Product Code Database
Example Keywords: photography -super $22-192
   » » Wiki: Communism
Tag Wiki 'Communism'.

In political and , communism (from communis, "common, universal") World Book, 2008, p. 890. is the philosophical, social, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a order structured upon the of the means of production and the absence of , Principles of Communism, Frederick Engels, 1847, Section 18. "Finally, when all capital, all production, all exchange have been brought together in the hands of the nation, private property will disappear of its own accord, money will become superfluous, and production will so expand and man so change that society will be able to slough off whatever of its old economic habits may remain". The ABC of Communism, Nikoli Bukharin, 1920, Section 20. and the state. The ABC of Communism, Nikoli Bukharin, 1920, Section 21.

(2018). 9781933116440, CQ Press. .

Communism includes a variety of schools of thought, which broadly include and (anarcho-communism), as well as the political ideologies grouped around both. All of these share the analysis that the current order of society stems from its economic system, ; that in this system there are two major social classes; that is the root of all problems in society; and that this situation will ultimately be resolved through a social revolution. The two classes are the —who must work to survive and who make up the majority within society—and the —a minority who derives profit from employing the working class through private ownership of the means of production. The revolution will put the working class in power and in turn establish of the means of production, which according to this analysis is the primary element in the transformation of society towards communism. Critics of communism can be roughly divided into those concerning themselves with the practical aspects of 20th century Bruno Bosteels, The Actuality of Communism (Verso Books, 2014). and those concerning themselves with communist principles and theory.Raymond C. Taras, ''The Road to Disillusion: From Critical Marxism to Post-communism in Eastern Europe (Routledge, 2015).


Early communism
The term "communism" was first coined and defined in its modern definition by the philosopher and writer Victor d'Hupay. In his 1777 book Projet de communauté philosophe, d'Hupay pushes the philosophy of the Enlightenments to principles which he lived up to during most of his life in his of (). This book can be seen as the cornerstone of communist philosophy as d'Hupay defines this lifestyle as a "" and advises to "share all economic and material products between inhabitants of the commune, so that all may benefit from everybody's work".Cassely, 2016 : Aix insolite et secrète JonGlez ( références Bibliothèque nationale de France).

According to , the idea of a classless, egalitarian society first emerged in . Communism: A History (2001) , pp. 3–5. The 5th-century movement in has been described as "communistic" for challenging the enormous privileges of the noble classes and the clergy, for criticizing the institution of and for striving to create an egalitarian society. The Cambridge History of Iran Volume 3, , edited by , Parts 1 and 2, p. 1019, Cambridge University Press (1983).
(2018). 9781533082893
At one time or another, various small communist communities existed, generally under the inspiration of .. For example, in the some communities and shared their land and their other property (see religious and Christian communism).

Communist thought has also been traced back to the works of the 16th-century English writer . In his treatise Utopia (1516), More portrayed a society based on of property, whose rulers administered it through the application of reason. In the 17th century, communist thought surfaced again in England, where a religious group known as the "" advocated the abolition of private ownership of land. In his 1895 Cromwell and Communism, argued that several groups during the English Civil War (especially the Diggers) espoused clear communistic, agrarian ideals and that 's attitude towards these groups was at best ambivalent and often hostile. Criticism of the idea of private property continued into the Age of Enlightenment of the 18th century through such thinkers as Jean Jacques Rousseau in . Later, following the upheaval of the French Revolution communism emerged as a political doctrine."Communism" A Dictionary of Sociology. John Scott and Gordon Marshall. Oxford University Press 2005. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press.

In the early 19th century, various social reformers founded communities based on common ownership. However, unlike many previous communist communities they replaced the religious emphasis with a rational and philanthropic basis."Communism". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2006. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Notable among them were , who founded New Harmony in Indiana (1825), as well as , whose followers organized other settlements in the United States such as (1841–1847).

In its modern form, communism grew out of the socialist movement in 19th-century Europe. As the Industrial Revolution advanced, socialist critics blamed for the misery of the —a new class of urban factory workers who labored under often-hazardous conditions. Foremost among these critics were and his associate . In 1848, Marx and Engels offered a new definition of communism and popularized the term in their famous pamphlet The Communist Manifesto.

