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   » » Wiki: Automotive Industry
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The automotive industry comprises a wide range of and involved in the , development, , , and of . It is one of the world's largest by . The automotive industry does not include industries dedicated to the maintenance of automobiles following delivery to the end-user, such as automobile repair shops and .

The word automotive comes from the Greek autos (self), and Latin motivus (of motion), referring to any form of self-powered vehicle. This term, as proposed by Elmer Sperry

(1860-1930), first came into use with reference to automobiles in 1898.


History
The automotive industry began in the 1860s with hundreds of manufacturers that pioneered the horseless carriage. For many decades, the United States led the world in total automobile production. In 1929, before the , the world had 32,028,500 automobiles in use, and the U.S. automobile industry produced over 90% of them. At that time the U.S. had one car per 4.87 persons. After World War II, the U.S. produced about 75 percent of world's auto production. In 1980, the U.S. was overtaken by Japan and then became world's leader again in 1994. In 2006, Japan narrowly passed the U.S. in production and held this rank until 2009, when China took the top spot with 13.8 million units. With 19.3 million units manufactured in 2012, China almost doubled the U.S. production, with 10.3 million units, while Japan was in third place with 9.9 million units. From 1970 (140 models) over 1998 (260 models) to 2012 (684 models), the number of automobile models in the U.S. has grown exponentially.


Safety
Safety is a state that implies to be protected from any risk, danger, damage or cause of injury. In the automotive industry, safety means that users, operators or do not face any risk or danger coming from the motor vehicle or its spare parts. Safety for the automobiles themselves, implies that there is no risk of damage.

Safety in the automotive industry is particularly important and therefore highly regulated. and other have to comply with a certain number of norms and regulations, whether local or international, in order to be accepted on the market. The standard ISO 26262, is considered as one of the best practice framework for achieving automotive functional safety.

In case of safety issues, danger, or faulty procedure during the manufacturing of the motor vehicle, the maker can request to return either a batch or the entire production run. This procedure is called . Product recalls happen in every industry and can be production-related or stem from the raw material.

Product and operation tests and inspections at different stages of the are made to avoid these product recalls by ensuring end-user security and safety and compliance with the automotive industry requirements. However, the automotive industry is still particularly concerned about product recalls, which cause considerable financial consequences.


Economy
Around the world, there were about 806 million cars and light trucks on the road in 2007, consuming over of gasoline and diesel fuel yearly. The automobile is a primary mode of transportation for many developed economies. The Detroit branch of Boston Consulting Group predicts that, by 2014, one-third of world demand will be in the four markets (Brazil, Russia, India and China). Meanwhile, in the developed countries, the automotive industry has slowed down. It is also expected that this trend will continue, especially as the younger generations of people (in highly urbanized countries) no longer want to own a car anymore, and prefer other modes of transport. Other potentially powerful automotive markets are and . Emerging auto markets already buy more cars than established markets. According to a J.D. Power study, emerging markets accounted for 51 percent of the global light-vehicle sales in 2010. The study, performed in 2010 expected this trend to accelerate. However, more recent reports (2012) confirmed the opposite; namely that the automotive industry was slowing down even in BRIC countries. In the United States, vehicle sales peaked in 2000, at 17.8 million units.


World motor vehicle production

By year
199754,434,000
199852,987,0002.7%
199956,258,8926.2%
200058,374,1623.8%
200156,304,9253.5%
200258,994,3184.8%
200360,663,2252.8%
200464,496,2206.3%
200566,482,4393.1%
200669,222,9754.1%
200773,266,0615.8%
200870,520,4933.7%
200961,791,86812.4%
201077,857,70526.0%
201179,989,1553.1%
201284,141,2095.3%
201387,300,1153.7%
201489,747,4302.6%
201590,086,3460.4%
201694,976,5694.5%
201797,302,5342.36%


By country
The OICA counts over 50 countries which assemble, manufacture or disseminate automobiles. Of that figure, only 14 countries ( boldfaced in the list below) currently possess the capability to design original production automobiles from the ground up.http://www.oica.net/wp-content/uploads/By-country.pdf


By manufacturer
This is a list of the 15 largest manufacturers by production volume in 2017, according to OICA. OICA: World Ranking of Manufacturers
10,466,051
10,382,334
7,218,391
6,856,880
6,386,818
5,769,277
5,236,842
4,600,847
4,153,589
3,649,742
3,302,336
2,866,913
2,549,142
2,505,741
1,950,382


By market segment

Company relationships

Stake holding
It is common for automobile manufacturers to hold stakes in other automobile manufacturers. These ownerships can be explored under the detail for the individual companies.

