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The counterculture of the 1960s refers to an anti-establishment cultural phenomenon that developed first in the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States (US) and then spread throughout much of the between the mid-1960s and the mid-1970s, with London, New York City, and San Francisco being hotbeds of early countercultural activity. The aggregate movement gained momentum as the Civil Rights Movement continued to grow, and would later become revolutionary with the expansion of the U.S. government's extensive .Hirsch, E. D. (1993). The Dictionary of Cultural Literacy. Houghton Mifflin. . p. 419. "Members of a cultural protest that began in the U.S. in the 1960s and affected Europe before fading in the 1970s ... fundamentally a cultural rather than a political protest."

(1995). 9780195104578, Oxford University Press.
(1973). 9780534002893, Wadsworth Publishing Co..
As the 1960s progressed, widespread social tensions also developed concerning other issues, and tended to flow along generational lines regarding human sexuality, women's rights, traditional modes of authority, experimentation with psychoactive drugs, and differing interpretations of the . Many key movements related to these issues were born or advanced within the counterculture of the 1960s.

As the era unfolded, new cultural forms and a dynamic which celebrated experimentation, modern incarnations of , and the rise of the and other alternative lifestyles, emerged. This embracing of creativity is particularly notable in the works of bands such as , and filmmakers whose works became far less restricted by censorship. In addition to the trendsetting Beatles, many other creative artists, authors, and thinkers, within and across many disciplines, helped define the counterculture movement.

Several factors distinguished the counterculture of the 1960s from the anti-authoritarian movements of previous eras. The post-World War II "baby boom" generated an unprecedented number of potentially disaffected young people as prospective participants in a rethinking of the direction of American and other democratic societies. Post-war affluence allowed many of the counterculture generation to move beyond a focus on the provision of the material necessities of life that had preoccupied their parents.

(2007). 9780618004812, Cengage Learning. .
The era was also notable in that a significant portion of the array of behaviors and "causes" within the larger movement were quickly assimilated within mainstream society, particularly in the US, even though counterculture participants numbered in the clear minority within their respective national populations.
(2013). 9780199764358, Oxford University Press. .
(2013). 9781594033933, Encounter Books. .

The counterculture era essentially commenced in earnest with the assassination of John F. Kennedy in November 1963. It became absorbed into the popular culture with the termination of US combat military involvement in Southeast Asia and the end of the draft in 1973, and ultimately with the resignation of President in August 1974.


Background

Post-war geopolitics
The between and involved and preparation for war between powerful nations, along with political and military interference by powerful states in the internal affairs of less powerful nations. Poor outcomes from some of these activities set the stage for disillusionment with, and distrust of, post-war governments. Examples included harsh (USSR) responses to popular anti-communist uprisings, such as the 1956 Hungarian Revolution and Czechoslovakia's in 1968, and the botched US Bay of Pigs Invasion of in 1961. In the US, President Dwight D. Eisenhower's initial deception over the nature of the 1960 U-2 incident resulted in the government being caught in a blatant lie at the highest levels, and contributed to a backdrop of growing distrust of authority among many who came of age during the period.Frum, David (2000). How We Got Here: The '70s. New York, New York: Basic Books. p. 27. The Partial Test Ban Treaty divided the establishment within the US along political and military lines. Internal political disagreements concerning treaty obligations in (), especially in Vietnam, and debate as to how other communist should be challenged, also created a rift of dissent within the establishment.George F. Kennan, American Diplomacy, 1900–1950, Charles R. Walgreen Foundation Lectures, Mentor Books, New York, 1951, pp. 82–89 In the UK, the also involved establishment leaders being caught in deception, leading to disillusionment and serving as a catalyst for liberal activism.
(2012). 9781101613528, Penguin Group US. .
The Cuban Missile Crisis, which brought the world to the brink of nuclear war in October 1962, was largely fomented by duplicitous speech and actions on the part of the Soviet Union. The assassination of US President John F. Kennedy in November 1963, and the attendant theories concerning the event, led to further diminished trust in government, including among younger people.


Social issues and calls to action
Many social issues fueled the growth of the larger counterculture movement. One was a nonviolent movement in the United States seeking to resolve constitutional civil rights illegalities, especially regarding general racial segregation, longstanding disfranchisement of blacks in the South by white-dominated state government, and ongoing racial discrimination in jobs, housing, and access to public places in both the North and the South.

On college and university campuses, student activists fought for the right to exercise their basic constitutional rights, especially freedom of speech and freedom of assembly.

Many counterculture activists became aware of the plight of the poor, and community organizers fought for the funding of anti-poverty programs, particularly in the South and within areas in the United States.

(1964). 9780393002515, Norton & Co..

grew from a greater understanding of the ongoing damage caused by industrialization, resultant , and the misguided use of chemicals such as in well-meaning efforts to improve the quality of life for the rapidly growing population. Authors such as played key roles in developing a new awareness among the of the , despite resistance from elements of the establishment in many countries.

The need to address minority rights of women, gay people, the handicapped, and many other neglected constituencies within the larger population came to the forefront as an increasing number of primarily younger people broke free from the constraints of 1950s orthodoxy and struggled to create a more inclusive and tolerant social landscape.Skrentny, John (2002). The Minority Rights Revolution. Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2002.

The availability of new and more effective forms of was a key underpinning of the sexual revolution. The notion of "recreational sex" without the threat of unwanted pregnancy radically changed the social dynamic and permitted both women and men much greater freedom in the selection of sexual lifestyles outside the confines of traditional marriage. With this change in attitude, by the 1990s the ratio of children born out of wedlock rose from 5% to 25% for Whites and from 25% to 66% for African-Americans.


Emergent media

Television
For those born after World War II, the emergence of television as a source of entertainment and information—as well as the associated massive expansion of afforded by post-war affluence and encouraged by TV —were key components in creating disillusionment for some younger people and in the formulation of new social behaviours, even as heavily courted the "hip" youth market.
(1998). 9780226260129, University of Chicago Press. .
(2007). 9781452265650, SAGE Publications. .
In the US, nearly real-time TV news coverage of the civil rights era's Birmingham Campaign, the "Bloody Sunday" event of the Selma to Montgomery marches, and graphic news footage from Vietnam brought horrifying, moving images of the bloody reality of armed conflict into living rooms for the first time.


New cinema
The breakdown of enforcement of the US concerning in motion picture production, the use of new forms of artistic expression in European and Asian cinema, and the advent of modern production values heralded a new era of , , and mainstream film production, distribution, and exhibition. The end of censorship resulted in a complete reformation of the western film industry. With new-found artistic freedom, a generation of exceptionally talented film makers working across all genres brought realistic depictions of previously prohibited subject matter to neighborhood theater screens for the first time, even as Hollywood film studios were still considered a part of the establishment by some elements of the counterculture.


New radio
By the later 1960s, previously under-regarded replaced as the focal point for the ongoing explosion of rock and roll music, and became the nexus of youth-oriented news and advertising for the counterculture generation.Sterling, Christopher & Keith, Michael (2008). Sounds of Change: A History of FM Broadcasting in America. UNC Press.


Changing lifestyles
, , and intentional communities regained popularity during this era. Early communities, such as the , Quarry Hill, and in the US were established as straightforward agrarian attempts to return to the land and live free of interference from outside influences. As the era progressed, many people established and populated new communities in response to not only disillusionment with standard community forms, but also dissatisfaction with certain elements of the counterculture itself. Some of these self-sustaining communities have been credited with the birth and propagation of the international .

The emergence of an interest in expanded spiritual consciousness, , practices and increased human potential helped to shift views on organized religion during the era. In 1957, 69% of US residents polled by Gallup said religion was increasing in influence. By the late 1960s, polls indicated less than 20% still held that belief.

