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Ancient history is the aggregate of past events WordNet Search - 3.0, "History" from the beginning of to the or the . The span of is roughly 5,000 years, with , the oldest discovered form of coherent writing, from the period around the 30th century BC.see , ; see also The Origin and Development of the Cuneiform System of Writing, Samuel Noah Kramer, Thirty Nine Firsts In Recorded History, pp 381-383

The term is often used to refer to history in the from the beginning of recorded Greek history in 776 BC (First ). This roughly coincides with the traditional date of the founding of Rome in 753 BC, the beginning of the history of , and the beginning of the in . Although the ending date of ancient history is disputed, some scholars use the in 476 AD,Clare, I. S. (1906). Library of universal history: containing a record of the human race from the earliest historical period to the present time; embracing a general survey of the progress of mankind in national and social life, civil government, religion, literature, science and art. New York: Union Book. Page 1519 (cf., Ancient history, as we have already seen, ended with the fall of the Western Roman Empire; ...)United Center for Research and Training in History. (1973). Bulgarian historical review. Sofia: Pub. House of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences]. Page 43. (cf. ... in the history of Europe, which marks both the end of ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages, is the fall of the Western Roman Empire.) the closure of the in 529 AD, ξ1 the death of the emperor ,Robinson, C. A. (1951). Ancient history from prehistoric times to the death of Justinian. New York: Macmillan. the coming of Breasted, J. H. (1916). Ancient times, a history of the early world: an introduction to the study of ancient history and the career of early man. Boston: Ginn and Company. or the rise of Myers, P. V. N. (1916). Ancient history. New York etc.: Ginn and company. as the end of ancient and Classical European history.

In , the period includes the early ,Elphinstone, M. (1889). The history of India. London: Murray.Smith, V. A. (1904). The early history of India from 600 B.C. to the Muhammadan conquest, including the invasion of Alexander the Great. Oxford: Clarendon Press., & Stark, H. A. (1906). A history of India. Cuttack: Orissa mission Press. and, in , the time up to the is included.Foster, S. (2007). Adventure guide. China. Hunter travel guides. Edison, NJ: Hunter Publishing. Page 6-7 (cf., "Qin is perceived as 'China's first dynasty' and ... writing.)Gernet, J. (1996). A history of Chinese civilization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Study
A fundamental difficulty of studying ancient history is that cannot document the entirety of human events, and only a fraction of those documents have survived into the present day.Gardner, P. (1892). New chapters in Greek history, historical results of recent excavations in Greece and Asia Minor. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons. Page 1 . Furthermore, the reliability of the information obtained from these surviving records must be considered.Smith, M. S. (2002). The early history of God: Yahweh and the other deities in ancient Israel. The Biblical resource series. Grand Rapids, Mich: William B. Eerdmans Pub. Page xxii - xxiii Few people were capable of writing histories, as literacy was not widespread in almost any culture until long after the end of ancient history.Nadin, M. (1997). The civilization of illiteracy. Dresden: Dresden University Press.

The was one of the ancient world's most literate cultures,Harris, W. V. (1989). Ancient literacy. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press. (cf. ... extent of literacy in the Roman Empire has been investigated, previous writers have generally concluded that a high degree of literacy ...) but many works by its most widely read historians are lost. For example, , a Roman historian who lived in the 1st century BC, wrote a history of Rome called ( From the Founding of the City) in 144 volumes; only 35 volumes still exist, although short summaries of most of the rest do exist. Indeed, only a minority of the work of any major Roman historian has survived.

Historians have two major avenues which they take to better understand the ancient world: and the study of . are those sources closest to the origin of the information or idea under study. "Library Guides: Primary, secondary and tertiary sources" Primary sources have been distinguished from , which often cite, comment on, or build upon primary sources.Oscar Handlin et al., Harvard Guide to American History (1954) 118-246

Archaeological field surveys
Reasons that an area undergoes an .
  • Artifacts found: Locals have picked up artifacts.
  • Literary sources: Old literary sources have provided archaeologists with clues about settlement locations that have not been archaeologically documented.
  • Oral sources: In many locations, local stories contain some hint of a greater past, and there is often some truth to them.
  • Local knowledge: In many cases, locals actually know where to find something that is of interest to archaeologists.
  • Previous surveys: In some places, a survey was carried out in the past, and is recorded in an obscure academic journal.
  • Previous excavations: Excavations carried out before the middle of the 20th century are notoriously poorly documented.
  • Lack of knowledge: Many areas of the world have little known about the nature and organisation of past human activity.


Archaeology
Archaeology is the excavation and study of artifacts in an effort to interpret and reconstruct past human behavior.Petrie, W. M. F. (1972). Methods & aims in archaeology. New York: B. BlomGamble, C. (2000). Archaeology the basics. London: Routledge.Wheeler, J. R. (1908). Archaeology a. New York: Columbia University Press.Barton, G. A. (1900). Archaeology and the Bible. Green fund book, no. 17. Philadelphia: American Sunday-School Union 1816 Chestnut Street. Archaeologists excavate the ruins of ancient cities looking for clues as to how the people of the time period lived. Some important discoveries by archaeologists studying ancient history include:
  • The : ξ2 "The Great Pyramid ... is still one of the largest structures ever raised by man, its plan twice the size of St. Peter's in Rome" giant tombs built by the beginning about 2600 BC as the final resting places of their royalty.
  • The study of the ancient cities of (India, now Pakistan), 'Earliest writing' found BBC News, May 4, 1999. 1968. Review of by (with an introduction by ). : . 1967 Pacific Affairs 41(4) : 641-643. (Pakistan), and S. R. Rao (1985). Lothal. Archaeological Survey of India, 30–31. in India ().
  • The city of : ξ3 an ancient Roman city preserved by the eruption of a in AD 79. Its state of preservation is so great that it is a valuable window into Roman culture and provided insight into the cultures of the and the Samnites.Lobell, Jarrett (July/August 2002). "Etruscan Pompeii". Archaeological Institute of America 55 (4). Retrieved in September 2007.
  • The :Jane Portal and Qingbo Duan, The First Emperor: China's Terracotta Arm, British Museum Press, 2007, p. 167 the mausoleum of the First Emperor in .
  • The discovery of by Minos Kalokairinos and .
  • The discovery of by Heinrich Schliemann.