Modern communism
The 1917 October Revolution in Russia set the conditions for the rise to state power of 's , which was the first time any avowedly communist party reached that position. The revolution transferred power to the All-Russian Congress of Soviets, in which the Bolsheviks had a majority. Russia in the Twentieth Century: The Quest for Stability. David R. Marples. p. 38. How the Soviet Union is Governed. Jerry F. Hough. p. 81. The Life and Times of Soviet Socialism. Alex F. Dowlah, John E. Elliott. p. 18. The event generated a great deal of practical and theoretical debate within the Marxist movement. Marx predicted that and communism would be built upon foundations laid by the most advanced capitalist development. However, was one of the poorest countries in Europe with an enormous, largely illiterate peasantry and a minority of industrial workers. Marx had explicitly stated that Russia might be able to skip the stage of bourgeois rule.Marc Edelman, "Late Marx and the Russian road: Marx and the 'Peripheries of Capitalism'"—book reviews. Monthly Review, December 1984.

The moderate (minority) opposed Lenin's Bolshevik (majority) plan for socialist revolution before capitalism was more fully developed. The Bolsheviks' successful rise to power was based upon the slogans such as "Peace, bread and land" which tapped the massive public desire for an end to Russian involvement in the First World War, the peasants' demand for and popular support for the soviets.Holmes 2009, p. 18.

Following Lenin's democratic centralism, the Leninist parties were organized on a hierarchical basis, with active cells of members as the broad base. They were made up only of elite cadres approved by higher members of the party as being reliable and completely subject to .. "Communism". The Oxford Companion to World War II. Ed. I. C. B. Dear and M. R. D. Foot. Oxford University Press, 2001. The of 1937–1938 was 's attempt to destroy any possible opposition within the Communist Party. In the , many old Bolsheviks who had played prominent roles during the Russian Revolution of 1917 or in Lenin's Soviet government afterwards, including , , and , were accused, pleaded guilty and executed.Sedov, Lev (1980). The Red Book on the Moscow Trial: Documents. New York: New Park Publications. .

Cold War
[[File:Gdp per capita 1965.png|thumb|275px|Countries by GDP (nominal) per capita in 1965 based on a West German school book (1971)


]] Its leading role in the Second World War saw the emergence of the as a , with strong influence over and parts of . The and Japanese empires were shattered and communist parties played a leading role in many independence movements. Marxist–Leninist governments modeled on the Soviet Union took power with Soviet assistance in , , , , and . A Marxist–Leninist government was also created under in , but Tito's independent policies led to the expulsion of Yugoslavia from the which had replaced the and was branded "". Albania also became an independent Marxist–Leninist state after World War II. Communism was seen as a rival of and a threat to western capitalism for most of the 20th century.

Dissolution of the Soviet Union
The Soviet Union was dissolved on December 26, 1991. It was a result of the declaration number 142-Н of the Soviet of the Republics of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union. of the Soviet of the Republics of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union, formally establishing the dissolution of the Soviet Union as a state and subject of international law. The declaration acknowledged the independence of the former and created the Commonwealth of Independent States, although five of the signatories ratified it much later or did not do it at all. On the previous day, Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev (the eighth and final leader of the Soviet Union) resigned, declared his office extinct and handed over its powers – including control of the – to Russian President . That evening at 7:32, the Soviet flag was lowered from the for the last time and replaced with the pre-revolutionary Russian flag.

Previously, from August to December all the individual republics, including Russia itself, had seceded from the union. The week before the union's formal dissolution, eleven republics signed the Alma-Ata Protocol formally establishing the Commonwealth of Independent States and declaring that the Soviet Union had ceased to exist.

Present situation
At present, states controlled by Marxist–Leninist parties under a single-party system include the People's Republic of China, , and . currently refers to its leading ideology as , which is portrayed as a development of Marxism–Leninism. Communist parties, or their descendant parties, remain politically important in a number of other countries. The South African Communist Party is a partner in the African National Congress-led government. In India, as of March 2018, communists lead the government of only one state, Kerala. In , communists hold a majority in the parliament. The Communist Party of Brazil is a part of the parliamentary coalition led by the ruling democratic socialist Workers' Party.

