Product Code Database
Example Keywords: the legend -robots $62
barcode-scavenger
   » » Wiki: Automotive Industry
Tag Wiki 'Automotive Industry'.
Tag

The automotive industry comprises a wide range of and involved in the , development, , , and of . It is one of the world's largest industries by . The automotive industry does not include industries dedicated to the maintenance of following delivery to the end-user, such as automobile repair shops and .

The word automotive comes from the autos (self), and motivus (of ), referring to any form of self-powered vehicle. This term, as proposed by Elmer Sperry

(1860-1930), first came into use with reference to automobiles in 1898.


History
The automotive industry began in the 1860s with hundreds of manufacturers that pioneered the horseless carriage. For many decades, the led the world in total automobile production. In 1929, before the , the world had 32,028,500 automobiles in use, and the U.S. automobile industry produced over 90% of them. At that time, the U.S. had one car per 4.87 persons. After 1945, the U.S. produced about 75 percent of world's auto production. In 1980, the U.S. was overtaken by Japan and then became world leader again in 1994. In 2006, Japan narrowly passed the U.S. in production and held this rank until 2009, when China took the top spot with 13.8 million units. With 19.3 million units manufactured in 2012, China almost doubled the U.S. production of 10.3 million units, while Japan was in third place with 9.9 million units. From 1970 (140 models) over 1998 (260 models) to 2012 (684 models), the number of automobile models in the U.S. has grown exponentially.

Early car manufacturing involved manual assembly by a human worker. The process evolved from engineers working on a stationary car, to a conveyor belt system where the car passed through multiple stations of more specialised engineers. Starting in the 1960s, robotic equipment was introduced to the process, and today most cars are produced largely with automated machinary.


Safety
Safety is a state that implies being protected from any risk, danger, damage, or cause of injury. In the automotive industry, safety means that users, operators, or do not face any risk or danger coming from the motor vehicle or its spare parts. Safety for the automobiles themselves implies that there is no risk of damage.

Safety in the automotive industry is particularly important and therefore highly regulated. and other have to comply with a certain number of regulations, whether local or international, in order to be accepted on the market. The standard ISO 26262, is considered one of the best practice frameworks for achieving automotive functional safety.

In case of safety issues, danger, or faulty procedure during the manufacturing of the motor vehicle, the maker can request to return either a batch or the entire production run. This procedure is called . Product recalls happen in every industry and can be production-related or stem from raw material.

Product and operation tests and inspections at different stages of the are made to avoid these product recalls by ensuring end-user security and safety and compliance with the automotive industry requirements. However, the automotive industry is still particularly concerned about product recalls, which cause considerable financial consequences.


Economy
In 2007, there were about 806 million cars and light trucks on the road, consuming over of and yearly. The automobile is a primary mode of for many developed economies. The Detroit branch of Boston Consulting Group predicted that, by 2014, one-third of world demand would be in the four markets (Brazil, Russia, India and China). Meanwhile, in the developed countries, the automotive industry has slowed. It is also expected that this trend will continue, especially as the younger generations of people (in highly urbanized countries) no longer want to own a car anymore, and prefer other modes of transport. Other potentially powerful automotive markets are and . Emerging automobile markets already buy more cars than established markets.

According to a J.D. Power study, emerging markets accounted for 51 percent of the global light-vehicle sales in 2010. The study, performed in 2010 expected this trend to accelerate. However, more recent reports (2012) confirmed the opposite; namely that the automotive industry was slowing down even in BRIC countries. In the United States, vehicle sales peaked in 2000, at 17.8 million units.

In July 2021, the European Commission released its "Fit for 55" legislation package, which contains important guidelines for the future of the automotive industry; all new cars on the European market must be zero-emission vehicles from 2035.

The governments of 24 developed countries and a group of major car manufacturers including , Ford, , , Jaguar Land Rover and committed to "work towards all sales of new cars and vans being zero emission globally by 2040, and by no later than 2035 in leading markets". Major car manufacturing nations like the US, Germany, China, Japan and South Korea, as well as , , , , and Hyundai, did not pledge.


World motor vehicle production

By year
199754,434,000
199852,987,0002.7%
199956,258,8926.2%
200058,374,1623.8%
200156,304,9253.5%
200258,994,3184.8%
200360,663,2252.8%
200464,496,2206.3%
200566,482,4393.1%
200669,222,9754.1%
200773,266,0615.8%
200870,520,4933.7%
200961,791,86812.4%
201077,857,70526.0%
201179,989,1553.1%
201284,141,2095.3%
201387,300,1153.7%
201489,747,4302.6%
201590,086,3460.4%
201694,976,5694.5%
201797,302,5342.36%
201895,634,5931.71%
201991,786,8615.2%
202077,621,58216%

from Harvard Atlas of Economic Complexity


By country
The OICA counts over 50 countries which assemble, manufacture or disseminate automobiles. Of that figure, only 14 countries ( boldfaced in the list below) currently possess the capability to design original production automobiles from the ground up.