Source text
Most of what is known of the ancient world comes from the accounts of antiquity's own historians. Although it is important to take into account the bias of each ancient author, their accounts are the basis for our understanding of the ancient past. Some of the more notable ancient writers include , , , , , , , , and .

The earliest known systematic historical thought emerged in , beginning with (484–c. 425 BC). largely eliminated divine causality in his account of the war between Athens and Sparta,Cochrane, Charles Norris. Thucydides and the Science of History, Oxford University Press, 1929. p. 179. establishing a rationalistic element which set a precedent for subsequent Western historical writings. He was also the first to distinguish between cause and immediate origins of an event.


Chronology

Prehistory
Prehistory is the period before . The H. Liu, F. Prugnolle, A. Manica, F. Balloux, A Geographically Explicit Genetic Model of Worldwide Human-Settlement History. The American Journal of Human Genetics, Volume 79 , Issue 2 , Pages 230 - 237 patterns in the saw spread across Eurasia. The controlled use of occurred about 800 thousand years ago in the . Near 250 thousand years ago, (modern humans) in . Around 60–70 thousand years ago, homo sapiens migrated out of Africa along a coastal route to and and reached . About 50 thousand years ago, modern humans spread from to the . was first reached by modern humans about 40,000 years ago. Finally, about 15 thousand years ago in the , the occurred.

The 10th millennium BC is the earliest given date for the and the beginning of the ancient era. was erected by in the (c. 11,500 years ago), before the advent of . Together with , it has revolutionized understanding of the Eurasian . In the 7th millennium BC, culture began in . By the 5th millennium BC, the late Neolithic civilizations saw the invention of the and the spread of . In the 4th millennium BC, the in the -- region develops. By 3400 BC, "proto-literate" is spread in the Middle East. The 30th century BC, referred to as the , saw the beginning of the literate period in and . Around the 27th century BC, the and the First Dynasty of are founded, according to the earliest reliable .


Timeline of ancient history

Middle to Late Bronze Age
The forms part of the . In this system, it follows the in some areas of the world. In the 24th century BC, the akkadianWells, H. G. (1921). The outline of history, being a plain history of life and mankind New York: Macmillan company. Page 137. was founded. The (c. 22nd century BC) was followed by the between the 21st to 17th centuries BC. The also developed c. the 21st century BC. Around the 18th century BC, the began.

By 1600 BC, developed, the beginning of the emerged in China and there was evidence of a fully developed . Also around 1600 BC, the beginning of dominance of the Eastern region is seen. The time from the 16th to the 11th centuries BC around the Nile is called the . Between 1550 BC and 1292 BC, the developed.


Early Iron Age
The is the last principal period in the three-age system, preceded by the Bronze Age. Its date and context vary depending on the country or geographical region. During the 13th to 12th centuries BC, the occurred in Egypt. Around 1200 BC, the was thought to have taken place.Strauss, Barry S. (2006) The Trojan War: A New History. Simon & Schuster ISBN 0-7432-6441-X By c. 1180 BC, the disintegration of the was underway.

In 1046 BC, the Zhou force, led by , overthrows the last king of the Shang Dynasty. The is established in China shortly thereafter. In 1000 BC, the Kingdom begins in . Around the 10th to 7th centuries BC, the forms in . In 800 BC, the rise of city-states begins. In 776 BC, the first recorded are held.


Classical Antiquity
Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural centered around the , which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded poetry of (9th century BC), and continues through the rise of and the (5th century AD), ending in the dissolution of classical culture with the close of .

Such a wide sampling of history and territory covers many rather disparate cultures and periods. "Classical antiquity" typically refers to an idealized vision of later people, of what was, in 's words, "the glory that was , the grandeur that was !" In the 18th and 19th centuries AD, reverence for classical antiquity was much greater in and the than it is today. Respect for the ancients of Greece and Rome affected , , , , , , and even and .

In politics, the presence of a was felt to be desirable long after the . This tendency reached its peak when was "Roman Emperor" in the year 800, an act which led to the formation of the . The notion that an is a who outranks a mere king dates from this period. In this political ideal, there would always be a Roman Empire, a state whose jurisdiction extended to the entire civilized world.

in continued to be written and circulated well into the 19th century. and even received their first poetic educations in Latin. Genres like epic poetry, verse, and the endless use of characters and themes from left a deep mark on Western literature.

In architecture, there have been several , (though while apparently more inspired in retrospect by Roman architecture than Greek). Still, one needs only to look at to see a city filled with large buildings with façades made out to look like , with columns constructed in the of architecture.

In philosophy, the efforts of St were derived largely from the thought of , despite the intervening change in from to . Greek and Roman authorities such as and formed the foundation of the practice of even longer than Greek thought prevailed in philosophy. In the theatre, such as and wrote plays on mythological or classical historical subjects and subjected them to the strict rules of the derived from Aristotle's . The desire to like a latter-day vision of how the ancient Greeks did it moved to create her brand of . The was partly caused by the rediscovery of classic antiquity. The Renaissance discovery of Classical Antiquity by