Notable current relationships include:


Joint ventures
  • Beijing Automotive Group has a joint venture with called , both companies hold a 50-50% stake. both companies also have a joint venture called Beijing Foton Daimler Automobile.
  • Beijing Automotive Group also has a joint venture with Hyundai called , both companies hold a 50-50% stake.
  • and have a joint venture called . BMW owns a 50% stake, Brilliance owns a 40.5% stake, and the Shenyang municipal government owns a 9.5% stake.
  • Changan Automobile has a joint venture with (), both hold a 50-50% stake,
  • Changan Automobile has a joint venture with Suzuki (), both hold a 50-50% stake,
  • Changan Automobile has a 50-50% joint venture with Mazda ().
  • Changan Automobile and have a 50-50% joint venture called .
  • Changan Automobile and have a joint venture called Jiangling Motor Holding.
  • has a joint venture with called Chery Jaguar Land Rover, both companies hold a 50-50% stake.
  • and Israel Corporation has a joint venture called , both companies hold a 50-50% stake.
  • and have a joint venture called , both companies hold a 50-50% stake.
  • Dongfeng Motor and have a 50-50% joint venture called Dongfeng Motor Company.
  • and PSA Group have a 50-50% joint venture called Dongfeng Peugeot-Citroen,
  • has a 50-50% joint venture with called ,
  • has a joint venture with called Dongfeng Nissan-Diesel,
  • has a 50-50% joint venture with named in , which was founded in the end of 2013
  • and Navistar International have a 50-50 joint venture called Blue Diamond Truck.
  • and have a 50-50 joint venture called .
  • and Koç Holding have a 50-50 joint venture called .
  • and Lio Ho Group have a joint venture called Ford Lio Ho, Ford owns 70% and Lio Ho Group owns 30%.
  • and has a 50-50 joint venture called ,
  • has a 50-50 joint venture with called ,
  • has a 50-50 joint venture with Toyota called Sichuan FAW Toyota Motor and both companies also have another joint venture called .
  • and Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation (SAIC), both have two joint ventures in and SAIC-GM-Wuling Automobile. Both also hold an equal 50% stake in General Motors India Private Limited.
  • and UzAvtosanoat have a joint venture called , UzAvtosanoat owns 75% and General Motors owns 25%.
  • , , and EBRD have a joint venture called , Both GM and AvtoVAZ owns 41.61% and EBRD owns 16.76%.
  • Hyundai Motor Company and has a joint venture called Hyundai Assan Otomotiv, Hyundai owns 70% and owns 30%.
  • and Anadolu Group have a 50-50% joint venture called Anadolu Isuzu.
  • and has a 50-50% joint venture called Isuzu Truck South Africa.
  • , , and Imperial Sojitz have a joint venture called , Sollers JSC owns 66%, Isuzu owns 29%, and Imperial Sojitz owns 5%.
  • Mahindra & Mahindra and Navistar International have a joint venture called Mahindra Trucks and Buses Limited. Mahindra & Mahindra owns 51% and Navistar International owns 49%.
  • Mahindra & Mahindra has a joint venture with called , where Mahindra & Mahindra owns 51% and owns 49%.
  • and have a joint venture called MAN Auto-Uzbekistan, owns 51% and owns 49%.
  • Navistar International and JAC has a joint venture called Anhui Jianghuai Navistar.
  • and have a 50-50% joint venture called Toyota Peugeot Citroen Automobile Czech
  • is involved in joint ventures with Ford () and to produce cars.
  • also formed a joint venture in India with and gained access to Fiat's diesel engine technology.
  • and Marcopolo have a joint venture called , where Tata owns 51% and Marcopolo owns 49%.
  • and has a 50-50% joint venture called VE Commercial Vehicles.


Top vehicle manufacturing groups by volume
The table below shows the world's 10 largest motor vehicle manufacturing groups, along with the produced by each one. The table is ranked by 2016 production figures from the International Organization of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers (OICA) for the parent group, and then alphabetically by marque. Joint ventures are not reflected in this table. Production figures of joint ventures are typically included in OICA rankings, which can become a source of controversy.