The People's Republic of China has reassessed many aspects of the Maoist legacy and along with Laos, Vietnam and to a lesser degree Cuba has decentralized state control of the economy in order to stimulate growth. Chinese economic reforms were started in 1978 under the leadership of and since then China has managed to bring down the poverty rate from 53% in the Mao era to just 6% in 2001. These reforms are sometimes described by outside commentators as a regression to , but the communist parties describe it as a necessary adjustment to existing realities in the post-Soviet world in order to maximize industrial productive capacity. In these countries, the land is a universal public monopoly administered by the state, as are natural resources and vital industries and services. The is the dominant sector in these economies and the state plays a central role in coordinating economic development.

Marxist communism

, first developed by and , has been the foremost ideology of the communist movement. Marxism considers itself to be the embodiment of scientific socialism and rather than model an "ideal society" based on intellectuals' design, it is a non-idealist attempt at the understanding of society and history through an analysis based in real life. Marxism does not see communism as a "state of affairs" to be established, but rather as the expression of a real movement, with parameters which are derived completely from real life and not based on any intelligent design.Marx, Karl. The German Ideology. 1845. Part I: Feuerbach. Opposition of the Materialist and Idealist Outlook. A. Idealism and Materialism. "Communism is for us not a state of affairs which is to be established, an ideal to which reality will have to adjust itself. We call communism the real movement which abolishes the present state of things. The conditions of this movement result from the premises now in existence". Therefore, Marxism does no blueprinting of a communist society and it only makes an analysis which concludes what will trigger its implementation and discovers its fundamental characteristics based on the derivation of real life conditions.

At the root of Marxism is the materialist conception of history, known as historical materialism for short. It holds that the key characteristic of economic systems through history has been the mode of production and that the change between modes of production has been triggered by . According to this analysis, the Industrial Revolution ushered the world into a new mode of production: capitalism. Before capitalism, certain working classes had ownership of instruments utilized in production, but because machinery was much more efficient this property became worthless and the mass majority of workers could only survive by selling their labor, working through making use of someone else's machinery and therefore making someone else profit. Thus with capitalism the world was divided between two major classes: the proletariat and the bourgeoisie.Engels, Friedrich. Marx & Engels Selected Works, Volume One, pp. 81–97, Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1969. "Principles of Communism". No. 4 – "How did the proletariat originate?". These classes are directly antagonistic: the bourgeoisie has private ownership of the means of production and earns a profit off , which is generated by the proletariat, which has no ownership of the means of production and therefore no option but to sell its labor to the bourgeoisie.

Historical materialism goes on and says: the rising bourgeoisie within feudalism, through the furtherance of its own material interests, captured power and abolished, of all relations of private property, only the feudal privileges and with this took out of existence the feudal ruling class. This was another of the keys behind the consolidation of capitalism as the new mode of production, which is the final expression of class and property relations and also has led into a massive expansion of production. It is therefore only in capitalism that private property in itself can be abolished.Engels, Friedrich. Marx & Engels Selected Works, Volume One, pp. 81–97, Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1969. "Principles of Communism". No. 15 – "Was not the abolition of private property possible at an earlier time?". Similarly, the proletariat will capture political power, abolish bourgeois property through the common ownership of the means of production, therefore abolishing the bourgeoisie and ultimately abolishing the proletariat itself and ushering the world into a new mode of production: communism. In between capitalism and communism there is the dictatorship of the proletariat, a democratic state where the whole of the public authority is elected and recallable under the basis of universal suffrage.Thomas M. Twiss. Trotsky and the Problem of Soviet Bureaucracy. Brill. pp. 28–29. It is the defeat of the bourgeois state, but not yet of the capitalist mode of production and at the same time the only element which places into the realm of possibility moving on from this mode of production.