Early classical ancient history
  • 776 BC: First , generally considered the beginning of .
  • 753 BC: Founding of (traditional date)The Book of the Ancient Romans By Dorothy Mills. Page 21.
  • 752 BC: (once transliterated as Piankhi;Karola Zibelius-Chen. 2006. "Zur Problematik der Lesung des Königsnamens Pi(anch)i." Der Antike Sudan 17:127-133. d. 721 BC) was a king who conquered Egypt and founded the
  • 745 BC: becomes the new king of .Anspacher, A. S. (1912). Tiglath Pileser III: By Abraham S. Anspacher. New York: Columbia University Press. With time he conquers neighboring countries and turns Assyria into an empire
  • 722 BC: begins in China; 's power is diminishing; the era of the Shaughnessy, E. L., & Loewe, M. (1999). The Cambridge history of ancient China: From the origins of civilization to 221 B.C. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.A history of China By Wolfram Eberhard
  • c. 750 BC: Breach of the in .The dam was constructed by , the Adite King of Sdba, in about 1750 BC, to irrigate the valley of Marib.E.J. Brill's first encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936, Volume 2 By Martijn Theodoor HoutsmaOcean highways: the geographical record, ed. by C.R. Markham. Three new dams were built by the .A history of engineering in classical and medieval times By Donald Routledge Hill
  • c 728 BC: Rise of the Herodotus, ., Rawlinson, G., & Grant, A. J. (1897). Herodotus: The text of Canon Rawlinson's translation, with the notes abridged. New York: C. Scribner's.. Page 58 The historians' history of the world edited by Henry Smith WilliamsGoodrich, S. G. (1856). A history of all nations, from the earliest periods to the present time; or, Universal history: in which the history of every nation, ancient and modern, is separately given: Illustrated by 70 stylographic maps and 700 engravings. New York and Auburn: Miller, Orton & Mulligan.The Unrivaled History of the World: Ancient oriental nations By Israel Smith Clare
  • 612 BC: Attributed date of the destruction of and subsequent fall of Assyria.The Historians' History of the World: Prolegomena; Egypt, Mesopotamia edited by Henry Smith WilliamsHawes, S. (1869). Synchronology of the principal events in sacred and prefane history: From the creation of man, to the present time. Boston: S. Hawes.
  • 600 BC: Sixteen (" Great Realms" or " Great Kingdoms") emerge. A number of these Maha Janapadas are semi- .Hansen, M. H. (2000). A comparative study of thirty city-state cultures: An investigation conducted by the Copenhagen Polis Centre. Copenhagen: Det Kongelike Danske Videnskabernes Selskab.
  • c. 600 BC: in South IndiaRajalakshmi, R. (1983). Tamil polity, c. A.D. 600-c. A.D. 1300. Madurai: Ennes Publications.A sketch of the dynasties of Southern India By Robert SewellEpigraphy By Archaeological Survey of India. Southern Circle
  • 599 BC: ,Lord Mahavir and Jain Religion by PK Shah. Ishani, 2009. indianfolklore.org founder of is born as a prince at Kundalavana, who ruled Magadha Empire.Benares, the sacred city: sketches of Hindu life and religion By Ernest Binfield Havell. pg 56.
  • 563 BC: (Buddha), founder of is born as a prince of the , which ruled parts of , one of the Maha Janapadas
L. S. Cousins (1996), " The dating of the historical Buddha: a review article", (3)6(1): 57–63.
Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Buddhism By Samir Nath
  • 551 BC: , founder of , is bornLarned, J. N., In Smith, D. E., In Seymour, C., Shearer, A. H., & In Knowlton, D. C. (1922). The new Larned History for ready reference, reading and research: The actual words of the world's best historians, biographers and specialists; a complete system of history for all uses, extending to all countries and subjects and representing the better and newer literature of history. Springfield, Mass: C.A. Nichols Pub. Co. Page 1730
  • 550 BC: The is founded by Cyrus the Great By Jacob Abbott
  • 546 BC: Cyrus the Great overthrows Croesus King of LydiaJohnson, R., Horne, C. F., & Rudd, J. (1904). The Great events by famous historians. London: The National Alumni. Page 376.
  • 544 BC: Rise of as the dominant power under .S. Wise Bauer, The history of the ancient world: from the earliest accounts to the fall of Rome, p. 489
  • 539 BC: The Fall of the Babylonian Empire, General history of western nations from 5000 B.C. to 1900 A.D.Ancient history By Hutton Webster and liberation of the Jews by Cyrus the GreatThe life of Cyrus By Cyrus (the great, king of Persia.)
  • 529 BC: Death of Cyrus the GreatCassell's illustrated universal history By Edmund Ollier
  • 525 BC: of Persia conquers Egypt ; or, System of universal knowledgeThe great pyramid Jeezeh By Louis Phillipe McCarty
  • c. 512 BC: (Darius the Great) of Persia,A history of Persia, Volume 1 By Sir Percy Molesworth Sykes subjugates eastern Thrace, Macedonia submits voluntarily, and annexes Libya, Persian Empire at largest extent
  • 509 BC: Expulsion of the last , founding of (traditional date)A pictorial history of ancient Rome: with a sketch of the history of modern Italy. For the use of schools By Samuel Griswold Goodrich. Huntington and Savage, 1849.A compendium of Italian history from the fall of the Roman empire, tr. and completed to the present time by J.D. Morell. Giovanni Bosco (st.). 1881.
  • 508 BC: Democracy instituted by at AthensLarned, J. N., In Smith, D. E., In Seymour, C., Shearer, A. H., & In Knowlton, D. C. (1922). The new Larned History for ready reference, reading and research: The actual words of the world's best historians, biographers and specialists; a complete system of history for all uses, extending to all countries and subjects and representing the better and newer literature of history. Springfield, Mass: C.A. Nichols Pub. Co. Page593
  • c. 500 BC: standardizes the and of in the text .Holler, P. (1901). The student's manual of Indian-Vedic-Sanskrit-Prakrut-Pali literature: A system and review, with lists of commentaries, text-editions, and expositions of the books, a chronicle of Indian authors, and other useful appendices. Rajahmundry, India: Kalavati and V.V. presses. Panini's standardized Sanskrit is known as .
  • 500 BC: develops system ranks of binary patterns.Journal of Indian philosophy, Volume 21 SpringerLink (Online service). D. Reidel., 1993.Computing science in ancient India By Thammavarapu R. N. Rao, Subhash Kak. Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers, 2000.
  • 490 BC: Greek city-states defeat Persian invasion at The world's great masterpieces By Harry Thurston Peck, Frank Richard Stockton, Julian Hawthorne, Nathan Haskell Dole, Caroline Ticknor. American literary society, 1901The fifteen decisive battles of the world, from Marathon to Waterloo By Edward Shepherd Creasy (sir.)
  • 480-479 BC: Greek city states decisively defeat the Persians at the and the , ending once and for all the Persian threat to Greece.Harding, S. B., & Harding, M. S. (1919). Old world background to American history: An elementary history for the grades or junior high school. Chicago: Scott, Foresman and Co
  • 480 BC of Sparta died 10 August
  • 475 BC: begins in China as the king became a mere figurehead; China is annexed by regional warlords.China of the Chinese By Edward Theodore Chalmers Werner
  • c. 469 BC: Birth of SocratesSocrates and the Socratic schools By Eduard Zeller
  • 465 BC: Murder of Epitome of ancient, medieval, and modern history By Karl Ploetz
  • 460 BC: First Peloponnesian War between Athens and SpartaWilliams, H. S. (1908). The historians' history of the world: Greece to the Peloponnesian. London: The Times
  • 449 BC: End of the . , and gain independence from Achaemenid Persia.
  • 447 BC: Building of the Parthenon at Athens startedGreek buildings: represented by fragments in the British museum By William Richard Lethaby, British MuseumA history of Greece, Volume 6 By George Grote
