after they get back to work. They will also seek reconciliation (if needed), and preserve or restore harmonious relations.van Doorn-Harder, Nelly. "Southeast Asian culture and Islam". Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim world. p. 649 The rest of the day is spent visiting relatives or serving visitors in a festive, joyful atmosphere.
It is customary for workers in the city to return to their home town to celebrate with their families and to ask forgiveness from parents, in-laws, and other elders. This is known in Malaysia as balik kampung (homecoming).
The night before Idul Fitri is filled with the sounds of many muezzin chanting the takbir in the mosques or musallahs. In many parts of Malaysia, especially in the rural areas, pelita or panjut or lampu colok (as known by Malay-Singaporeans) (oil lamps, similar to tiki torches) are lit up and placed outside and around homes. Special dishes like ketupat, rendang, lemang (a type of glutinous rice cake cooked in bamboo) and other Malay also Nyonya delicacies such as various kue are served during this day. It is common to greet people with "Salam Aidilfitri" or "Selamat Hari Raya" which means "Happy Eid". Muslims also greet one another with "maaf zahir dan batin", which means "Forgive my physical and emotional (wrongdoings)".
It is customary for Muslim-Malaysians to wear a traditional cultural clothing on Eid al-Fitr. The Malay variant (worn in Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei and Southern Thailand) is known as the Baju Melayu, shirt worn with a sarong known as kain samping or songket and a headwear known as songkok. Malaysian women's clothing is referred to as Baju Kurung and kebaya. It is a common practice however for the Malays in Singapore and Johor, Malaysia to refer to the baju kurung in reference to the type of outfit, worn by both men and women.
In Malaysia, especially in the major cities, people take turns to set aside a time for open house when they stay at home to receive and entertain neighbours, family and other visitors. It is common to see non-Muslims made welcome during Eid at these open houses. They also celebrate by lighting traditional bamboo cannon known as meriam buluh, using kerosene in large hollow bamboo tubes or Chinese imported crackers. The traditional bamboo cannon, meriam bambu, and fireworks are notoriously loud and can be very dangerous to operator, bystander and even nearby buildings. These are usually bamboo tubes in diameter and long, filled with either: water and several hundred grams of calcium carbide, or heated kerosene, then ignited by match.
Celebrating with crackers in the early morning during Ramadan is now banned in many areas.
The law was enacted in deference to the Filipino Muslim community and to promote peace and harmony among major religions in the country. The first national commemoration of Eid al-Fitr was on 6 December 2002, marked by prayers and feasting. Some Filipino Muslims attend grand congregations at the Masjid Al-Dahab and the Luneta Park every Eid, while Muslim-majority communities in Mindanao stage large public celebrations.
During Ramadan, in the small towns and big villages with significant Muslim populations, Burmese Muslim youth organise singing teams called Jago (in Urdu and Hindi), which means "wake up". Jago teams usually do not use musical instruments apart from the occasional use of harmonica mouth organs.Neikbanzaw magazine, No. 1 & 2, December 1952 & 1953 These youths will walk throughout the neighbourhoods before sunrise to wake up the fellow Muslims for Suhoor (pre-dawn meal), which precedes the day of fasting.
The roving groups of singers will take the tunes of popular Hindi movie songs, replaced with Burmese lyrics and invocations about fasting, the do's and don'ts of Islam and about the benefits of Salaat.Interview by Khin Khin Yie with Haji U Bar Bar @ U Win Maung, composer of Jago songs, 28x81 street Mandalay. Published in Prophet Muhammad's Day Golden Jubilee magazine page 88, column 2 paragraph 2 These songs could also be called Qawwali, which are popular in India and Pakistan. Sometimes these Jago groups will also visit Muslim homes on the Eid day, where they are welcomed with food and monetary donations for the team with Eidi or Duit Raya.
Although Eid al-Fitr is not a public holiday in Burma, most employers have an understanding of the festival and are usually willing to accommodate days off for Muslim staff. Some may even take time off during office hours to visit with Muslim staff at their homes, usually accompanied by other non-Muslim co – workers. As there is no single Islamic authority in Burma to make official decisions on moon-sighting, it is sometimes difficult to reach consensus on the start and end of Ramadan. This often results in Eid being celebrated on different days in small towns and villages.
The Eid al-Adha "Festival of Sacrifice" or "Greater Eid" is a public holiday in Burma as this event falls annually on the 10th day of the month of Dhu al-Hijjah (ذو الحجة) in the lunar Islamic calendar. Unlike Muslim countries that observe a three-day festival, Eid al-Adha is only observed on one day in Burma. During both Eids, the traditional greeting is merely the common Islamic greeting of Assalamualaikum, and Eid Mubarak is only seldom heard. The greeting is followed by placing the right hand on the forehead (as if giving a salute); there is no shaking of hands and rarely only includes a formal embrace.
Gifts and food are frequently given to the elder relatives and even to non-Muslim employers and government authorities. New clothes are traditionally given to family members and co – workers, but Burmese Muslims elders will give Eidi gifts to children. Children will receive at least token amounts of money, even from strangers, especially if they went around the neighbourhoods in groups just to collect Eidi. It is common for children and young people to go around giving greetings of "salaam" to parents, elder relatives and other elders in the community. During Eid, Burmese Muslims ask forgiveness from parents and elders and themselves try to forgive and forget any misunderstandings that may have occurred amongst one another.