An important concept in Marxism is socialization vs. nationalization. Nationalization is merely state ownership of property, whereas socialization is actual control and management of property by society. Marxism considers socialization its goal and considers nationalization a tactical issue, with state ownership still being in the realm of the capitalist mode of production. In the words of Engels: "The into State-ownership does not do away with the capitalistic nature of the productive forces. ... State-ownership of the productive forces is not the solution of the conflict, but concealed within it are the technical conditions that form the elements of that solution".Engels, Friedrich. . Chapter 3. "But, the transformation—either into joint-stock companies and trusts, or into State-ownership—does not do away with the capitalistic nature of the productive forces. In the joint-stock companies and trusts, this is obvious. And the modern State, again, is only the organization that bourgeois society takes on in order to support the external conditions of the capitalist mode of production against the encroachments as well of the workers as of individual capitalists. The modern state, no matter what its form, is essentially a capitalist machine—the state of the capitalists, the ideal personification of the total national capital. The more it proceeds to the taking over of productive forces, the more does it actually become the national capitalist, the more citizens does it exploit. The workers remain wage-workers—proletarians. The capitalist relation is not done away with. It is, rather, brought to a head. But, brought to a head, it topples over. State-ownership of the productive forces is not the solution of the conflict, but concealed within it are the technical conditions that form the elements of that solution". This has led some Marxist groups and tendencies to label states such as the Soviet Union—based on nationalization—as . "State capitalism" in the Soviet Union, M.C. Howard and J.E. King.


is the body of political theory, developed by and named after the Russian revolutionary and later Soviet premier for the democratic organisation of a revolutionary vanguard party and the achievement of a dictatorship of the proletariat, as political prelude to the establishment of socialism. Leninism comprises socialist political and economic theories developed from Marxism, as well as Lenin's interpretations of Marxist theory for practical application to the socio-political conditions of the agrarian early-twentieth-century . In February 1917, for five years Leninism was the Russian application of Marxist economics and political philosophy, effected and realised by the Bolsheviks, the vanguard party who led the fight for the political independence of the working class.

Marxism–Leninism, Stalinism and Trotskyism

Marxism–Leninism and Stalinism
Marxism–Leninism is a political ideology developed by ,Г. Лисичкин (G. Lisichkin), Мифы и реальность, Новый мир ( ), 1989, № 3, p. 59 . which according to its proponents is based in and . The term describes the specific political ideology which Stalin implemented in the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and in a global scale in the . There is no definite agreement between historians of about whether Stalin actually followed the principles of Marx and Lenin.Александр Бутенко (Aleksandr Butenko), Социализм сегодня: опыт и новая теория// Журнал Альтернативы, №1, 1996, pp. 2–22 . It also contains aspects which according to some are deviations from Marxism, such as "socialism in one country". Contemporary Marxism, issues 4–5. Synthesis Publications, 1981. p. 151. "Socialism in one country, a pragmatic deviation from classical Marxism".North Korea Under Communism: Report of an Envoy to Paradise. Cornell Erik. p. 169. "Socialism in one country, a slogan that aroused protests as not only it implied a major deviation from Marxist internationalism, but was also strictly speaking incompatible with the basic tenets of Marxism". Marxism–Leninism was the ideology of the most clearly visible communist movement. As such, it is the most prominent ideology associated with communism.

Marxism–Leninism refers to the socioeconomic system and political ideology implemented by Stalin in the Soviet Union and later copied by other states based on the Soviet model (central planning, and so on), whereas refers to Stalin's style of governance (political repression, cult of personality and the like). Marxism–Leninism stayed after , Stalinism did not. In the last letters before his death, Lenin in fact warned against the danger of Stalin's personality and urged the Soviet government to replace him.

(2018). 9781533082893

is a form of Marxism–Leninism associated with Chinese leader . After de-Stalinization, Marxism–Leninism was kept in the Soviet Union, but certain tendencies such as and Maoism argued that it was deviated from, therefore different policies were applied in Albania and China, which became more distanced from the Soviet Union.