The "", or the inevitable perceived divide in worldview between the old and young, was perhaps never greater than during the counterculture era. A large measure of the generational chasm of the 1960s and early 1970s was born of rapidly evolving fashion and hairstyle trends that were readily adopted by the young, but often misunderstood and ridiculed by the old. These included the wearing of very long hair by men,

(1996). 9780199880096, Oxford University Press. .
the wearing of natural or "" hairstyles by Blacks, the donning of revealing clothing by women in public, and the mainstreaming of the psychedelic clothing and regalia of the short-lived hippie culture. Ultimately, practical and comfortable casual apparel, namely updated forms of (often , or emblazoned with political or advertising statements), and Levi Strauss-branded blue denim jeans
(1991). 9780879725075, Popular Press. .
became the enduring uniform of the generation. The fashion dominance of the counterculture effectively ended with the rise of the and eras in the later 1970s, even as the global popularity of T-shirts, denim jeans, and casual clothing in general have continued to grow.


Emergent middle-class drug culture
In the western world, the ongoing criminal legal status of the recreational drug industry was instrumental in the formation of an anti-establishment social dynamic by some of those coming of age during the counterculture era. The explosion of use during the era, in large part by students on fast-expanding college campuses, created an attendant need for increasing numbers of people to conduct their personal affairs in secret in the procurement and use of banned substances. The classification of marijuana as a narcotic, and the attachment of severe criminal penalties for its use, drove the act of smoking marijuana, and experimentation with substances in general, deep underground. Many began to live largely clandestine lives because of their choice to use such drugs and substances, fearing retribution from their governments.


Law enforcement
The confrontations between college students (and other activists) and law enforcement officials became one of the hallmarks of the era. Many younger people began to show deep distrust of police, and terms such as "fuzz" and "pig" as derogatory for police reappeared, and became key words within the counterculture lexicon. The distrust of police was based not only on fear of during political protests, but also on generalized police corruption - especially police manufacture of false evidence, and outright entrapment, in drug cases. In the US, the social tension between elements of the counterculture and law enforcement reached the breaking point in many notable cases, including: the Columbia University protests of 1968 in New York City, the 1968 Democratic National Convention protests in Chicago, the arrest and imprisonment of John Sinclair in Ann Arbor, Michigan, and the Kent State shootings at Kent State University in Kent, Ohio, where National Guardsman acted as surrogates for police. Police malfeasance was also an ongoing issue in the UK during the era.
(1999). 9781876067113, Hawkins Press. .


Vietnam War
The Vietnam War, and the protracted national divide between supporters and opponents of the war, were arguably the most important factors contributing to the rise of the larger counterculture movement.

The widely accepted assertion that anti-war opinion was held only among the young is a myth, but enormous war protests consisting of thousands of mostly younger people in every major US city, and elsewhere across the Western world, effectively united millions against the war, and against the war policy that prevailed under five US congresses and during two presidential administrations.


In Western Europe
The counterculture movement took hold in Western Europe, with London, Amsterdam, Paris, Rome, Copenhagen and West Berlin rivaling San Francisco and New York as counterculture centers.

The was a movement linked to the growing subculture in the US and associated with the hippie phenomenon, generating its own magazines and newspapers, fashion, music groups, and clubs. Underground figure said, "The underground was a catch-all sobriquet for a community of like-minded anti-establishment, anti-war, pro-rock'n'roll individuals, most of whom had a common interest in recreational drugs. They saw peace, exploring a widened area of consciousness, love and sexual experimentation as more worthy of their attention than entering the rat race. The straight, consumerist lifestyle was not to their liking, but they did not object to others living it. But at that time the middle classes still felt they had the right to impose their values on everyone else, which resulted in conflict."

In the Netherlands, Provo was a counterculture movement that focused on "provoking violent responses from authorities using non-violent bait."

In France, the General Strike centered in Paris in May 1968 united French students, and nearly toppled the government.

Kommune 1 or K1 was a commune in West Germany, and was known for its bizarre staged events that fluctuated between and provocation. These events served as inspiration for the "Sponti" movement and other leftist groups. In the late summer of 1968, the commune moved into a deserted factory on Stephanstraße in order to reorient. This second phase of Kommune 1 was characterized by sex, music and drugs. Soon, the commune was receiving visitors from all over the world, including . Keith Richards: The Biography, by Victor Bockris


In Eastern Europe
Mánička is a term used for young people with long hair, usually males, in through the 1960s and 1970s. Long hair for males during this time was considered an expression of political and social attitudes in communist Czechoslovakia. From the mid-1960s, the long-haired and "untidy" persons (so called máničky or vlasatci (in English: ) were banned from entering pubs, cinema halls, theatres and using public transportation in several Czech cities and towns.Pokorná (2010) In 1964, the public transportation regulations in Most and Litvínov excluded long-haired máničky as displeasure-evoking persons. Two years later, the municipal council in Poděbrady banned máničky from entering cultural institutions in the town. In August 1966, Rudé právo informed that máničky in were banned from visiting restaurants of the I. and II. price category.

In 1966, during a big campaign coordinated by the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, around 4,000 young males were forced to cut their hair, often in the cells with the assistance of the state police. On 19 August 1966, during a "safety intervention" organized by the state police, 140 long-haired people were arrested. As a response, the "community of long-haired" organized a protest in . More than 100 people cheered slogans such as "Give us back our hair!" or "Away with hairdressers!". The state police arrested the organizers and several participants of the meeting. Some of them were given prison sentences. According to the newspaper Mladá fronta Dnes, the Czechoslovak Ministry of Interior in 1966 even compiled a detailed map of the frequency of occurrence of long-haired males in Czechoslovakia. In August 1969, during the first anniversary of the Soviet occupation of Czechoslovakia, the long-haired youth were one of the most active voices in the state protesting against the occupation. Youth protesters have been labeled as "vagabonds" and "slackers" by the official normalized press.


In Australia

Oz magazine was first published as a satirical humour magazine between 1963 and 1969 in , , and, in its second and better known incarnation, became a "psychedelic hippy" magazine from 1967 to 1973 in . Strongly identified as part of the underground press, it was the subject of two celebrated trials, one in Australia in 1964 and the other in the in 1971.

9780987605504, Gold Coast. .
(2006). 9781862546974, Wakefield Press. .


In Latin America
In Mexico, rock music was tied into the youth revolt of the 1960s. Mexico City, as well as northern cities such as , , Ciudad Juárez, and , were exposed to US music. Many Mexican rock stars became involved in the counterculture. The three-day Festival Rock y Ruedas de Avándaro, held in 1971, was organized in the valley of Avándaro near the city of , a town neighboring Mexico City, and became known as "The Mexican Woodstock". Nudity, drug use, and the presence of the US flag scandalized conservative Mexican society to such an extent that the government clamped down on rock and roll performances for the rest of the decade. The festival, marketed as proof of Mexico's modernization, was never expected to attract the masses it did, and the government had to evacuate stranded attendees en masse at the end. This occurred during the era of President Luis Echeverría, an extremely repressive era in Mexican history. Anything that could be connected to the counterculture or student protests was prohibited from being broadcast on public airwaves, with the government fearing a repeat of the student protests of 1968. Few bands survived the prohibition; though the ones that did, like Three Souls in My Mind (now ), remained popular due in part to their adoption of Spanish for their lyrics, but mostly as a result of a dedicated underground following. While Mexican rock groups were eventually able to perform publicly by the mid-1980s, the ban prohibiting tours of Mexico by foreign acts lasted until 1989.
(1999). 9780520215146, University of California Press.

The was a civil uprising in the city of Córdoba, Argentina, in the end of May 1969, during the military dictatorship of General Juan Carlos Onganía, which occurred a few days after the , and a year after the French May '68. Contrary to previous protests, the Cordobazo did not correspond to previous struggles, headed by workers' leaders, but associated students and workers in the same struggle against the military government.Carmen Bernand, « D'une rive à l'autre », Nuevo Mundo Mundos Nuevos, Materiales de seminarios, 2008 (Latin-Americanist Review published by the ), Put on line on June 15, 2008. URL : http://nuevomundo.revues.org//index35983.html Accessed on July 28, 2008.


Movements


Civil Rights Movement
The Civil Rights Movement, a key element of the larger counterculture movement, involved the use of applied to assure that equal rights guaranteed under the would apply to all citizens. Many states illegally denied many of these rights to African-Americans, and this was successfully addressed in the early and mid-1960s in several major nonviolent movements.
(2010). 9780312640583, Bedford/St. Martin's. .
(2018). 9780807138106, Louisiana State University Press. .