By manufacturer
These were the 15 largest manufacturers by production volume in 2017, according to OICA. OICA: World Ranking of Manufacturers
10,466,051
10,382,334
7,218,391
6,856,880
6,386,818
5,769,277
5,236,842
4,600,847
4,153,589
3,649,742
3,302,336
2,866,913
2,549,142
2,505,741
1,950,382


Other rankings
This is the list of the 15 largest publicly-traded car manufacturers by market capitalisation , according to CompaniesMarketCap.com.

$568.11 billion
$214.79 billion
$146.78 billion
$95.59 billion
$81.23 billion
$65.82 billion
$62.45 billion
$56.70 billion
$56.43 billion
$54.75 billion
$52.98 billion
$51.41 billion
$49.10 billion
$47.26 billion
$37.10 billion
This is the list of the 10 largest publicly-traded car manufacturers by Revenue , according to Companiesmarketcap.com
$260.31 B
$255.99 B
$186.66 B
$127.14 B
$125.03 B
$122.84 B
$119.09 B
$104.84 B
$94.40 B
$73.92 B


Notable company relationships

Stake holding
It is common for automobile manufacturers to hold stakes in other automobile manufacturers. These ownerships can be explored under the detail for the individual companies.

Notable current relationships include:

  • holds a 25% stake in .: [5]
  • holds a 10.0% stake in .
  • Daimler holds an 89.29% stake in Mitsubishi Fuso Truck and Bus Corporation.
  • Daimler holds a 3.1% in the Renault-Nissan Alliance, while Renault-Nissan Alliance holds a 3.1% share in .
  • Daimler holds a 12% stake in BAIC Group, while BAIC Group holds 5% stake in Daimler.
  • Daimler holds an 85% stake in .
  • holds a 12.23% stake and a 19.94% exercisable voting rights in .
  • owns 49% of .
  • FCA holds a 10% stake in .
  • FCA holds a 67% stake in Fiat Automobili Srbija.
  • FCA holds 37.8% of Tofaş with another 37.8% owned by Koç Holding.
  • Fiat Automobili Srbija owns a 54% stake in .
  • owns a 46% stake in .
  • Fujian Motors Group holds a 15% stake in . FMG, Beijing Automotive Group, China Motor, and Daimler has a joint venture called . FMG, China Motor, and Mitsubishi Motors has a joint venture called , FMG holds a 50% stake, and both China Motor and Mitsubishi Motors holds an equal 25% stake.
  • holds a 23% stake in The London Taxi Company.
  • Geely Automobile holds a 49.9% stake in and a 51% stake in .
  • Geely Holding Group holds a 9.69% stake in .
  • Geely Holding Group holds an 8.3% stake and a 15.9% exercisable voting rights in .
  • holds a 93% stake in GM India and SAIC Group holds a 7% stake.
  • holds a 94% stake in and SAIC Group holds a 6% stake.
  • General Motors holds a 20% stake in Industries Mécaniques Maghrébines.
  • owns 10% of Industries Mécaniques Maghrébines.
  • Mahindra & Mahindra holds a 70% stake in .
  • holds a 17.01% voting stake in .
  • Marcopolo owns 19% of New Flyer Industries.
  • holds 20% of Mitsubishi Motors.
  • owns 34% of Mitsubishi Motors since October 2016, thus having the right to nominate the chairman of Mitsubishi Motors' board and a third of its directors.
  • Nissan owns 43% of .
  • has a 50.74% voting stake in . The Porsche automotive business is fully owned by the Volkswagen Group.
  • and have an alliance (Renault-Nissan Alliance) involving two global companies linked by cross-shareholding, with Renault holding 43.4% of Nissan shares, and Nissan holding 15% of (non-voting) Renault shares.
  • Renault holds a 25% stake in
  • Renault holds an 80.1% stake in .
  • holds a 51% stake in .
  • holds a 100% stake in Jaguar Land Rover.
  • holds a 100% stake in .
  • Toyota holds a 50.1% stake in .
  • Toyota holds a 5.9% stake in .
  • Toyota holds a 5.05% stake in , while Mazda holds 0.25% stake in Toyota. Toyota buys stake in Mazda, joint US factory, EV development planned | CarAdvice
  • Toyota holds a 16.7% stake in Subaru Corporation, parent company of .
  • Toyota holds a 4.94% stake in , while Suzuki holds 0.2% stake in Toyota.
  • holds a 99.55% stake in the .
  • Volkswagen Group holds a 37.73% stake in (68.6% voting rights), a 53.7% stake in (55.9% voting rights), Volkswagen is integrating Scania, MAN and its own truck division into one division.
  • has a 19% stake in Tatra.
  • ZAP holds a 51% stake in .