Marxism–Leninism has been criticized by other communist and Marxist tendencies. They argue that Marxist–Leninist states did not establish socialism, but rather . According to Marxism, the dictatorship of the proletariat represents the rule of the majority (democracy) rather than of one party, to the extent that co-founder of Marxism described its "specific form" as the . A Critique of the Draft Social-Democratic Program of 1891. "Marx & Engels Collected Works", Vol 27, p. 217. "If one thing is certain it is that our party and the working class can only come to power under the form of a democratic republic. This is even the specific form for the dictatorship of the proletariat". Additionally, according to Engels state property by itself is private property of capitalist nature"Socialism: Utopian and Scientific". Friedrich Engels. Part III. Progress Publishers. "But, the transformation—either into joint-stock companies and trusts, or into State-ownership—does not do away with the capitalistic nature of the productive forces". unless the proletariat has control of political power, in which case it forms public property."Socialism: Utopian and Scientific". Friedrich Engels. Part III. Progress Publishers. "The proletariat seizes the public power, and by means of this transforms the socialized means of production, slipping from the hands of the bourgeoisie, into public property. By this act, the proletariat frees the means of production from the character of capital they have thus far borne, and gives their socialized character complete freedom to work itself out". Whether the proletariat was actually in control of the Marxist–Leninist states is a matter of debate between Marxism–Leninism and other communist tendencies. To these tendencies, Marxism–Leninism is neither Marxism nor Leninism nor the union of both, but rather an artificial term created to justify Stalin's ideological distortion,History for the IB Diploma: Communism in Crisis 1976–89. Allan Todd. p. 16. "The term Marxism–Leninism, invented by Stalin, was not used until after Lenin's death in 1924. It soon came to be used in Stalin's Soviet Union to refer to what he described as 'orthodox Marxism'. This increasingly came to mean what Stalin himself had to say about political and economic issues." ... "However, many Marxists (even members of the Communist Party itself) believed that Stalin's ideas and practices (such as socialism in one country and the purges) were almost total distortions of what Marx and Lenin had said". forced into the CPSU and Comintern. In the Soviet Union, this struggle against Marxism–Leninism was represented by , which describes itself as a Marxist and Leninist tendency.

is a Marxist and Leninist tendency that was developed by , opposed to Marxism–Leninism. It supports the theory of permanent revolution and instead of the two stage theory and socialism in one country. It supported proletarian internationalism and another communist revolution in the Soviet Union, which Trotsky claimed had become a "degenerated worker's state" under the leadership of Stalin, in which class relations had re-emerged in a new form, rather than the dictatorship of the proletariat.

Trotsky and his supporters, struggling against Stalin for power in the Soviet Union, organized into the and their platform became known as Trotskyism. Stalin eventually succeeded in gaining control of the Soviet regime and Trotskyist attempts to remove Stalin from power resulted in Trotsky's exile from the Soviet Union in 1929. While in exile, Trotsky continued his campaign against Stalin, founding in 1938 the Fourth International, a Trotskyist rival to the In August 1940, Trotsky was assassinated in Mexico City on Stalin's orders.

Trotsky's politics differed sharply from those of Stalin and Mao, most importantly in declaring the need for an international proletarian revolution (rather than socialism in one country) and support for a true dictatorship of the proletariat based on democratic principles.

Libertarian Marxism
Libertarian Marxism is a broad range of economic and political philosophies that emphasize the anti-authoritarian aspects of . Early currents of libertarian Marxism, known as left communism,Pierce, Wayne. Libertarian Marxism's Relation to Anarchism. "The Utopian". 73–80. emerged in opposition to Marxism–Leninism
(2018). 9780979181368, Red and Black Publishers.
and its derivatives, such as , and .Marot, Eric. "Trotsky, the Left Opposition and the Rise of Stalinism: Theory and Practice" Libertarian Marxism is also critical of positions, such as those held by . The Retreat of Social Democracy ... Re-imposition of Work in Britain and the 'Social Europe'. Aufheben. Issue No. 8. 1999. Libertarian Marxist currents often draw from Marx and Engels' later works, specifically the and The Civil War in France,Ernesto Screpanti, Libertarian Communism: Marx Engels and the Political Economy of Freedom, Palgrave Macmillan, London, 2007. emphasizing the Marxist belief in the ability of the to forge its own destiny without the need for a revolutionary party or state to mediate or aid its liberation. Along with , libertarian Marxism is one of the main currents of libertarian socialism.Chomsky, Noam. "Government In The Future" Poetry Center of the New York YM-YWHA. Lecture.