1. (Japan)
JapanSubsidiary|Europe, Asia ( except South Korea, South Asia (excluding Sri Lanka)), Africa, South America'''
JapanSubsidiary|South East Asia, Japan, North America, Central America, South America, Caribbean
JapanBusiness Unit|South East Asia, China, Japan, South Korea, Middle East, United States, Canada, Europe, Brazil, Costa Rica, Panama, Chile, Peru, Bolivia, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, India
JapanDivision|Global, except Iran
2. (Germany)
GermanySubsidiary|Global, except Iran
United KingdomSubsidiary|Global
FranceSubsidiary|Global, except Australia
ItalySubsidiary|Global
ItalySubsidiary|Global
GermanySubsidiary|Global, except North America
GermanySubsidiary|Global, except Iran, North Korea, Syria, Cuba
SwedenSubsidiary|Global, except North America
SpainSubsidiary|Europe, China, Singapore, Mexico, Central America, South America ( Excluding Chile), Middle East, Northern Africa
Subsidiary|Europe, Asia ( except Indonesia, The Philippines, Iran, Japan, South Korea, North Korea), Central America, South America, Dominican Republic, Northern Africa, Western Africa, Australia, New Zealand
GermanyDivision|Global
GermanySubsidiary|Global
BrazilBusiness Unit|Brazil, Mexico, Nigeria, South Africa
3. Hyundai (South Korea)
South KoreaBusiness Unit|South Korea, Russia, United States, Canada, Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates
South KoreaDivision|Global
South KoreaSubsidiary|Global ( except Japan)
4. (United States)
United StatesBusiness Unit|North America, China, Israel
United StatesBusiness Unit|North America, Middle East, China, Europe, Japan, South Korea
United StatesBusiness Unit|Global, ( except Europe, Australia, New Zealand, India)
United StatesBusiness Unit|North America, Middle East ( except Israel)
AustraliaSubsidiary|Australia, New Zealand
ChinaBusiness Unit|China
ChinaBusiness Unit|China
Business Unit|Central Asia, Russia
5. Ford (United States)
United StatesDivision|Global
United StatesBusiness Unit|North America, Middle East, Japan, South Korea, China
BrazilSubsidiary|South America, Africa, Australia, Europe
6. (Japan)
JapanDivision|Indonesia, India, Russia, South Africa, Bolivia
JapanSubsidiary|Global, except South America ( excluding Chile), Indonesia, Africa ( excluding South Africa)
JapanDivision|Global
7. (Japan)
JapanDivision|China, Kuwait, North America, Russia
JapanDivision|Global
8. Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (Italy)/(USA)
ItalySubsidiary|Global, except Iran
ItalySubsidiary|Global, except Iran, China, Taiwan, the Philippines and Brazil
United StatesDivision|Global, except Europe ( excluding United Kingdom, Ireland), Africa ( excluding South Africa, Egypt), South Asia, South East Asia ( excluding Indonesia, the Philippines, Singapore)
United StatesDivision|Global, except Europe, Africa ( excluding South Africa, Egypt), South Asia, South East Asia ( excluding Indonesia, the Philippines)
ItalySubsidiary|Global, except Africa ( excluding South Africa), Iran, South East Asia
Italy /United StatesBusiness Unit|Global, except Africa ( excluding South Africa), Iran, South East Asia, United States, Canada
United StatesDivision|Global, except Africa ( excluding South Africa, Egypt), South Asia ( excluding India, Sri Lanka), South East Asia ( excluding Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Singapore)
ItalyDivision|Europe, except United Kingdom, Ireland
ItalySubsidiary|Global
United StatesDivision|North America, Brazil, Middle East, Peru, Australia
9. (France)
FranceSubsidiary|Europe, Japan and Australia
Subsidiary|Europe, North Africa
RussiaBusiness Unit|Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Austria, France, Germany, Hungary, Egypt
FranceDivision|Global ( except USA and Canada)
South KoreaSubsidiary|South Korea
10. (France)
FranceDivision|Europe, Central and South America, Northern and Western Africa, South Africa, Madagascar, Australia, New Zealand, Asia ( except India, Pakistan, Bangladesh)
FranceDivision|Europe, China and Brazil
FranceDivision|Global, ( except USA, Canada, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh)
GermanySubsidiary|Europe (except United Kingdom), North Africa, South Africa, Middle East, Singapore, Chile
United KingdomSubsidiary|United Kingdom

  • General Motors India stopped producing vehicles for the Indian market in 2017. It however continues to export vehicles to other markets.


See also
  • Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers
  • Automotive industry by country
  • Automotive industry crisis of 2008–2010
  • Automotive industry in the United States
  • Big Three (automobile manufacturers)
  • Effects of the 2008–10 automotive industry crisis on the United States
  • List of countries by motor vehicle production
  • List of largest automotive companies by revenue


External links

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