Free Speech
Much of the 1960s counterculture originated on college campuses. The 1964 Free Speech Movement at the University of California, Berkeley, which had its roots in the Civil Rights Movement of the southern United States, was one early example. At Berkeley a group of students began to identify themselves as having interests as a class that were at odds with the interests and practices of the University and its corporate sponsors. Other rebellious young people, who were not students, also contributed to the Free Speech Movement.


New Left
The New Left is a term used in different countries to describe movements that occurred in the 1960s and 1970s in the . They differed from earlier leftist movements that had been more oriented towards activism, and instead adopted . The US "New Left" is associated with college campus mass protests and radical leftist movements. The British "New Left" was an intellectually driven movement which attempted to correct the perceived errors of "" parties in the post-World War II period. The movements began to wind down in the 1970s, when activists either committed themselves to party projects, developed organizations, moved into identity politics or alternative lifestyles, or became politically inactive.
(2004). 9781134774593, Routledge. .
(2012). 9781136340390, Taylor & Francis. .
(2012). 9780470655788, John Wiley & Sons. .

, associated with the of , was an influential libertarian socialist thinker on the radical student movements of the era"During the 1960s, Marcuse achieved world renown as "the guru of the New Left," publishing many articles and giving lectures and advice to student radicals all over the world. He travelled widely and his work was often discussed in the mass media, becoming one of the few American intellectuals to gain such attention. Never surrendering his revolutionary vision and commitments, Marcuse continued to his death to defend the Marxian theory and libertarian socialism." Douglas Kellner "Marcuse, Herbert" philosopher of the New LeftDouglas Kellner Herbert arcuse]]The emergence of the New Left in the 1950s and 1960s led to a revival of interest in libertarian socialism., Economic Justice and Democracy: From Competition to Cooperation Part II The New Left's critique of the 's authoritarianism was associated with a strong interest in personal liberty, (see the thinking of Cornelius Castoriadis) and led to a rediscovery of older socialist traditions, such as , council communism, and the Industrial Workers of the World. The New Left also led to a revival of anarchism. Journals like Radical America and Black Mask in America, Solidarity, Big Flame and Democracy & Nature, succeeded by The International Journal of Inclusive Democracy, The International Journal of Inclusive Democracy. Inclusivedemocracy.org. Retrieved on December 28, 2011. in the UK, introduced a range of left libertarian ideas to a new generation. , and, more recently, participatory economics (parecon), and Inclusive Democracy emerged from this.

A surge of popular interest in anarchism occurred in western nations during the 1960s and 1970s. Anarchism was influential in the counterculture of the 1960s"Farrell provides a detailed history of the Catholic Workers and their founders Dorothy Day and Peter Maurin. He explains that their pacifism, anarchism, and commitment to the downtrodden were one of the important models and inspirations for the 60s. As Farrell puts it, 'Catholic Workers identified the issues of the sixties before the Sixties began, and they offered models of protest long before the protest decade." "The Spirit of the Sixties: The Making of Postwar Radicalism" by James J. Farrell"While not always formally recognized, much of the protest of the sixties was anarchist. Within the nascent women's movement, anarchist principles became so widespread that a political science professor denounced what she saw as 'The Tyranny of Structurelessness.' Several groups have called themselves 'Amazon Anarchists.' After the Stonewall Rebellion, the New York Gay Liberation Front based their organization in part on a reading of 's anarchist writings." "Anarchism" by Charley Shively in Encyclopedia of Homosexuality. pg. 52 and anarchists actively participated in the late 60s students and workers revolts."Within the movements of the sixties there was much more receptivity to anarchism-in-fact than had existed in the movements of the thirties ... But the movements of the sixties were driven by concerns that were more compatible with an expressive style of politics, with hostility to authority in general and state power in particular ... By the late sixties, political protest was intertwined with cultural radicalism based on a critique of all authority and all hierarchies of power. Anarchism circulated within the movement along with other radical ideologies. The influence of anarchism was strongest among radical feminists, in the commune movement, and probably in the Weather Underground and elsewhere in the violent fringe of the anti-war movement." "Anarchism and the Anti-Globalization Movement" by Barbara Epstein During the IX Congress of the Italian Anarchist Federation in in 1965, a group decided to split off from this organization and created the Gruppi di Iniziativa Anarchica. In the 70s, it was mostly composed of "veteran individualist anarchists with a orientation, , etc, ..."."Los anarco-individualistas, G.I.A ... Una escisión de la FAI producida en el IX Congreso (Carrara, 1965) se pr odujo cuando un sector de anarquistas de tendencia humanista rechazan la interpretación que ellos juzgan disciplinaria del pacto asociativo" clásico, y crean los GIA (Gruppi di Iniziativa Anarchica) . Esta pequeña federación de grupos, hoy nutrida sobre todo de veteranos anarco-individualistas de orientación pacifista, naturista, etcétera defiende la autonomía personal y rechaza a rajatabla toda forma de intervención en los procesos del sistema, como sería por ejemplo el sindicalismo. Su portavoz es L'Internazionale con sede en Ancona. La escisión de los GIA prefiguraba, en sentido contrario, el gran debate que pronto había de comenzar en el seno del movimiento "El movimiento libertario en Italia" by Bicicleta. REVISTA DE COMUNICACIONES LIBERTARIAS Year 1 No. Noviembre, 1 1977 In 1968 in , Italy the International of Anarchist Federations was founded during an international anarchist conference held there in 1968 by the three existing European federations of France, the Italian and the Iberian Anarchist Federation as well as the federation in French exile. London Federation of Anarchists involvement in Carrara conference, 1968 International Institute of Social History, Accessed January 19, 2010 Short history of the IAF-IFA A-infos news project, Accessed January 19, 2010 During the events of May 68 the anarchist groups active in France were Fédération anarchiste, Mouvement communiste libertaire, Union fédérale des anarchistes, Alliance ouvrière anarchiste, Union des groupes anarchistes communistes, Noir et Rouge, Confédération nationale du travail, Union anarcho-syndicaliste, Organisation révolutionnaire anarchiste, Cahiers socialistes libertaires, À contre-courant, La Révolution prolétarienne, and the publications close to Émile Armand.

The New Left in the United States also included anarchist, and -related radical groups such as the who were led by , The Diggers

(2018). 9781566399760, Temple University Press. .
and Up Against the Wall Motherfuckers. By late 1966, the Diggers opened which simply gave away their stock, provided free food, distributed free drugs, gave away money, organized free music concerts, and performed works of political art.. The Diggers took their name from the original led by Gerrard Winstanley and sought to create a mini-society free of money and . On the other hand, the Yippies employed theatrical gestures, such as advancing a pig ("Pigasus the Immortal") as a candidate for President in 1968, to mock the social status quo. They have been described as a highly theatrical, anti-authoritarian and anarchistAbbie Hoffman, Soon to be a Major Motion Picture, page 128. Perigee Books, 1980. youth movement of "symbolic politics". Since they were well known for street theater and politically themed pranks, many of the "old school" either ignored or denounced them. According to , "The group was known for street theater pranks and was once referred to as the ' '."


Anti-war
In , in 1958, in an act of civil disobedience, 60,000-100,000 made up of students and converged in what was to become the "ban the Bomb" demonstrations.

Opposition to the began in 1964 on United States college campuses. Student activism became a dominant theme among the baby boomers, growing to include many other demographic groups. Exemptions and deferments for the middle and upper classes resulted in the induction of a disproportionate number of poor, working-class, and minority registrants. Countercultural books such as by and much of the counterculture music encouraged a spirit of non-conformism and anti-establishmentarianism. By 1968, the year after a large march to the United Nations in New York City and a large protest at the Pentagon were undertaken, a majority of people in the country opposed the war.

9780742552586, Rowman & Littlefield.