  • 424 BC: comes to power. The early history of India from 600 B.C. to the Muhammadan conquest: including the invasion of Alexander the Great By Vincent Arthur Smith. The Clarendon press, 1904.
  • 404 BC: End of History of the Peloponnesian war done into English by . J.M. Dent & Sons, Ltd., 1914. between the Greek city-states
  • 399 BC: February 15—The Greek philosopher Characteristics of the Greek Philosophers: Socrates and Plato By John Philips Potter. J. W. Parker, 1845. is sentenced to death by Athenian authorities in Athens, condemned for impiety and the corruption of youth. Xenophon's Memorabilia of Socrates: with English notes, critical and explanatory, the Prolegomena of Kühner, Wiggers' Life of Socrates, etc By Xenophon, Raphael Kühner, Gustav Friedrich Wiggers, Friedrich Schleiermacher. Harper & brothers, 1848. A life of Socrates By Gustav Friedrich Wiggers. Taylor and Walton, 1840. He refuses to flee into exile and is sentenced to death by drinking hemlock.
  • c. 385 BC: The Greek philosopher , a former disciple of Socrates, founds a philosophical school at the Akademia, from land purchased from , in AthensThe New century book of facts. (1911). Wheeling: Continental. Pg 104 – later famously known as the . There, Plato, and the later heads of the school, called , taught many of the brilliant minds of the day, including the famous Greek philosopher
  • 335 BC: The Greek philosopher AristotleThe Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts and sciences, literature, history, biography, geography, commerce, etc., of the world, Volume 2 By Frederick Converse Beach, George Edwin Rines. Scientific American compiling department, 1912. " Aristotle", Pg 30 founds – known then as the The Catholic encyclopedia: an international work of reference on the constitution, doctrine, discipline, and history of the Catholic Church, Volume 1 By Knights of Columbus. Catholic Truth Committee. Encyclopedia Press, 1907. " Aristotle", Pg 713. (named because it was located near the site of the Lyceum gymnasium in Athens) – and begins teaching there.
  • 331 BC: defeats in the The history of Greece, Volume 9 By William Mitford. Cadell, 1821. " Battle of Gaugamela, commonly called of Arbela", Pg 408
  • 326 BC: Alexander the Great defeats Indian king in the .Alexander: a history of the origin and growth of the art of war from the earliest times to the battle of Ipsus, B. C. 301, Volume 2 By Theodore Ayrault Dodge. Houghton, Mifflin and company, 1899. Pg 553.
  • 323 BC: at Babylon A history of Greece to the death of Alexander the Great, Volume 1 By John Bagnell Bury. Macmillan, 1902.
  • 321 BC: overthrows the Nanda Dynasty of Magadha.History of India, Volume 2 by Romesh Chunder Dutt, Vincent Arthur Smith, Stanley Lane-Poole, Sir Henry Miers Elliot, Sir William Wilson Hunter, Sir Alfred Comyn Lyall. The Grolier Society, 1906. Pg 103
  • 307 BC: The Greek philosopher founds , the , outside the walls of Athens.Ridpath library of universal literature. Volume 9 By John Clark Ridpath. The Globe publishing company, 1898. Pg 272
  • 305 BC: seizes the satrapies of Paropanisadai (Kabul), Aria (Herat), Arachosia (Qanadahar) and Gedrosia (Baluchistan) from , the Macedonian of , in return for 500 elephants.Journal, Volumes 3-5 By Buddhist text and research society, Calcutta, 1895. Pg 26
  • c. 302 BC: , , and rule separate areas in South IndiaLists of inscriptions, and sketch of the dynasties of southern India By Robert Sewell. Pg 141
  • 294 BC: founds the philosophy of in AthensA beginner's history of philosophy, Volume 1 By Herbert Ernest Cushman. Houghton Mifflin Company, 1910. Pg 244 (the philosophy derives its namesake from the fact that Zeno and his followers would regularly meet near the (" Painted Porch")A beginner's history of philosophy, Volume 1 By Herbert Ernest Cushman. Houghton Mifflin Company, 1910. Pg 219. of the Athenian agora.)
  • c. 252 BC: becomes the emperor of the Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency. Volume 16. Printed at the Govt. Central Press, 1883. Pg 614
  • c. 252 BC: takes over Việt Nam (then Kingdom of Âu Lạc)The currency of the Farther East from the earliest times up to the present day, Volume 3 By Sir James Haldane Stewart Lockhart, G. B. Glover. Noronha & co., 1898. Pg 43
  • c. 249 BC: Rise of Ridpath's History of the world, Volume 2 By John Clark Ridpath. Pg 377 (Ashkâniân), the third native dynasty of ancient PersiaA history of Persia, Volume 1 By Sir Percy Molesworth Sykes. Pg 16
  • c. 233 BC: Death of Emperor ;The Sacred books and early literature of the East Edited by Charles Francis Horne. Pg 6 Decline of the The early history of India. 2nd ed By V.A. Smith. Pg 185
  • 221 BC: Construction of the begins.The Wonders of nature and art: comprising nearly three hundred of the most remarkable curiosities and phenomena in the known world By W. Milner, 1839. Pg 150 The great wall of China By William Edgar Geil
  • c. 220 BC: , ruler of the , unifies China (end of )The World's History: Oceania, Eastern Asia and the Indian Ocean By Viscount James Bryce Bryce. William Heinemann, 1904. Pg 76
  • c. 220 BC: , founder of the dynasty, rules area in Andhra: history and coinage By Vincent Arthur Smith. Pg 653
  • 209 BC: is established by ()Babylonian & oriental record, Volume 3. D. Nutt, 1889. Pg 157
  • 208 BC: The replaces the Mongolic as the dominant tribe of the Mongolian steppe and then five years later defeats the in Gansu, making a cup out of the skull of their leader.The Great Wall: From Beginning to End. 2007. Pg 152
  • c. 206 BC: is proclaimed emperor () and the is established.Americanized Encyclopædia Britannica, revised and amended. The "Examiner", 1890. Pg 1546
  • 202 BC: defeats at Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology, Volume 2 By Joseph Thomas. Pg 2155The outline of history: being a plain history of life and mankind By Herbert George Wells. Pg 409
  • 189 BC: in Armenia is foundedA skeleton outline of Roman history chronologically arranged By Percy Ewing Matheson. Pg 48
  • c. 184 BC: founded.The early history of India from 600 B.C. to the Muhammadan conquest By Vincent Arthur Smith. Pg 175
  • 149 BC–146: Third and final ;Ancient History for Colleges and High Schools: A history of Rome By Philip Van Ness Myers. Pg 69 destruction of by RomeAncient History for Colleges and High Schools: A history of Rome By Philip Van Ness Myers. Pg 71
  • 146 BC: in Greece was destroyed by Rome and .Ancient History for Colleges and High Schools: A history of Rome By Philip Van Ness Myers. Pg 195
  • 140 BC: The first system of imperial examinations was officially instituted in China by the Han Dynasty emperor .Primitive civilizations By Edith Jemima Simcox. Pg 118
  • c. 127 BC: finds the western lands of civilisation and trading opens on routes of the .The Academy, Volume 13. J. Murray, 1878. Pg 339The Rotarian Feb 1938. "Rediscovering the Silk Road", Pg12
  • 111 BC: The In the modern period, roughly the area called and () is destroyed by the of .
  • 95-55 BC: reigns in Armenian empire.Armenia and the Armenians from the earliest times until the great war (1914) By Kévork Aslan. Pg 23
  • 53 BC: Led by , the Parthians decisively defeat a Roman invasion at the The Historians' History of the World: The Roman republic edited by Henry Smith William. Pg 40 and were killed during the battle and almost all of Roman army were killed or captured. even the golden (legionary battle standards) was captured by 's army (It was first and last time that was captured by Roman's enemy).Seven Roman Statesmen of the later republic By Charles Oman. Pg 199
  • 49 BC: Conflict between and lead to the Roman Civil War. History of Julius Caesar By Jacob Abbott. Harper & Brothers, 1876.