Libertarian Marxism includes such currents as , council communism, , Socialisme ou Barbarie, the Johnson-Forest tendency, , /Situationism and / and . Libertarian Marxism has often had a strong influence on both post-left and . Notable theorists of libertarian Marxism have included , Raya Dunayevskaya, , , Cornelius Castoriadis, , , Daniel Guérin, Ernesto Screpanti and .

Council communism
Council communism is a movement originating in and the in the 1920s. Its primary organization was the Communist Workers Party of Germany. Council communism continues today as a theoretical and activist position within both left-wing Marxism and libertarian socialism.

The central argument of council communism, in contrast to those of and Leninist communism, is that democratic workers' councils arising in the factories and municipalities are the natural form of working class organization and governmental power. This view is opposed to both the and the Leninist , with their stress on respectively parliaments and institutional government (i.e. by applying social reforms on the one hand and and participative democratic centralism on the other).

The core principle of council communism is that the government and the should be managed by workers' councils composed of delegates elected at workplaces and at any moment. As such, council communists oppose ""/"". They also oppose the idea of a "revolutionary party", since council communists believe that a revolution led by a party will necessarily produce a party dictatorship. Council communists support a worker's democracy, which they want to produce through a federation of workers' councils.

Left communism
is the range of communist viewpoints held by the communist left, which criticizes the political ideas and practices espoused—particularly following the series of revolutions which brought the First World War to an end—by and by . Left communists assert positions which they regard as more authentically and than the views of Marxism–Leninism espoused by the after its first congress (March 1919) and during its second congress (July–August 1920). Non-Leninist Marxism: Writings on the Workers Councils (includes texts by , Pannekoek, and Rühle), Red and Black Publishers, St. Petersburg, Florida, 2007. .

Left communists represent a range of political movements distinct from Marxist–Leninists (whom they largely view as merely the left-wing of capital), from anarcho-communists (some of whom they consider internationalist socialists) as well as from various other revolutionary socialist tendencies (for example , whom they tend to see as being internationalist socialists only in limited instances).

Non-Marxist communism
The dominant forms of communism are based on Marxism, but non-Marxist versions of communism (such as Christian communism and anarcho-communism) also exist.

Anarcho-communism (also known as libertarian communism) is a theory of which advocates the abolition of the state, and in favor of of the means of production,
(1999). 9780275961510, Greenwood Publishing Group. .
(2018). 9781599862187, Filiquarian Publishing. .
and a horizontal network of voluntary associations and workers' councils with production and consumption based on the guiding principle: "From each according to his ability, to each according to his need".

Anarcho-communism differs from Marxism rejecting its view about the need for a state socialism phase before building communism. The main theorist of anarcho-communism, , argued that a revolutionary society should "transform itself immediately into a communist society", that is should go immediately into what Marx had regarded as the "more advanced, completed, phase of communism". In this way, it tries to avoid the reappearance of "class divisions and the need for a state to oversee everything".

Some forms of anarcho-communism such as insurrectionary anarchism are and strongly influenced by radical ,Christopher Gray, Leaving the Twentieth Century, p. 88. believing that anarchist communism does not require a communitarian nature at all. Most anarcho-communists view anarchist communism as a way of reconciling the opposition between the individual and society."Communism is the one which guarantees the greatest amount of individual liberty—provided that the idea that begets the community be Liberty, Anarchy ... Communism guarantees economic freedom better than any other form of association, because it can guarantee wellbeing, even luxury, in return for a few hours of work instead of a day's work". This other society will be libertarian communism, in which social solidarity and free individuality find their full expression, and in which these two ideas develop in perfect harmony. "I see the dichotomies made between individualism and communism, individual revolt and class struggle, the struggle against human exploitation and the exploitation of nature as false dichotomies and feel that those who accept them are impoverishing their own critique and struggle".

To date in human history, the best-known examples of an anarcho-communist society, established around the ideas as they exist today and that received worldwide attention and knowledge in the historical canon, are the anarchist territories during the Spanish Revolution and the during the Russian Revolution. Through the efforts and influence of the Spanish anarchists during the Spanish Revolution within the Spanish Civil War, starting in 1936 anarcho-communism existed in most of , parts of the Levante and as well as in the stronghold of Anarchist Catalonia before being brutally crushed by the combined forces of the , , , Communist Party of Spain repression (backed by the Soviet Union) as well as economic and armaments blockades from the capitalist countries and the Spanish Republic itself. During the Russian Revolution, anarchists such as worked to create and defend—through the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine—anarcho-communism in the of the Ukraine from 1919 before being conquered by the Bolsheviks in 1921.