Anti-nuclear
The application of nuclear technology, both as a source of energy and as an instrument of war, has been controversial.Robert Benford. The Anti-nuclear Movement (book review) American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 89, No. 6, (May 1984), pp. 1456–1458.James J. MacKenzie. Review of The Nuclear Power Controversy by Arthur W. Murphy The Quarterly Review of Biology, Vol. 52, No. 4 (December 1977), pp. 467–468.Walker, J. Samuel (2004). Three Mile Island: A Nuclear Crisis in Historical Perspective (Berkeley: University of California Press), pp. 10–11. (1982). Global Fission: The Battle Over Nuclear Power, Oxford University Press.

Scientists and diplomats have debated the policy since before the of in 1945.Jerry Brown and (1997). Profiles in Power: The Anti-nuclear Movement and the Dawn of the Solar Age, Twayne Publishers, pp. 191–192. The public became concerned about nuclear weapons testing from about 1954, following extensive nuclear testing in the . In 1961, at the height of the , about 50,000 women brought together by Women Strike for Peace marched in 60 cities in the United States to demonstrate against . In 1963, many countries ratified the Partial Test Ban Treaty which prohibited atmospheric nuclear testing.Wolfgang Rudig (1990). Anti-nuclear Movements: A World Survey of Opposition to Nuclear Energy, Longman, p. 54–55.

Some local opposition to emerged in the early 1960s, and in the late 1960s some members of the scientific community began to express their concerns.Wolfgang Rudig (1990). Anti-nuclear Movements: A World Survey of Opposition to Nuclear Energy, Longman, p. 52. In the early 1970s, there were large protests about a proposed nuclear power plant in , Germany. The project was cancelled in 1975 and success at Wyhl inspired opposition to nuclear power in other parts of Europe and North America.Stephen Mills and Roger Williams (1986). Public Acceptance of New Technologies Routledge, pp. 375–376. Nuclear power became an issue of major public protest in the 1970s.Jim Falk (1982). Global Fission: The Battle Over Nuclear Power, Oxford University Press, pp. 95–96.


Feminism
The role of women as full-time homemakers in industrial society was challenged in 1963, when US feminist published The Feminine Mystique, giving momentum to the women's movement and influencing what many called Second-wave feminism. Other activists, such as and , either organized, influenced, or educated many of a younger generation of women to endorse and expand feminist thought. Feminism gained further currency within the protest movements of the late 1960s, as women in movements such as Students for a Democratic Society rebelled against the "support" role they had been consigned to within the male-dominated New Left, as well as against manifestations and statements of within some radical groups. The 1970 pamphlet Women and Their Bodies, soon expanded into the 1971 book Our Bodies, Ourselves, was particularly influential in bringing about the new feminist consciousness.


Free school movement

Environmentalism

The 1960s counterculture embraced a back-to-the-land ethic, and communes of the era often relocated to the country from cities. Influential books of the 1960s included 's and 's The Population Bomb. Counterculture environmentalists were quick to grasp the implications of Ehrlich's writings on overpopulation, the Hubbert "" prediction, and more general concerns over , , the environmental effects of the Vietnam War, automobile-dependent lifestyles, and . More broadly they saw that the dilemmas of energy and resource allocation would have implications for geo-politics, lifestyle, environment, and other dimensions of modern life. The "back to nature" theme was already prevalent in the counterculture by the time of the 1969 Woodstock festival, while the first in 1970 was significant in bringing environmental concerns to the forefront of youth culture. At the start of the 1970s, counterculture-oriented publications like the Whole Earth Catalog and The Mother Earth News were popular, out of which emerged a back to the land movement. The 1960s and early 1970s counterculture were early adopters of practices such as and long before they became mainstream. The counterculture interest in progressed well into the 1970s: particularly influential were New Left eco-anarchist , 's criticism of the effects of on society, Ernest Callenbach's novel , 's fiction and non-fiction writings, and E.F. Schumacher's economics book Small is Beautiful.


Gay liberation

The were a series of spontaneous, violent demonstrations against a police raid that took place in the early morning hours of June 28, 1969, at the , a gay bar in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of New York City. This is frequently cited as the first instance in US history when people in the gay community fought back against a government-sponsored system that persecuted sexual minorities, and became the defining event that marked the start of the Gay rights movement in the United States and around the world.


Culture and lifestyles

Hippies
After the January 14, 1967 in organized by artist Michael Bowen, the media's attention on culture was fully activated.Martin A. Lee, Acid Dreams The CIA, LSD, and the Sixties Rebellion, 1985, Pgs. 157–163 In 1967 's rendition of the song "San Francisco (Be Sure to Wear Flowers in Your Hair)" brought as many as 100,000 young people from all over the world to celebrate San Francisco's "Summer of Love." While the song had originally been written by John Phillips of The Mamas & the Papas to promote the June 1967 Monterey Pop Festival, it became an instant hit worldwide (#4 in the United States, #1 in Europe) and quickly transcended its original purpose.

San Francisco's , also called "hippies" by local newspaper columnist , adopted new styles of dress, experimented with , lived communally and developed a vibrant music scene. When people returned home from "The Summer of Love" these styles and behaviors spread quickly from San Francisco and Berkeley to many US and Canadian cities and European capitals. Some hippies formed communes to live as far outside of the established system as possible. This aspect of the counterculture rejected active political engagement with the mainstream and, following the dictate of Timothy Leary to "Turn on, tune in, drop out", hoped to change society by of it. Looking back on his own life (as a Harvard professor) prior to 1960, Leary interpreted it to have been that of "an anonymous institutional employee who drove to work each morning in a long line of commuter cars and drove home each night and drank martinis ... like several million , liberal, intellectual robots."

As members of the hippie movement grew older and moderated their lives and their views, and especially after US involvement in the Vietnam War ended in the mid-1970s, the counterculture was largely absorbed by the mainstream, leaving a lasting impact on philosophy, morality, music, art, alternative health and diet, lifestyle and fashion.

In addition to a new style of clothing, philosophy, art, music and various views on anti-war, and anti-establishment, some hippies decided to turn away from modern society and re-settle on ranches, or communes. The very first of communes in the United States was a seven-acre land in Southern Colorado, named . According to Timothy Miller,

Drop City brought together most of the themes that had been developing in other recent communities-anarchy, pacifism, sexual freedom, rural isolation, interest in drugs, art-and wrapped them flamboyantly into a commune not quite like any that had gone beforeMatthews, M. (2010) Droppers: America's First Hippie Commune, Drop City. University of Oklahoma Press. p56.

Many of the inhabitants practiced acts like reusing trash and recycled materials to build Geodesic domes for shelter and other various purposes; using various drugs like marijuana and LSD, and creating various pieces of . After the initial success of Drop City, visitors would take the idea of communes and spread them. Another commune called "The Ranch" was very similar to the culture of Drop City, as well as new concepts like giving children of the commune extensive freedoms known as "children's rights".Berger, B. (1981). The Survival of a Counterculture: Ideological work and everyday life among rural communards. University of California Press. p. 64.


Marijuana, LSD, and other recreational drugs
During the 1960s, this second group of casual lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) users evolved and expanded into a that extolled the mystical and religious symbolism often engendered by the drug's powerful effects, and advocated its use as a method of raising . The personalities associated with the subculture, gurus such as Timothy Leary and musicians such as the , , Jimi Hendrix, , The 13th Floor Elevators, , , Crosby, Stills & Nash, , , The Chambers Brothers, Country Joe and the Fish, Big Brother and the Holding Company, Jefferson Airplane and the Beatles, soon attracted a great deal of publicity, generating further interest in LSD.

The popularization of LSD outside of the medical world was hastened when individuals such as participated in drug trials and liked what they saw. Tom Wolfe wrote a widely read account of these early days of LSD's entrance into the non-academic world in his book The Electric Kool Aid Acid Test, which documented the cross-country, acid-fueled voyage of Ken Kesey and the Merry Pranksters on the psychedelic bus "Furthur" and the Pranksters' later "Acid Test" LSD parties. In 1965, laboratories stopped its still legal shipments of LSD to the United States for research and psychiatric use, after a request from the US government concerned about its use. By April 1966, LSD use had become so widespread that warned about its dangers. In December 1966, the exploitation film Hallucination Generation was released. This was followed by The Trip in 1967 and in 1968.