Mid-classical ancient history


Late classical ancient history


Classical ancient history end
The transition period from Classical Antiquity to the is known as . Some key dates marking that transition are:

The beginning of the post-classical age (known generally as the Middle Ages) is a period in the history of Europe following the fall of the Western Roman Empire spanning roughly five centuries from AD 500 to 1000. Aspects of continuity with the earlier classical period are discussed in greater detail under the heading "Late Antiquity". Late Antiquity is the transitional centuries from Classical Antiquity to the Middle Ages in both mainland Europe and the Mediterranean world: generally from the end of the Roman Empire's Crisis of the 3rd century (c. 284) to the Islamic conquests and the re-organization of the Byzantine Empire under Heraclius.


Prominent civilizations

Comparative timeline
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Comparison table
- / 3000 – 1500 BCNorthwest India, Pakistan,Potter's wheel, , , ,
3000 – 750 BCSumer, Babylonia, Assyric Highlands, , , ,
3000 – 30 BCNorth Eastern Africa along River Nile, , , Hieroglyphic Polytheistic
3000 – 350 BCNorth Eastern Africa along River Nile, , , Hieroglyphic Polytheistic
2000 BC – 1200 ADMexico, Central America, , , , , , , , , , , Polytheistic
1600 BC – 1 ADChina, , , , , Polytheistic
730 BCGreater PersiaAgriculture, , , ,
2700 BC - 1500 BC (Cycladic and Minoan civilization), 1600 BC – 1100 BC (Mycenaean Greece), 800 BC (Ancient Greece)Greece (Peloponnese, Epirus, Central Greece, Western Greece, Macedon), later AlexandriaAgriculture, , , , , , , , , , , , Polytheistic
600 BCItalyAgriculture, , Polytheistic
1325 AD – 1519 ADMexicoAgriculture, , metal working Polytheistic
1300 AD – 1532 ADEcuador, Peru, Chile, agriculture, [[Inca architecture – Polytheistic


Historical ages
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Southwest Asia (Near East)
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The is considered the . It was the first to practice intensive year-round ; created the first , invented the and then the vehicular- and mill , created the first , and , as well as introducing , and organized , and it laid the foundation for the fields of and .


Mesopotamia
is the site of some of the earliest known in the world. Early settlement of the alluvial plain lasted from the (late 6th millennium BC) through the (4th millennium BC) and the Dynastic periods (3rd millennium BC) until the rise of in the early 2nd millennium BC. The surplus of storable foodstuffs created by this economy allowed the population to settle in one place instead of migrating after crops and herds. It also allowed for a much greater population density, and in turn required an extensive labor force and . This organization led to the necessity of record keeping and the development of (c. 3500 BC).

was an state in lower (modern southern ), with Babylon as its capital. Babylonia emerged when (fl. c. 1728–1686 BC, according to the ) created an empire out of the territories of the former kingdoms of and . The Amorites being a people, Babylonia adopted the written Semitic for official use; they retained the for religious use, which by that time was no longer a spoken language. The Akkadian and Sumerian cultures played a major role in later Babylonian culture, and the region would remain an important cultural center, even under outside rule. The earliest mention of the city of can be found in a tablet from the reign of , dating back to the 23rd century BC.

