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   » » Wiki: Cocoa Butter
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Cocoa butter, also called theobroma oil, is a pale-yellow, edible extracted from the ( Theobroma cacao). It is used to make , as well as some , , and . Cocoa butter has a cocoa and . Its melting point is slightly below human body temperature. It is an essential ingredient of chocolate and related confectionary products. Cocoa butter does not contain or other animal products; it is .


Extraction and composition
For use in chocolate manufacture, the cocoa beans are first fermented and then dried. The beans are then roasted and separated from their hulls to produce cocoa nibs. About 54–58% of the cocoa nibs is cocoa butter. The cocoa nibs are ground to form , also known as cocoa liquor or chocolate liquor. Chocolate liquor is pressed to separate the cocoa butter from the non-fat cocoa solids. Cocoa butter is sometimes deodorized to remove strong or undesirable tastes.

Cocoa butter contains a high proportion of saturated fats also with the monounsaturated oleic acid in each triglyceride. The predominant triglycerides are POS, SOS, and POP, where P = palmitic, O = oleic, and S = stearic acid residues. Cocoa butter, unlike non-fat , contains only traces of and .

+ Typical fatty acid composition (%) ! !! Percentage
1.0%
3.2%
34.5%
26.0%
0.3%
34.5%
0.5%


Adulterants and substitutes
Some food manufacturers substitute less expensive materials in place of cocoa butter. Several analytical methods exist for testing for diluted cocoa butter. Adulterated cocoa butter is indicated by its lighter color and its diminished upon illumination. Unlike cocoa butter, adulterated fat tends to smear and have a higher non-saponifiable content.

Owing to the high cost of cocoa butter, substitutes have been designed to use as alternatives. In the United States, 100% cocoa butter must be used for the product to be called chocolate. The EU requires that alternative fats not exceed 5% of the total fat content.

Substitutes include: , , , , and oils; and , mango kernel fat and a mixture of mango kernel fat and palm oil, and PGPR.


Uses
Cocoa butter is a major ingredient in practically all types of chocolates (, , and ). This application continues to dominate the consumption of cocoa butter.

Pharmaceutical companies use cocoa butter extensively. As a nontoxic solid at room temperature that melts at body temperature, it is considered an ideal base for medicinal suppositories.


Personal care
For a fat melting around body temperature, cocoa has good stability. This quality, coupled with natural , prevents – giving it a storage life of two to five years. The velvety texture, pleasant fragrance and properties of cocoa butter have made it a popular ingredient in products for the skin, such as and .


Physical properties
Cocoa butter typically has a of around , so chocolate is solid at but readily melts once inside the . Cocoa butter displays polymorphism, having different crystalline forms with different melting points. Conventionally the assignment of cocoa butter crystalline forms uses the nomenclature of Wille and Lutton with forms I, II, III, IV, V, and VI having melting points , respectively. The production of chocolate aims to crystallise the chocolate so that the cocoa butter is predominantly in form V, which is the most stable form that can be obtained from melted cocoa butter. (Form VI either develops in solid cocoa butter after long storage or is obtained by crystallisation from solvents). A uniform form V crystal structure will result in smooth texture, sheen, and snap. This structure is obtained by chocolate tempering. Melting the cocoa butter in chocolate and then allowing it to solidify without tempering leads to the formation of unstable polymorphic forms of cocoa butter. This can easily happen when chocolate bars are allowed to melt in a hot room and leads to the formation of white patches on the surface of the chocolate called fat bloom or .Industrial Chocolate Manufacture and Use, 4th Edition, ed S.T. Beckett, Chapter 12, G. Talbot


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