Psychedelic research and experimentation
As most research on psychedelics began in the 1940s and 50s, heavy experimentation made its effect in the 1960s during this era of change and movement. Researchers were gaining acknowledgment and popularity with their promotion of psychedelia. This really anchored the change that counterculture instigators and followers began. Most research was conducted at top collegiate institutes, such as Harvard University.

and his Harvard research team had hopes for potential changes in society. Their research began with mushrooms and was called the Harvard Psilocybin Project. In one study known as the Concord Prison Experiment, Leary investigated the potential for psilocybin to reduce in criminals being released from prison. After the research sessions, Leary did a follow-up. He found that "75% of the turned on prisoners who were released had stayed out of jail."Lattin, Don. The Harvard Psychedelic Club: How Timothy Leary, Ram Dass, Huston Smith, and Andrew Weil Killed the Fifties and Ushered in a New Age for America. New York: HarperOne, 2010. Print. He believed he had solved the nation's crime problem. But with many officials skeptical, this breakthrough was not promoted.

Because of the personal experiences with these drugs Leary and his many outstanding colleagues, ( The Doors of Perception) and ( The Joyous Cosmology) believed that these were the mechanisms that could bring peace to not only the nation but the world. As their research continued the media followed them and published their work and documented their behavior, the trend of this counterculture drug experimentation began.Leary, Timothy. Flashbacks: An Autobiography. Los Angeles: J.P. Tarcher, 1983. Print.

Leary made attempts to bring more organized awareness to people interested in the study of psychedelics. He confronted the Senate committee in Washington and recommended for colleges to authorize the conduction of laboratory courses in psychedelics. He noted that these courses would "end the indiscriminate use of LSD and would be the most popular and productive courses ever offered".Young, Warren R., and Joseph R. Hixson. LSD on Campus. New York: Dell Pub., 1966. Print. Although these men were seeking an ultimate enlightenment, reality eventually proved that the potential they thought was there could not be reached, at least in this time. The change they sought for the world had not been permitted by the political systems of all the nations these men pursued their research in. Ram Dass states, "Tim and I actually had a chart on the wall about how soon everyone would be enlightened... We found out that real change is harder. We downplayed the fact that the psychedelic experience isn't for everyone."

Leary and his team's research got shut down at Harvard and everywhere they relocated around the globe. Their outlawish behavior and aggressive approach with these drugs did not settle well with the law. Officials did not agree with this chaotic promotion of peace.

Research with and those who conducted it was a radical understanding for the vast majority of the world. However, it did create a change. A ripple of curiosity was created as a result and the wave is continuing to swell.


Ken Kesey and the Merry Pranksters
Ken Kesey and his helped shape the developing character of the 1960s counterculture when they embarked on a cross-country voyage during the summer of 1964 in a psychedelic school bus named "Furthur". Beginning in 1959, Kesey had volunteered as a research subject for medical trials financed by the CIA's project. These trials tested the effects of LSD, psilocybin, , and other psychedelic drugs. After the medical trials, Kesey continued experimenting on his own, and involved many close friends; collectively they became known as "The Merry Pranksters". The Pranksters visited Harvard LSD proponent Timothy Leary at his Millbrook, New York retreat, and experimentation with LSD and other psychedelic drugs, primarily as a means for internal reflection and personal growth, became a constant during the Prankster trip.

The Pranksters created a direct link between the 1950s and the 1960s psychedelic scene; the bus was driven by Beat icon , Beat poet was on board for a time, and they dropped in on Cassady's friend, Beat author - though Kerouac declined to participate in the Prankster scene. After the Pranksters returned to California, they popularized the use of LSD at so-called "", which initially were held at Kesey's home in La Honda, California, and then at many other West Coast venues.


Other psychedelics
Experimentation with LSD, , psilocybin mushrooms, MDA, marijuana, and other psychedelic drugs became a major component of 1960s counterculture, influencing philosophy, , music and styles of dress. Jim DeRogatis wrote that peyote, a small cactus containing the psychedelic alkaloid mescaline, was widely available in Austin, Texas, a countercultural hub in the early 1960s.J. DeRogatis, Turn On Your Mind: Four Decades of Great Psychedelic Rock (Milwaukie, MI: Hal Leonard, 2003), , p. 71.


Sexual revolution
The sexual revolution (also known as a time of "sexual liberation") was a social movement that challenged traditional codes of behavior related to sexuality and interpersonal relationships throughout the from the 1960s to the 1980s. Sexual liberation included increased acceptance of sex outside of traditional heterosexual, monogamous relationships (primarily marriage). and the pill, , the normalization of , and alternative forms of sexuality, and the legalization of all followed. and The Female Eunuch


Alternative media
Underground newspapers sprang up in most cities and college towns, serving to define and communicate the range of phenomena that defined the counterculture: radical political opposition to "The Establishment", colorful experimental (and often explicitly drug-influenced) approaches to art, music and cinema, and uninhibited indulgence in sex and drugs as a symbol of freedom. The papers also often included comic strips, from which the underground comix were an outgrowth.


Alternative disc sports (Frisbee)

As numbers of young people became alienated from social norms, they resisted and looked for alternatives. The forms of escape and resistance manifest in many ways including social activism, alternative lifestyles, dress, music and alternative recreational activities, including that of throwing a . From hippies tossing the at festivals and concerts came today's popular disc sports.

(2018). 9783838311951, Waltham, Mass.
Disc sports such as disc freestyle, double disc court, disc guts, Ultimate and became this sport's first events.


Avant-garde art and anti-art
The Situationist International was a restricted group of international revolutionaries founded in 1957, and which had its peak in its influence on the unprecedented of May 1968 in France. With their ideas rooted in and the 20th-century European artistic , they advocated experiences of life being alternative to those admitted by the , for the fulfillment of human primitive desires and the pursuing of a superior passional quality. For this purpose they suggested and experimented with the construction of situations, namely the setting up of environments favorable for the fulfillment of such desires. Using methods drawn from the arts, they developed a series of experimental fields of study for the construction of such situations, like and . They fought against the main obstacle on the fulfillment of such superior passional living, identified by them in advanced capitalism. Their theoretical work peaked on the highly influential book The Society of the Spectacle by . Debord argued in 1967 that spectacular features like and have a central role in an advanced capitalist society, which is to show a fake reality in order to mask the real capitalist degradation of human life. wrote The Revolution of Everyday Life which takes the field of "" as the ground upon which communication and participation can occur, or, as is more commonly the case, be perverted and abstracted into pseudo-forms.

(a name taken from a word meaning "to flow") is an international network of artists, composers and designers noted for blending different artistic media and disciplines in the 1960s. They have been active in , , literature, , architecture, and design. Fluxus is often described as , a term coined by Fluxus artist in a famous 1966 essay. Fluxus encouraged a "" aesthetic, and valued simplicity over complexity. Like before it, Fluxus included a strong current of anti-commercialism and an sensibility, disparaging the conventional market-driven art world in favor of an artist-centered creative practice. As Fluxus artist wrote, however, Fluxus differed from Dada in its richer set of aspirations, and the positive social and communitarian aspirations of Fluxus far outweighed the anti-art tendency that also marked the group.

In the 1960s, the Dada-influenced Black Mask declared that revolutionary art should be "an integral part of life, as in primitive society, and not an appendage to wealth."Hinderer, Eve. Ben Morea: art and anarchism Black Mask disrupted cultural events in New York by giving made up flyers of art events to the homeless with the lure of free drinks.. "The Assault on Culture: Utopian currents from Lettrisme to Class War". Introduction to the Lithuanian edition. (Ist edition Aporia Press and Unpopular Books, London 1988.) . "In the sixties Black Mask disrupted reified cultural events in New York by making up flyers giving the dates, times and location of art events and giving these out to the homeless with the lure of the free drink that was on offer to the bourgeoisie rather than the lumpen proletariat; I reused the ruse just as effectively in London in the 1990s to disrupt literary events." After, the Motherfuckers grew out of a combination of Black Mask and another group called Angry Arts. Up Against the Wall Motherfuckers (often referred to as simply "the Motherfuckers", or UAW/MF) was an based in New York City.