The , or , was Babylonia under the rule of the 11th ("Chaldean") dynasty, from the revolt of in 626 BC until the invasion of in 539 BC. Notably, it included the reign of who conquered and .

Akkad was a city and its surrounding region in central Mesopotamia. Akkad also became the capital of the .Mish, Frederick C., Editor in Chief. "Akkad." . 9th ed. Springfield, MA: Inc., 1985. ISBN 0-87779-508-8, ISBN 0-87779-509-6 (indexed), and ISBN 0-87779-510-X (deluxe). The city was probably situated on the west bank of the , between and (in present-day Iraq, about southwest of the center of ). Despite an extensive search, the precise site has never been found. Akkad reached the height of its power between the 24th and 22nd centuries BC, following the conquests of king Sargon of Akkad. Because of the policies of the Akkadian Empire toward linguistic assimilation, Akkad also gave its name to the predominant Semitic dialect: the Akkadian language, reflecting use of akkadû ("in the language of Akkad") in the Old Babylonian period to denote the Semitic version of a text.

was originally (in the ) a region on the Upper river, named for its original capital, the ancient city of . Later, as a nation and empire that came to control all of the , and much of , the term "Assyria proper" referred to roughly the northern half of Mesopotamia (the southern half being Babylonia), with as its capital. The Assyrian kings controlled a large kingdom at three different times in history. These are called the Old (20th to 15th centuries BC), Middle (15th to 10th centuries BC), and (911–612 BC) kingdoms, or periods, of which the last is the most well known and best documented. Assyrians invented , to knock down gates, as well as the concept of a corps of , who bridged rivers with pontoons or provided soldiers with inflatable skins for swimming.

was an Indo-Iranian"Mitanni." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 9 June 2008 empire in northern Mesopotamia from c. 1500 BC. At the height of Mitanni power, during the 14th century BC, it encompassed what is today southeastern , northern and northern Iraq, centered around its capital, , whose precise location has not been determined by archaeologists.

''For more details on this topic, see and the


Ancient Persia
is the name of an ancient civilization located in what is now southwest . Archaeological evidence associated with Elam has been dated to before BC.http://cpprot.te.verweg.com/2005-June/000718.html , Iran recently sent an appeal to a Belgian court asking for the return of nine boxes of smuggled ancient artifacts and a 2800-year-old pin stolen from the exposition "7000 Years of Persian Art". The Municipality of Shoush (Susa) accepted a proposal by the cityÕs Cultural Heritage Department for the transfer of an under-construction passenger terminal from the 7,000-year-old city, but conditioned destruction of the terminal to demolition of other constructions and residential units in the area."Persia 7000 years of civilisation" by (Siyavash AWESTA), The discovery in Iran of a civilisation old of 7000 turns all the archaeological data’s ups and down. According to available written records, it is known to have existed beginning from around 3200 BC – making it among the world's oldest historical – and to have endured up until 539 BC. Its culture played a crucial role in the , especially during the that succeeded it, when the remained among those in official use. The Elamite period is considered a starting point for the .

The were an . They had established their own empire by the 6th century BC, having defeated the with the . The Medes are credited with the foundation of the first Iranian empire, the largest of its day until established a unified Iranian empire of the Medes and , often referred to as the , by defeating his grandfather and overlord, the king of Media.

The was the first of the to rule over significant portions of , and followed the as the second great empire of the Persian people. It is noted in western history as the foe of the in the , for freeing the from their , and for instituting as the empire's official language. Because of the Empire's vast extent and long endurance, Persian influence upon the language, religion, architecture, philosophy, law and government of nations around the world lasts to this day. At the height of its power, the Achaemenid dynasty encompassed approximately 8.0 million square kilometers, held the greatest percentage of world population to date, and was territorially the largest empire of classical antiquity. was an Iranian civilization situated in the northeastern part of modern Iran. Their power was based on a combination of the guerrilla warfare of a mounted nomadic tribe, with organizational skills to build and administer a vast empire – even though it never matched in power and extent the Persian empires that preceded and followed it. The Parthian empire was led by the Arsacid dynasty, which reunited and ruled over the plateau, after defeating and disposing the Hellenistic , beginning in the late 3rd century BC, and intermittently controlled between 150 BC and 224 AD. It was the third native dynasty of ancient Iran (after the and the dynasties). Parthia had many wars with the .

The , lasting the length of the period, is considered to be one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods. In many ways the Sassanid period witnessed the highest achievement of , and constituted the last great Iranian Empire before the and adoption of Islam.Hourani, Albert (1991), A History of the Arab Peoples, London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-571-22664-7. Page 87. Persia influenced Roman civilization considerably during the Sassanids' times,Bury, J. B. (1923), History Of The Later Roman Empire. p. 109. and the Romans reserved for the Sassanid Persians alone the status of equals. Their cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe,, p. ??. Africa, China and India and played a role in the formation of both European and Asiatic medieval art.

For more details on this topic, see and the


Armenia
The early history of the is known through tablets that may first have been written in the 17th century BC but survived only as copies made in the 14th and 13th centuries BC. These tablets, known collectively as the text,ed. 18 begin by telling how the king of or Kussar (a small yet to be identified by archaeologists) conquered the neighbouring city of (). However, the real subject of these tablets is 's son , who conquered several neighbouring cities, including and ().

Assyrian inscriptions of (c. 1270 BC) first mention as one of the states of – a loose confederation of small kingdoms and tribal states in the from the 13th to 11th centuries BC. Uruartri itself was in the region around . The Nairi states were repeatedly subjected to attacks by the Assyrians, especially under Tukulti-Ninurta I (c. 1240 BC), (c. 1100 BC), Ashur-bel-kala (c. 1070 BC), (c. 900), (c. 890), and (883-859 BC).