Christian communism
Christian communism is a form of religious communism based on . It is a theological and political theory based upon the view that the teachings of Jesus Christ compel Christians to support communism as the ideal social system. Although there is no universal agreement on the exact date when Christian communism was founded, many Christian communists assert that evidence from the suggests that the first Christians, including the Apostles, established their own small communist society in the years following Jesus' death and resurrection. As such, many advocates of Christian communism argue that it was taught by Jesus and practiced by the Apostles themselves.

Christian communism can be seen as a radical form of Christian socialism. Christian communists may or may not agree with various aspects of . They do not agree with the atheist and antireligious views held by secular Marxists, but they do agree with many of the economic and existential aspects of Marxist theory, such as the idea that exploits the by extracting from the workers in the form of profits and the idea that is a tool of human alienation that promotes arbitrary and unjust . Like Marxism, Christian communism also holds the view that capitalism encourages the negative aspects of humans, supplanting values such as mercy, kindness, justice and compassion in favor of greed, selfishness and blind ambition.

Criticism of communism can be divided into two broad categories: those concerning themselves with the practical aspects of 20th century and those concerning themselves with communist principles and theory.Raymond C. Taras, The Road to Disillusion: From Critical Marxism to Post-communism in Eastern Europe (Routledge, 2015).

Marxism is also subject to general criticisms, criticisms related to historical materialism that it is a type of historical determinism, the necessary suppression of liberal democratic rights, issues with the implementation of communism and economic issues such as the distortion or absence of . In addition, empirical and epistemological problems are frequently identified.See M. C. Howard and J. E. King, 1992, A History of Marxian Economics: Volume II, 1929–1990. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.

(2018). 9780415285940, Routledge.
John Maynard Keynes. Essays in Persuasion. W. W. Norton & Company. 1991. p. 300. .

See also



Further reading
  • Adamczak, Bini. Communism for Kids. Translated by Jacob Blumenfeld and Sophie Lewis. , 2017. .
  • Adami, Stefano. "Communism", in Encyclopedia of Italian Literary Studies, ed. Gaetana Marrone – P. Puppa, Routledge, New York, London, 2006.
  • Beer, Max. The General History of Socialism and Social Struggles Volumes 1 & 2. New York, Russel and Russel, Inc. 1957.
  • Daniels, Robert Vincent. A Documentary History of Communism and the World: From Revolution to Collapse. University Press of , 1994. .
  • . The Communist Horizon. Verso, 2012. .
  • Dirlik, Arif. Origins of Chinese Communism. Oxford University Press, 1989. .
  • Forman, James D. Communism From Marx's Manifesto To 20th century Reality. New York, Watts. 1972. .
  • Furet, Francois and Deborah Kan (translator). The Passing of An Illusion: The Idea of Communism In the Twentieth Century. University of Chicago Press, 2000. .
  • Ghodsee, Kristen R. Red Hangover: Legacies of Twentieth-Century Communism. Duke University Press, 2017. .
  • and . Communist Manifesto. (Mass Market Paperback – REPRINT), Signet Classics, 1998. .
  • Pons, Silvio and Robert Service. A Dictionary of 20th century Communism. 2010.
  • Zinoviev, Alexandre. The Reality of Communism (1980), Publisher Schocken, 1984.

External links
  • Extensive library of almost 20,000 articles, books, pamphlets and journals on libertarian communism.
  • The Radical Pamphlet Collection at the Library of Congress contains materials on the topic of communism.

Page 1 of 1


Pages:  ..   .. 
Items:  .. 


General: Atom Feed Atom Feed  .. 
Help:  ..   .. 
Category:  ..   .. 
Media:  ..   .. 
Posts:  ..   ..   .. 


Page:  .. 
Summary:  .. 
1 Tags
10/10 Page Rank
5 Page Refs
4s Time