Music

During the early 1960s, . Artists such as the Beatles paved the way for their compatriots to enter the US market.R. Shuker, 1998, p. 34 The Beatles themselves were influenced by many artists, among them American singer-songwriter , who was a lyrical inspiration as well as their introduction to .P. Brown and S. Gaines, 1984, p. 134 Dylan's early career as a had been inspired by artists like J. Cott, 2007, p. 376 and his hero . Other folksingers, like Joan Baez and Peter, Paul and Mary, took the songs of the era to new audiences and public recognition.A. J. Matusow, 1984, p. 295

The music of the 1960s moved towards an electric, version of rock, thanks largely to Bob Dylan's decision to play an electric guitar at the 1965 Newport Folk Festival.H. Sounes, 2002, p. 218 The newly popularized electric sound of rock was then built upon and molded into by artists like The 13th Floor ElevatorsM. C. Strong, 1997, p. 276 and British bands and the Beatles.Shuker, 1998, p. 234 The Beach Boys' 1966 album also paved the way for later acts, with 's writing interpreted as a "plea for love and understanding."J. Derogatis, 1996, p. 19 Pet Sounds served as a major source of inspiration for other contemporary acts, most notably directly inspiring the Beatles' Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band. The single "" soared to number one globally, completely changing the perception of what a record could be. It was during this period that the highly anticipated album Smile was to be released. However, the project collapsed and The Beach Boys released a downgraded version called , which failed to make a big commercial impact but was also highly influential, most notably on 's .

The Beatles went on to become the most prominent commercial exponents of the "psychedelic revolution" (e.g., Revolver, Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band and Magical Mystery Tour) in the late 1960s. In the , bands that exemplified the counterculture were becoming huge commercial and mainstream successes. These included The Mamas & the Papas ( If You Can Believe Your Eyes and Ears), Big Brother and the Holding Company ( Cheap Thrills), Jimi Hendrix ( Are You Experienced), Jefferson Airplane ( Surrealistic Pillow), ( The Doors) and Sly and the Family Stone ( Stand!).M. C. Strong, 2002 Bands and other musicians, such as the , (Canada), David Peel, , , Quicksilver Messenger Service, , , The Velvet Underground, , Captain Beefheart, Santana, CSNY, , Country Joe and the Fish, and The Holy Modal Rounders were considered key to the counterculture movement.

While the hippie scene was born in ,Shuker, 1998, p. 72 an edgier scene emerged in New York CityB. Longhurst, 1995, p. 108 that put more emphasis on and art music. Bands such as The Velvet Underground came out of this underground music scene, which was predominantly centered at 's legendary . The Velvet Underground supplied the music for the Exploding Plastic Inevitable, a series of events staged by Warhol and his collaborators in 1966 and 1967. The Velvet Underground's lyrics were considered risqué for the era, since they discussed , identities, and the use of associated with Warhol's Factory and its superstars.Derogatis, 1996, p. 44

Detroit's MC5 also came out of the underground rock music scene of the late 1960s. They introduced a more aggressive evolution of which was often fused with sociopolitical and countercultural lyrics of the era, such as in the song "Motor City Is Burning" (a John Lee Hooker cover adapting the story of the Detroit Race Riot of 1943 to the Detroit riot of 1967). MC5 had ties to radical leftist organizations such as "Up Against the Wall Motherfuckers" and John Sinclair's White Panther Party, and MC5 performed a lengthy set before the 1968 Democratic National Convention in , where an infamous riot subsequently broke out between police and students protesting the and the recent assassinations of Martin Luther King, Jr. and .D. Snowman, 1978, p. 155 MC5, and the aforementioned Velvet Underground, are now seen as an influence on the sound that would lead to and heavy metal music in the late 1970s.Shuker, 1998, p. 237

Another hotbed of the 1960s counterculture was Austin, Texas, with two of the era's legendary music venues-the Vulcan Gas Company and the Armadillo World Headquarters-and musical talent like , the 13th Floor Elevators, Shiva's Headband, the Conqueroo, and, later, Stevie Ray Vaughan. Austin was also home to a large New Left activist movement, one of the earliest underground papers, , and cutting edge graphic artists like Fabulous Furry Freak Brothers creator , underground comix pioneer (Jaxon), and surrealist armadillo artist Jim Franklin., Turn On Your Mind: Four Decades of Great Psychedelic Rock (Milwaukie, MI: Hal Leonard, 2003), .

The 1960s was also an era of , which played an important role in spreading the counterculture across the US. The Monterey Pop Festival, which launched Hendrix's career in the US, was one of the first of these festivals.Derogatis, 1996, p. 95 Britain's 1968–1970 Isle of Wight Festivals drew big names such as , , , Hendrix, Dylan, and others.Sounes, 2002, p. 296 The 1969 in New York state became a symbol of the movement, although the 1970 Isle of Wight Festival drew a larger crowd. Some believe the era came to an abrupt end with the infamous Altamont Free Concert held by The Rolling Stones, in which heavy-handed security from the resulted in the stabbing of an audience member, apparently in self-defense, as the show descended into chaos.Matusow, 1986, p. 305

As the psychedelic revolution progressed, lyrics grew more complex, (such as Jefferson Airplane's "White Rabbit"Matusow, 1986, p. 297). Long-playing albums enabled artists to make more in-depth statements than could be made in just a single song (such as the Mothers of Invention's satirical Freak Out!Strong, 1997, p. 317). Even the rules governing single songs were stretched, and singles lasting longer than three minutes emerged, such as Dylan's "Like a Rolling Stone", 's "Alice's Restaurant", and 's 17-minute-long "In-A-Gadda-Da-Vida.".

The 1960s saw the protest song gain a sense of political self-importance, with Phil Ochs's "I Ain't Marching Anymore" and Country Joe and the Fish's "I-Feel-Like-I'm-Fixin'-to-Die-Rag" among the many anti-war anthems that were important to the era.

is an approach to music that was first developed in the 1950s and 1960s. Though the music produced by free jazz composers varied widely, the common feature was a dissatisfaction with the limitations of , , and , which had developed in the 1940s and 1950s. Each in their own way, free jazz musicians attempted to alter, extend, or break down the conventions of jazz, often by discarding hitherto invariable features of jazz, such as fixed or . While usually considered experimental and avant-garde, free jazz has also oppositely been conceived as an attempt to return jazz to its "primitive", often religious roots, and emphasis on collective improvisation. Free jazz is strongly associated with the 1950s innovations of and and the later works of saxophonist . Other important pioneers included , , , , and . Although today "free jazz" is the generally used term, many other terms were used to describe the loosely defined movement, including "avant-garde", "energy music" and "The New Thing". During its early and mid-60s heyday, much free jazz was released by established labels such as Prestige, Blue Note and Impulse, as well as independents such as and BYG Actuel. Free improvisation or free music is improvised music without any rules beyond the logic or inclination of the musician(s) involved. The term can refer to both a technique (employed by any musician in any genre) and as a recognizable genre in its own right. Free improvisation, as a genre of music, developed in the U.S. and Europe in the mid to late 1960s, largely as an outgrowth of and modern classical musics. None of its primary exponents can be said to be famous within mainstream; however, in experimental circles, a number of free musicians are well known, including saxophonists , , Peter Brötzmann and , drummer Christian Lillinger, trombonist George Lewis, guitarists Derek Bailey, Henry Kaiser and and the improvising groups The Art Ensemble of Chicago and AMM.

states that "until around 1967, the worlds of jazz and rock were nearly completely separate". The term, "" (or "jazz/rock") is often used as a synonym for the term "". However, some make a distinction between the two terms. The Free Spirits have sometimes been cited as the earliest jazz-rock band.Unterberger 1998, pg. 329 During the late 1960s, at the same time that jazz musicians were experimenting with rock rhythms and electric instruments, rock groups such as Cream and the were "beginning to incorporate elements of jazz into their music" by "experimenting with extended free-form improvisation". Other "groups such as Blood, Sweat & Tears directly borrowed harmonic, melodic, rhythmic and instrumentational elements from the jazz tradition". The Jazz/Rock Fusion Page:a site is dedicated to Jazz Fusion and related genres with a special emphasis on Jazz/Rock fusion The rock groups that drew on jazz ideas (like , Colosseum, Caravan, Nucleus, Chicago, Spirit and ) turned the blend of the two styles with electric instruments.N. Tesser, The Playboy Guide to Jazz, (Plume, 1998), , P. 178 Since rock often emphasized directness and simplicity over virtuosity, jazz-rock generally grew out of the most artistically ambitious rock subgenres of the late 1960s and early 70s: psychedelia, progressive rock, and the singer-songwriter movement." ' sessions, recorded in August 1969 and released the following year, mostly abandoned jazz's usual swing beat in favor of a -style backbeat anchored by grooves. The recording "...mixed free jazz blowing by a large ensemble with electronic keyboards and guitar, plus a dense mix of percussion." Jazzitude | History of Jazz Part 8: Fusion Davis also drew on the rock influence by playing his trumpet through electronic effects and pedals. While the album gave Davis a , the use of electric instruments and rock beats created a great deal of consternation amongst some more conservative jazz critics.


