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De-industrialization is a process of and change caused by the removal or reduction of industrial capacity or activity in a country or region, especially of or manufacturing industry.

There are different interpretations of what de-industrialization is. Many associate de-industrialization of the United States with the mass closing of automaker plants in the now so-called "" between 1980 and 1990.Robert Forrant (2008) Metal Fatigue. The US Federal Reserve raised interest and exchange rates beginning in 1979, and continuing until 1984, which automatically caused import prices to fall. Japan was rapidly expanding productivity during this time, and this decimated the US machine tool sector. A second wave of de-industrialization occurred between 2001 and 2009, culminating in the automaker bailout of GM and Chrysler.

Research has pointed to investment in patents rather than in new capital equipment as a contributing factor.Kerwin Kofi Charles et al (2018) The Transformation of Manufacturing and the Decline in US Employment in U.S. Employment∗, National Bureau of Economic Research At a more fundamental level, Cairncross and Lever offer four possible definitions of deindustrialization:

  1. A straightforward long-term decline in the output of manufactured goods or in in the manufacturing sector.
  2. A shift from manufacturing to the , so that manufacturing has a lower share of total employment. Such a shift may occur even if manufacturing employment is growing in absolute terms
  3. That manufactured goods comprise a declining share of external , so that there is a progressive failure to achieve a sufficient surplus of over to maintain an economy in external balance
  4. A continuing state of balance of trade deficit (as described in the third definition above) that accumulates to the extent that a country or region is unable to pay for necessary imports to sustain further production of goods, thus initiating a further downward spiral of economic decline.

Theories that predict or explain de-industrialization have a long intellectual lineage. argues that 's theory of declining (industrial) profit may be regarded as one of the earliest. This theory argues that technological innovation enables more efficient means of production, resulting in increased physical productivity, i.e., a greater output of use value per unit of capital invested. In parallel, however, technological innovations replace people with machinery, and the organic composition of capital increases. Assuming only labor can produce new additional value, this greater physical output embodies a smaller value and surplus value. The average rate of industrial profit therefore declines in the longer term.

Rowthorn and Wells distinguish between de-industrialization explanations that see it as a positive process of, for example, maturity of the economy, and those that associate de-industrialization with negative factors like bad economic performance. They suggest de-industrialization may be both an effect and a cause of poor economic performance.

Pitelis and Antonakis suggest that, to the extent that manufacturing is characterized by higher productivity, this leads, all other things being equal, to a reduction in relative cost of manufacturing products, thus a reduction in the relative share of manufacturing (provided manufacturing and services are characterized by relatively inelastic demand). Moreover, to the extent that manufacturing firms downsize through, e.g., outsourcing, contracting out, etc., this reduces manufacturing share without negatively influencing the economy. Indeed, it potentially has positive effects, provided such actions increase firm productivity and performance.

identified as a contributor to de-industrialization. In his analysis, the process of inflation distorts the economic calculations necessary to operate capital-intensive manufacturing enterprises, and makes the investments necessary for sustaining the operations of such enterprises unprofitable.

Institutional arrangements have also contributed to de-industrialization such as economic restructuring. With breakthroughs in transportation, communication and information technology, a globalized economy that encouraged foreign direct investment, capital mobility and labor migration, and new 's emphasis on specialized , manufacturing moved to lower-cost sites and in its place service sector and financial agglomerations concentrated in urban areas.

The term de-industrialization crisis has been used to describe the decline of labor-intensive industry in a number of countries and the flight of jobs away from cities. One example is labor-intensive . After free-trade agreements were instituted with less developed nations in the 1980s and 1990s, labor-intensive manufacturers relocated production facilities to third world countries with much lower wages and lower standards. In addition, technological inventions that required less manual labor, such as , eliminated many manufacturing jobs.

See also

Further reading
  • Boulhol, H (2004) 'What is the impact of international trade on deindustrialization in OECD countries?' Flash No.2004-206 Paris, CDC IXIS Capital Markets
  • Byrne, David. "Deindustrialization and Dispossession: An Examination of Social Division in the Industrial City," Sociology 29#1 (1995): 95– 115.
  • in:
  • Cowie, J., Heathcott, J. and Bluestone, B. Beyond the Ruins: The Meanings of Deindustrialization Cornell University Press, 2003.
  • Central Intelligence Agency. 2008. The CIA World Factbook
  • Fuchs, V R (1968) The Service Economy New York, National Bureau of Economic Research
  • On US and Canada.
  • Koistinen, David. Confronting Decline: The Political Economy of Deindustrialization in Twentieth-Century New England. (University Press of Florida, 2013)
  • Krugman, Paul. "Domestic Distortions and the Deindustrialization Hypothesis." NBER Working Paper 5473, NBER & Stanford University, March 1996.
  • Kucera, D. and Milberg, W (2003) "Deindustrialization and Changes in Manufacturing Trade: Factor Content Calculations for 1978–1995." Review of World Economics 2003, Vol.139(4).
  • Linkon, Sherry Lee and John Russo. Steeltown USA: Work and Memory in Youngstown (UP of Kansas, 2002).
  • (1990). 9780877227335, Temple University Press. .
  • Pdf.
  • (1987). 9780521263603, Cambridge University Press.
  • Pdf.
  • Pdf.
  • Sachs, J D and Shatz, H J (1995) 'Trade and Jobs in US Manufacturing' Brookings Papers on Economic Activity No. 1
  • Vicino, Thomas, J. Transforming Race and Class in Suburbia: Decline in Metropolitan Baltimore. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.

  • Strangleman, Tim, James Rhodes, and Sherry Linkon, "Introduction to crumbling cultures: Deindustrialization, class, and memory." International Labor and Working-Class History 84#1 (2013): 7–22. online

External links

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