The was an independent kingdom from 190 BC to 387 АD, and a client state of the Roman and Persian empires until 428. Between 95 BC - 55 BC under the rule of King Tigranes the Great, the kingdom of Armenia became a large and powerful empire stretching from the to the . During this short time it was considered to be the most powerful state in the Roman East.Time Almanac - Page 724 by Editors of Time MagazineThe New Review - Page 208 edited by Archibald Grove, William Ernest Henley


Arabia
The history of before the rise of in the 630s is not known in great detail. Archaeological exploration in the has been sparse; indigenous written sources are limited to the many inscriptions and coins from southern Arabia. Existing material consists primarily of written sources from other traditions (such as , , , , etc.) and later recorded by Islamic scholars.

The first known inscriptions of the are known from the 8th century BC. It was first referenced by an outside civilization in an inscription of Karab'il Watar from the early 7th century BC, in which the King of Hadramaut, Yada`'il, is mentioned as being one of his allies.

appears first in Sumerian cuneiform clay tablets dated to the end of 4th millennium BC, found in the temple of goddess , in the city of . The adjective Dilmun refers to a type of axe and one specific official; in addition, there are lists of rations of wool issued to people connected with Dilmun.Crawford, Harriet E. W. (1998). Dilmun and its Gulf neighbours. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 5. ISBN 0-521-58348-9

The were an ancient people speaking an language who lived in what is today , in south west ; from 2000 BC to the 8th century BC. Some Sabaeans also lived in , located in northern and , due to their hegemony over the .Stuart Munro-Hay, Aksum: An African Civilization of Late Antiquity, 1991. They lasted from the early 2nd millennium to the 1st century BC. In the 1st century BC it was conquered by the , but after the disintegration of the first of the Kings of Saba' and dhu-Raydan the Middle reappeared in the early 2nd century. It was finally conquered by the Himyarites in the late 3rd century.

The ancient with a capital at in the , to the south of the wadi Bayhan, is now marked by a or artificial mound, which is locally named . Once it was one of the most important small kingdoms of South Arabia. The city seems to have been destroyed in the 7th century BC by the king and of , according to a Sabaean text that reports the victory in terms that attest to its significance for the Sabaeans.

The was a state in ancient dating from 110 BC. It conquered neighbouring (Sheba) in c. 25 BC, in c. 200 AD and c. 300 AD. Its political fortunes relative to Saba changed frequently until it finally conquered the Sabaean Kingdom around 280 AD.See, e.g., Bafaqih 1990. It was the dominant state in until 525 AD. The economy was based on agriculture.

Foreign trade was based on the export of and . For many years it was also the major intermediary linking East Africa and the Mediterranean world. This trade largely consisted of exporting from Africa to be sold in the . Ships from Himyar regularly traveled the East African coast, and the state also exerted a considerable amount of political control of the trading cities of East Africa.

The origins remain obscure. On the similarity of sounds, suggested a connection with the tribe mentioned in Genesis, but modern historians are cautious about an early Nabatean history. The that began in 586 BC opened a power vacuum in , and as moved into grazing lands, Nabataean inscriptions began to be left in Edomite territory (earlier than 312 BC, when they were attacked at without success by ). The first definite appearance was in 312 BC, when Hieronymus of Cardia, a Seleucid officer, mentioned the Nabateans in a battle report. In 50 BC, the Greek historian cited Hieronymus in his report, and added the following: "Just as the Seleucids had tried to subdue them, so the Romans made several attempts to get their hands on that lucrative trade."

or was the ancient capital of ; the Nabataeans must have occupied the old country, and succeeded to its commerce, after the Edomites took advantage of the captivity to press forward into southern . This migration, the date of which cannot be determined, also made them masters of the shores of the and the important harbor of . Here, according to , they were for a time very troublesome, as wreckers and pirates, to the reopened commerce between Egypt and the East, until they were chastised by the .

The was founded by the Lakhum tribe that immigrated out of in the 2nd century and ruled by the , hence the name given it. It was formed of a group of who lived in Southern , and made their capital in (266). The founder of the dynasty was and the son Imru' al-Qais converted to Christianity. Gradually the whole city converted to that faith. Imru' al-Qais dreamt of a unified and independent Arab kingdom and, following that dream, he seized many cities in .

The were a group of South Arabian Christian tribes that emigrated in the early 3rd century from to the in southern , and the where they intermarried with settlers and Greek-speaking communities. The Ghassanid emigration has been passed down in the rich oral tradition of southern . It is said that the Ghassanids came from the city of in . There was a dam in this city, however one year there was so much rain that the dam was carried away by the ensuing flood. Thus the people there had to leave. The inhabitants emigrated seeking to live in less arid lands and became scattered far and wide. The proverb "They were scattered like the people of " refers to that exodus in history. The emigrants were from the southern tribe of of the branch of Qahtani tribes.


Levant
Though the site is thought to have been inhabited earlier, Ugarit was already important enough to be fortified with a wall early on. The first written evidence mentioning the city comes from the nearby city of , c. 1800 BC. Ugarit passed into the sphere of influence of Egypt, which deeply influenced its art.

Concerning the and the , the traces the beginning of Israel to three patriarchs of the Jewish people, , and , the last also known as Israel from which the name of the land was subsequently derived. , called a "wandering " (Deuteronomy 26:5), the grandson of Abraham, had travelled back to Harran, the home of his ancestors, to obtain a wife. Whilst returning from Haran to Canaan, he crossed the , a tributary on the Arabian side of the (Genesis 32:22-33). After having sent his family and servants away that night, he wrestled with a strange man at a place henceforth called , who in the morning asked him his name. As a result, he was renamed "Israel", because he had "wrestled with God" and became, in time, the father of twelve sons by and , (daughters of ), and their maidservants and . The twelve were considered the "". These stories of the origins of the locate them first on the east bank of the Jordan. The stories of Israel move to the west bank with the story of the sacking of (Genesis 34:1-33), after which the hill area of Canaan is assumed to have been the historical core of the area of Israel.