Film
The counterculture was not only affected by cinema, but was also instrumental in the provision of era-relevant content and talent for the film industry. Bonnie and Clyde struck a chord with the youth as "the alienation of the young in the 1960s was comparable to the director's image of the 1930s."M. A. Jackson and J. E. O'Connor, 1980, P237 Films of this time also focused on the changes happening in the world. A sign of this was the visibility that the hippie subculture gained in various mainstream and underground media. Hippie exploitation films are 1960s exploitation films about the hippie counterculture with stereotypical situations associated with the movement such as and use, sex and wild psychedelic parties. Examples include , , The Trip, and Wild in the Streets. The musical play Hair shocked stage audiences with full-frontal nudity. 's "Road Trip" adventure (1969) became accepted as one of the landmark films of the era.P. Biskind, 1999, P74 portrayed the 1968 Democratic Convention alongside the 1968 Chicago police riots which has led to it being labeled as "a fusion of cinema-vérité and political radicalism".J. Pym, 2002, P741 One film-studio attempt to cash in on the hippie trend was 1968's ,J. Pym, 2002, P932 which is in contrast to the film version of Arlo Guthrie's Alice's Restaurant, which some say portrayed the generation as "doomed".J. Hoberman, 2003, P237 The music of the era was represented by films such as 1970s Woodstock, a documentary of the music festival.P. Biskind, 1999, P150 (See also: List of films related to the hippie subculture) Inaugurated by the 1969 release of , the phenomenon of being publicly discussed by celebrities (like and ), and taken seriously by critics (like ), a development referred to, by Ralph Blumenthal of The New York Times, as "porno chic", and later known as the Golden Age of Porn, began, for the first time, in modern American culture. Porno Chic (Jahsonic.com) According to award-winning author , 1976 film The Opening of Misty Beethoven, based on the play Pygmalion by George Bernard Shaw (and its derivative, My Fair Lady), and due to attaining a mainstream level in storyline and sets,
(2018). 9780335219230, Open University Press.
is considered the "crown jewel" of this 'Golden Age'.

In France the New Wave was a coined by critics for a group of French filmmakers of the late 1950s and 1960s, influenced by Italian Neorealism and classical Hollywood cinema. Although never a formally organized movement, the New Wave filmmakers were linked by their self-conscious rejection of classical cinematic form and their spirit of youthful and is an example of European art cinema. Many also engaged in their work with the social and political upheavals of the era, making their radical experiments with editing, visual style and narrative part of a general break with the conservative paradigm. The Left Bank, or Rive Gauche, group is a contingent of filmmakers associated with the French New Wave, first identified as such by ."The Left Bank Revisited: Marker, Resnais, Varda", Harvard Film Archive, [19] Access date: August 16, 2008. The corresponding "right bank" group is constituted of the more famous and financially successful New Wave directors associated with Cahiers du cinéma (, François Truffaut, and ). Left Bank directors include , , and Agnès Varda. Roud described a distinctive "fondness for a kind of life and an impatience with the conformity of the Right Bank, a high degree of involvement in literature and the , and a consequent interest in experimental filmmaking", as well as an identification with the political . Other film "new waves" from around the world associated with the 1960s are New German Cinema, Czechoslovak New Wave, Brazilian and Japanese New Wave. During the 1960s, the term "" began to be much more widely used in the United States than in Europe. In the U.S., the term is often defined very broadly, to include foreign-language (non-English) films, , experimental films, documentaries and short films. In the 1960s "art film" became a euphemism in the U.S. for racy Italian and French . By the 1970s, the term was used to describe European films with artistic structure such as the Swedish film I Am Curious (Yellow). The 1960s was an important period in art film; the release of a number of groundbreaking films giving rise to the European art cinema which had countercultural traits in filmmakers such as Michelangelo Antonioni, , Pier Paolo Pasolini, Luis Buñuel and Bernardo Bertolucci.


Technology
In his 1986 essay "From Satori to Silicon Valley", "From Satori to Silicon Valley" - Roszak, Stanford cultural historian Theodore Roszak pointed out that emerged from within the West Coast counterculture. Roszak outlines the Apple computer's development, and the evolution of 'the two Steves' ( and , the Apple's developers) into businessmen. Like them, many early computing and networking pioneers - after discovering and roaming the campuses of UC Berkeley, Stanford, and MIT in the late 1960s and early 1970s - would emerge from this caste of social "misfits" to shape the modern world.


Religion, spirituality and the occult
Many hippies rejected mainstream organized religion in favor of a more personal spiritual experience, often drawing on indigenous and folk beliefs. If they adhered to mainstream faiths, hippies were likely to embrace , , , Unitarian Universalism and the Christianity of the . Some hippies embraced , especially . Wicca is a witchcraft religion which became more prominent beginning in 1951, with the repeal of the Witchcraft Act of 1735, after which Gerald Gardner and then others such as and began publicising their own versions of the Craft. Gardner and others never used the term "Wicca" as a religious identifier, simply referring to the "witch cult", "witchcraft", and the "Old Religion". However, Gardner did refer to witches as "the Wica".
(1999). 9780806525938, Mercury Publishing.
During the 1960s, the name of the religion normalised to "Wicca". Gardner's tradition, later termed , soon became the dominant form in and spread to other parts of the . Following Gardner's death in 1964, the Craft continued to grow unabated despite sensationalism and negative portrayals in British tabloids, with new traditions being propagated by figures like Robert Cochrane, and most importantly Alex Sanders, whose Alexandrian Wicca, which was predominantly based upon Gardnerian Wicca, albeit with an emphasis placed on , spread quickly and gained much media attention.

In his 1991 book, Hippies and American Values, Timothy Miller described the hippie ethos as essentially a "religious movement" whose goal was to transcend the limitations of mainstream religious institutions. "Like many dissenting religions, the hippies were enormously hostile to the religious institutions of the dominant culture, and they tried to find new and adequate ways to do the tasks the dominant religions failed to perform."

(1991). 9780870496943, Univ Tennessee Press; 1st edition. .
In his seminal, contemporaneous work, The Hippie Trip, author Lewis Yablonsky notes that those who were most respected in hippie settings were the spiritual leaders, the so-called "high priests" who emerged during that era. The Hippie Trip, Lewis Yablonsky, p. 298

One such hippie "high priest" was San Francisco State College instructor . Beginning in 1966, Gaskin's "Monday Night Class" eventually outgrew the lecture hall, and attracted 1,500 hippie followers in an open discussion of spiritual values, drawing from Christian, Buddhist, and Hindu teachings. In 1970 Gaskin founded a Tennessee community called The Farm, and he still lists his religion as "Hippie."

9781570671814, Amazon.com.
Timothy Leary was an American and writer, known for his advocacy of psychedelic drugs. On September 19, 1966, Leary founded the League for Spiritual Discovery, a religion declaring LSD as its holy sacrament, in part as an unsuccessful attempt to maintain legal status for the use of LSD and other psychedelics for the religion's adherents based on a "freedom of religion" argument. The Psychedelic Experience was the inspiration for John Lennon's song "Tomorrow Never Knows" in The Beatles' album Revolver. He published a pamphlet in 1967 called Start Your Own Religion to encourage just that (see below under "writings") and was invited to attend the January 14, 1967 a gathering of 30,000 in San Francisco's Golden Gate Park In speaking to the group, he coined the famous phrase "Turn on, tune in, drop out".
(2018). 9780151005000, Books.google.co.uk. .