Sometimes Burmese Muslims pray or perform Eid salah (called Eid Namaz) at an Eidgah in open spaces outdoors. Burmese Muslim women typically do not attend the mosque or join with the men at an Eidgah.
As Burmese Muslims are discouraged by the religious authorities from decorating their homes with lights, lamps or colourful bulbs, sending Eid cards, and more recently, sending e-cards through the internet, is fairly common. Children and adults are also urged not to celebrate the religious festival with fireworks or firecrackers.
In Yunnan, Muslim populations are spread throughout the region. On Eid al-Fitr, however, some devotees may travel to Sayyid 'Ajjal's grave after their communal prayers. There, they will conduct readings from the Quran and clean the tomb, reminiscent of the historic annual Chinese Qingming festival, in which people go to their ancestors' graves, sweep and clean the area and make food offerings.
Finally the accomplishments of the Sayyid 'Ajall will be related in story form, concluded by a special prayer service to honour the hundreds of thousands of Muslims killed during the Panthay Rebellion, and the hundreds killed during the Cultural Revolution.Armijo, Jacqueline M. "East Asian culture and Islam." Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim world, p. 191
In 1987, The Australian MEFF Consortium commenced the Multicultural Eid Festival and Fair to celebrate Eid in Sydney, held shortly after Eid al-Fitr. The festival has grown to now cater for tens of thousands of Muslims and non-Muslims and has included as guests Yusuf islam, famous Australian rugby player, Hazem El-Masri, the then governor-general of Australia, Michael Jeffery and the previous premier of New South Wales, Kristina Keneally. This festival has now been replicated in cities all around Australia. The biggest Eid fair in Melbourne is held in Broadmeadows usually on the weekend following the Eid day. In Canberra, the capital of Australia, Eid Festival sponsored by Australian Federal Police (AFP) is held on the Sunday after the Eid day. The festival includes stalls from different nations, cultural programme, and rides for kids and adults.
During the 3 days of Eid, many Muslims join big parties sponsored either by a community mosque or Islamic center or by a wealthy Muslim in the community. Children receive gifts, and all participants enjoy sweet, spicy and other flavourful delicacies. Many Muslims also donate money to those less fortunate. Sometimes, Muslims reserve amusement parks, skating rinks or other activity centers for an entire day of fun.
In New York City alternate side parking (street cleaning) regulations are suspended. Beginning in 2016, New York City Public Schools will also remain closed on Eid. In Houston, Texas, the annual prayers are offered at the George R. Brown Convention Center in downtown Houston, organised by the Islamic Society of Greater Houston (ISGH).
The United States Postal Service (USPS) has issued several Eid postage stamps, across several years – starting in 2001 – honoring "two of the most important festivals in the Islamic calendar: Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha." Eid stamps were released in 2001–2002, 2006–2009, and a Forever stamp in 2011.
In many Canadian communities, Muslim organisations and mosques also hold large Eid parties that are open to the entire Muslim community. Some groups may reserve amusement parks or other activity centres for an entire day of fun and celebration, while others may hold public Eid parties in mosques as a means of outreach to the larger non-Muslim society.
Students from Canadian schools may take 2–3 days off, because Eid is a major holiday in the Islamic culture.
During the morning, observant men usually wear a thawb, jubba or sherwani, and women usually wear a salwar kameez, abaya or any other traditional clothing. Generally speaking, men, women and children will wear their best clothes. They will then proceed to a local mosque, community centre or park (in the summer months) for the Eid prayer. During the journey to the mosque, and up until the start of the prayer, it is Islamic tradition to recite takbeer – a reminder that God is Greater. Immediately after the Eid prayer and sermon have finished, people greet each other with "Eid Mubarak," or the equivalent in their mother-tongue. Some men may go to a local cemetery after Eid prayers to remember the deceased and pray for them. When they return home they will congratulate family and friends and other Muslims, before having breakfast together of traditional sweet and savoury treats. Gifts and money are usually given to children.
Throughout the day, everyone will either visit or host friends and relatives, sharing some of the traditional foods with them. Bangladeshi dishes and Pakistani food such as , Siweya, Rice and Handesh, Noonor Bora, and Fulab are particularly popular within those communities. Other communities enjoy a range of traditional foods too.
The day of Eid al-Fitr is celebrated in Fiji with Muslim men wearing their best clothes and attending the mosque for the early morning congregational prayer (women do not go to the mosques for prayers in most parts of Fiji). This is followed by visiting relatives and neighbours. Children receive presents and money from elder members of the family, relatives and neighbours. Most Muslims will wear new clothes on this day, and serve samai, a dish of fine, sweet vermicelli noodles mixed in warm milk. This is usually accompanied by samosas, curried chicken and beef as well as sweets and Indian snacks for guests visiting throughout the day.
The traditional Eid greeting is Eid Mubarak, and it is frequently followed by a formal embrace.
|Dates of Eid al-Fitr in Saudi Arabia ! Islamic year||High Judiciary Council of Saudi Arabia announced|
|16 Dec 2001|
|5 Dec 2002|
|25 Nov 2003|
|13 Nov 2004|
|3 Nov 2005|
|23 Oct 2006|
|12 Oct 2007|
|30 Sep 2008|
|20 Sep 2009|
|10 Sep 2010|
|30 Aug 2011|
|19 Aug 2012|
|8 Aug 2013|
|28 Jul 2014|
|17 Jul 2015|
|6 Jul 2016|