Joint ventures

China joint venture
  • Beijing Automotive Group has a joint venture with called , both companies hold a 50-50% stake. both companies also have a joint venture called Beijing Foton Daimler Automobile.
  • Beijing Automotive Group also has a joint venture with Hyundai called , both companies hold a 50-50% stake.
  • and have a joint venture called . BMW owns a 50% stake, Brilliance owns a 40.5% stake, and the Shenyang municipal government owns a 9.5% stake.
  • Changan Automobile has a joint venture with ( ), both hold a 50-50% stake.
  • Changan Automobile has a joint venture with ( ), both hold a 50-50% stake.
  • Changan Automobile has a 50-50% joint venture with ( ).
  • Changan Automobile and Ford have a 50-50% joint venture called .
  • Changan Automobile and have a joint venture called Jiangling Motor Holding.
  • has a joint venture with Jaguar Land Rover called Chery Jaguar Land Rover, both companies hold a 50-50% stake.
  • Chery and Israel Corporation has a joint venture called , both companies hold a 50-50% stake.
  • Dongfeng Motor and have a 50-50% joint venture called Dongfeng Motor Company.
  • Dongfeng Motor and PSA Group have a 50-50% joint venture called Dongfeng Peugeot-Citroën.
  • Dongfeng Motor has a 50-50% joint venture with called .
  • Dongfeng Motor has a joint venture with called Dongfeng Nissan-Diesel.
  • Dongfeng Motor has a 50-50% joint venture with named in , which was founded in the end of 2013
  • and has a 50-50 joint venture called .
  • FAW Group has a 50-50 joint venture with called .
  • FAW Group has a 50-50 joint venture with Toyota called Sichuan FAW Toyota Motor and both companies also have another joint venture called .
  • and , both have two joint ventures in and .


Outside China
  • and have a joint venture called , both companies hold a 50-50% stake.
  • Daimler AG and Geely Holding Group have a joint venture called smart Automobile, both companies hold a 50-50% stake.
  • Ford and Navistar International have a 50-50 joint venture called Blue Diamond Truck.
  • Ford and have a 50-50 joint venture called .
  • Ford and Koç Holding have a 50-50 joint venture called .
  • Ford and Lio Ho Group have a joint venture called Ford Lio Ho, Ford owns 70% and Lio Ho Group owns 30%.
  • General Motors and UzAvtosanoat have a joint venture called , UzAvtosanoat owns 75% and General Motors owns 25%.
  • General Motors, , and EBRD have a joint venture called , Both GM and AvtoVAZ owns 41.61% and EBRD owns 16.76%.
  • Hyundai Motor Company and has a joint venture called Hyundai Assan Otomotiv, Hyundai owns 70% and owns 30%.
  • and Anadolu Group have a 50-50% joint venture called Anadolu Isuzu.
  • Isuzu and has a 50-50% joint venture called Isuzu Truck South Africa.
  • Isuzu, , and Imperial Sojitz have a joint venture called , Sollers JSC owns 66%, Isuzu owns 29%, and Imperial Sojitz owns 5%.
  • Mahindra & Mahindra and Navistar International have a joint venture called Mahindra Trucks and Buses Limited. Mahindra & Mahindra owns 51% and Navistar International owns 49%.
  • and have a joint venture called MAN Auto-Uzbekistan, owns 51% and MAN SE owns 49%.
  • Navistar International and JAC has a joint venture called Anhui Jianghuai Navistar.
  • and have a 50-50% joint venture called Toyota Peugeot Citroën Automobile Czech.
  • PSA and CK Birla Group (AVTEC) have a 50-50% joint venture called PSA AVTEC Powertrain Pvt. Ltd.
  • is involved in joint ventures with Ford ( ) and to produce cars.
  • also formed a joint venture in India with and gained access to Fiat's diesel engine technology.
  • Tata Motors and Marcopolo have a joint venture called , where Tata owns 51% and Marcopolo owns 49%.
  • and has a 50-50% joint venture called VE Commercial Vehicles.


See also
  • Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers
  • Automotive industry by country
  • Automotive industry crisis of 2008–2010
  • Automotive industry in the United States
  • Big Three (automobile manufacturers)
  • Effects of the 2008–10 automotive industry crisis on the United States
  • List of countries by motor vehicle production
  • List of largest automotive companies by revenue


Notes
These figures were before the merger of both Fiat Chrysler Automobiles	and Groupe PSA; the latter of which has merged into [[Stellantis]] as of January 2021.
     


External links

Page 1 of 1
1
Page 1 of 1
1

Account

Social:
Pages:  ..   .. 
Items:  .. 

Navigation

General: Atom Feed Atom Feed  .. 
Help:  ..   .. 
Category:  ..   .. 
Media:  ..   .. 
Posts:  ..   ..   .. 

Statistics

Page:  .. 
Summary:  .. 
1 Tags
10/10 Page Rank
5 Page Refs
1s Time