The Principia Discordia is the founding text of written by Greg Hill (Malaclypse the Younger) and Kerry Wendell Thornley (Lord Omar Khayyam Ravenhurst). It was originally published under the title "Principia Discordia or How The West Was Lost" in a limited edition of five copies in 1965. The title, literally meaning "Discordant Principles", is in keeping with the tendency of to prefer hypotactic grammatical arrangements. In English, one would expect the title to be "Principles of Discord."


Criticism and legacy
The lasting impact, including unintended consequences, creative output and general legacy of the counterculture era continue to be actively discussed, debated, despised and celebrated.

Even the notions of when the counterculture subsumed the Beat Generation, when it gave way to the successor generation, and what happened in between are open for debate. According to notable UK Underground and counterculture author Barry Miles, "It seemed to me that the Seventies was when most of the things that people attribute to the sixties really happened: this was the age of extremes, people took more drugs, had longer hair, weirder clothes, had more sex, protested more violently and encountered more opposition from the establishment. It was the era of sex and drugs and rock'n'roll, as said. The countercultural explosion of the 1960s really only involved a few thousand people in the UK and perhaps ten times that in the USA – largely because of opposition to the Vietnam war, whereas in the Seventies the ideas had spread out across the world.

A Columbia University teaching unit on the counterculture era notes: "Although historians disagree over the influence of the counterculture on American politics and society, most describe the counterculture in similar terms. Virtually all authors—for example, on the right, in (New York: Regan Books,1996) and, on the left, in The Sixties: Years of Hope, Days of Rage (New York: Bantam Books, 1987)—characterize the counterculture as self-indulgent, childish, irrational, narcissistic, and even dangerous. Even so, many liberal and leftist historians find constructive elements in it, while those on the right tend not to."

Screen legend equated aspects of 1960s social programs with the rise of the , "…I know all about that. In the late Twenties, when I was a sophomore at USC, I was a socialist myself—but not when I left. The average college kid idealistically wishes everybody could have ice cream and cake for every meal. But as he gets older and gives more thought to his and his fellow man's responsibilities, he finds that it can't work out that way—that some people just won't carry their load ... I believe in welfare—a welfare work program. I don't think a fella should be able to sit on his backside and receive welfare. I'd like to know why well-educated idiots keep apologizing for lazy and complaining people who think the world owes them a living. I'd like to know why they make excuses for cowards who spit in the faces of the police and then run behind the judicial sob sisters. I can't understand these people who carry placards to save the life of some criminal, yet have no thought for the innocent victim."

(1997). 9780803289703, Bison Books.
Former liberal Democrat , who later became a conservative Governor of California and 40th President of the US, remarked about one group of protesters carrying signs, "The last bunch of pickets were carrying signs that said 'Make love, not war.' The only trouble was they didn't look capable of doing either."

The "generation gap" between the affluent young and their often poverty-scarred parents was a critical component of 1960s culture. In an interview with journalist during the 1968 US presidential campaign, soon-to-be First Lady exposed the generational chasm in worldview between Steinem, 20 years her junior, and herself after Steinem probed Mrs. Nixon as to her youth, role models, and lifestyle. A hardscrabble child of the Great Depression, Pat Nixon told Steinem, "I never had time to think about things like that, who I wanted to be, or who I admired, or to have ideas. I never had time to dream about being anyone else. I had to work. I haven't just sat back and thought of myself or my ideas or what I wanted to do...I've kept working. I don't have time to worry about who I admire or who I identify with. I never had it easy. I'm not at all like you...all those people who had it easy."

(1993). 9780679415596, Random House/Villard.

In economic terms, it has been contended that the counterculture really only amounted to creating new marketing segments for the "hip" crowd.

Even before the counterculture movement reached its peak of influence, the concept of the adoption of socially-responsible policies by establishment corporations was discussed by economist and Nobel laureate (1962): "Few trends could so thoroughly undermine the very foundation of our free society as the acceptance by corporate officials of a social responsibility other than to make as much money for their stockholders as possible. This is a fundamentally subversive doctrine. If businessmen do have a social responsibility other than making maximum profits for stockholders, how are they to know what it is? Can self-selected private individuals decide what the social interest is?"

(1980). 9780465001347, Basic Books.

In the UK, commentator identified the counterculture as one of the contributing factors to what he saw as the malaise in British politics in 2009.

(2018). 9781847064059, Continuum International Publishing Group Ltd..
- see conclusion, 'The Broken Compass'

In 2003, author and former Free Speech activist was quoted, "What happened four decades ago is history. It's not just a blip in the history of trends. Whoever shows up at a march against war in Iraq, it always takes place with a memory of the efficacy and joy and gratification of similar protests that took place in years before…It doesn't matter that there is no counterculture, because counterculture of the past gives people a sense that their own difference matters."

When asked about the prospects of the counterculture movement moving forward in the digital age, former Grateful Dead lyricist and self-styled "cyberlibertarian" John Perry Barlow said, "I started out as a teenage beatnik and then became a hippie and then became a cyberpunk. And now I'm still a member of the counterculture, but I don't know what to call that. And I'd been inclined to think that that was a good thing, because once the counterculture in America gets a name then the media can coopt it, and the advertising industry can turn it into a marketing foil. But you know, right now I'm not sure that it is a good thing, because we don't have any flag to rally around. Without a name there may be no coherent movement."

During the era, conservative students objected to the counterculture and found ways to celebrate their conservative ideals by reading books like J. Edgar Hoover's A Study of Communism, joining student organizations like the College Republicans, and organizing Greek events which reinforced gender norms.

Free Speech advocate and social anthropologist Jentri Anders observed that a number of freedoms were endorsed within a countercultural community in which she lived and studied: "freedom to explore one's potential, freedom to create one's Self, freedom of personal expression, freedom from scheduling, freedom from rigidly defined roles and hierarchical statuses..." Additionally, Anders believed some in the counterculture wished to modify children's education so that it didn't discourage, but rather encouraged, "aesthetic sense, love of nature, passion for music, desire for reflection, or strongly marked independence."Jentri Anders, Beyond Counterculture, Washington State University Press, 1990, & Kitchell, 1990

In 2007, Merry Prankster commented, "I see remnants of that movement everywhere. It's sort of like the nuts in Ben and Jerry's ice cream -- it's so thoroughly mixed in, we sort of expect it. The nice thing is that eccentricity is no longer so foreign. We've embraced diversity in a lot of ways in this country. I do think it's done us a tremendous service."


Key figures

The following people are well known for their involvement in 1960s era counterculture. Some are key incidental or contextual figures, such as Beat Generation figures who also participated directly in the later counterculture era. The primary area(s) of each figure's notability are indicated, per these figures' Wikipedia pages. This section is not intended be exhaustive, but rather a representative cross section of individuals active within the larger movement. Although many of the people listed are known for civil rights activism, some figures whose primary notability was within the realm of the Civil Rights Movement are listed elsewhere. This section is not intended to create associations between any of the listed figures beyond what is documented elsewhere. (see also: List of civil rights leaders; Key figures of the New Left; Timeline of 1960s counterculture).


See also
  • Mod (subculture)
  • Non-conformists of the 1930s
  • Timeline of 1960s counterculture
  • War on Drugs


Works cited


Further reading
  • (2018). 9780700616336, University Press of Kansas.
  • (1995). 9780517886366, Three Rivers Press.
  • Roche, Nancy McGuire, "The Spectacle of Gender: Representations of Women in British and American Cinema of the Nineteen-Sixties" (PhD dissertation. Middle Tennessee State University, 2011). DA3464539.
  • Street, Joe, "Dirty Harry's San Francisco," The Sixties: A Journal of History, Politics, and Culture, 5 (June 2012), 1–21.
  • (2018). 9780313326899, Greenwood Publishing Group..


External links

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