Phoenicians
was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient , with its heartland along the coastal regions of modern day , and . Phoenician civilization was an enterprising that spread across the between the period of 1550 to 300 BC.

A written reference, 's account (written c. 440 BC) refers to a memory from 800 years earlier, which may be subject to question in the fullness of genetic results. ( History, I:1). This is a legendary introduction to Herodotus' brief retelling of some mythical Hellene-Phoenician interactions. Though few modern archaeologists would confuse this myth with history, a grain of truth may yet lie therein.


Africa
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Egypt
was a long-lived geographically located in north-eastern . It was concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the reaching its greatest extension during the 2nd millennium , which is referred to as the period. It reached broadly from the in the north, as far south as at the of the Nile. Extensions to the geographical range of ancient Egyptian civilization included, at different times, areas of the southern , the Eastern Desert and the coastline, the and the (focused on the several ).

Ancient Egypt developed over at least three and a half . It began with the incipient unification of Nile Valley polities around 3500 BC and is conventionally thought to have ended in 30 BC when the early conquered and absorbed as a province. (Though this last did not represent the first period of foreign domination, the Roman period was to witness a marked, if gradual transformation in the political and religious life of the Nile Valley, effectively marking the termination of independent civilisational development).

The civilization of ancient Egypt was based on a finely balanced control of natural and human resources, characterised primarily by controlled of the fertile Nile Valley; the mineral exploitation of the valley and surrounding desert regions; the early development of an independent and ; the organisation of collective projects; with surrounding regions in east / central Africa and the eastern ; finally, ventures that exhibited strong characteristics of imperial hegemony and territorial domination of neighbouring cultures at different periods. Motivating and organizing these activities were a socio-political and economic that achieved social consensus by means of an elaborate system of under the figure of a (semi)-divine ruler (usually male) from a succession of ruling and which related to the larger world by means of .


Nubia
The state was formed before a period of Egyptian incursion into the area. The Kushite civilization has also been referred to as . The first cultures arose in before the time of a unified , and the most widespread is known as the civilization. It is through , , and records that most of our knowledge of (Cush) comes.

It is also referred to as Ethiopia in ancient Greek and Roman records. According to Josephus and other classical writers, the Kushite Empire covered all of Africa, and some parts of Asia and Europe at one time or another. The Kushites are also famous for having buried their monarchs along with all their courtiers in mass graves. The Kushites also built burial mounds and pyramids, and shared some of the same gods worshipped in Egypt, especially and .


Axum
The was an important trading nation in northeastern , growing from the proto-Aksumite period c. 4th century BC to achieve prominence by the 1st century AD. Its ancient capital is found in northern Ethiopia, the Kingdom used the name "Ethiopia" as early as the 4th century.Stuart Munro-Hay, Aksum: An African Civilization of Late Antiquity. Edinburgh: University Press, 1991, pp.57.Paul B. Henze, Layers of Time: A History of Ethiopia, 2005. Aksum is mentioned in the 1st century AD as an important market place for ivory, which was exported throughout the ancient world, and states that the ruler of Aksum in the 1st century AD was , who, besides ruling in Aksum also controlled two harbours on the : (near ) and Avalites (). He is also said to have been familiar with Greek literature. Periplus of the Erythreaean Sea, chs. 4, 5 It is also the alleged resting place of the and the home of the . Aksum was also the first major empire to convert to .


Land of Punt
The , also called , or PweneIan Shaw & Paul Nicholson, The Dictionary of Ancient Egypt, British Museum Press, London. 1995, p.231. by the , was a trading partner known for producing and exporting gold, aromatic resins, , , , slaves and wild animals.Shaw & Nicholson, p.231. Information about Punt has been found in ancient records of trade missions to this region. The exact of Punt remains a mystery. The mainstream view is that Punt was located to the south-east of Egypt, most likely on the coast of the . The earliest recorded Egyptian expedition to Punt was organized by of the (25th century BC) although gold from Punt is recorded as having been in Egypt in the time of king Khufu of the ., vol. 1. Subsequently, there were more expeditions to Punt in the , the , the and the . In the Twelfth dynasty of Egypt, trade with Punt was celebrated in popular literature in "".


Nok culture
The appeared in Nigeria around 1000 BC and mysteriously vanished around 200 AD. The civilization’s social system is thought to have been highly advanced. The Nok civilization was considered to be the earliest sub-Saharan producer of life-sized Terracotta which have been discovered by archaeologists. Shaw, Thurstan, Nigeria: Its Archaeology and early history. Retrieved February 22, 2007. A Nok sculpture resident at the Minneapolis Institute of Arts, portrays a sitting dignitary wearing a "Shepherds Crook" on the right arm, and a "hinged flail" on the left. These are symbols of authority associated with ancient Egyptian pharaohs, and the god Osiris, which suggests that an ancient Egyptian style of social structure, and perhaps religion, existed in the area of modern Nigeria during the late Pharonic period. (Informational excerpt copied from and articles)


Carthage
was founded in 814 BC by settlers from the city of , bringing with them the .As recounted by Timaeus, FrGrH 566, fr. 60. Archaeological attestation for so early a date is still wanting, though recent discoveries in situ may point nearly as far back in time. was an informal of throughout North Africa and modern from 575 BC until 146 BC. It was more or less under the control of the city-state of after the fall of to forces. At the height of the city's influence, its empire included most of the western Mediterranean. The empire was in a constant state of struggle with the , which led to a series of conflicts known as the . After the third and , Carthage was destroyed then occupied by Roman forces. Nearly all of the territory held by Carthage fell into Roman hands.


South Asia
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The earliest evidence of human civilization in South Asia is from the region (7000 BC to 3200 BC) of . Located near the Bolan Pass, to the west of the Indus River valley and between the present-day Pakistani cities of , and , Mehrgarh was discovered in 1974 by an archaeological team directed by French archaeologist Jean-François Jarrige, and was excavated continuously between 1974 and 1986. The earliest settlement at Mehrgarh—in the northeast corner of the site—was a small farming village dated between 7000 BC–5500 BC. Early Mehrgarh residents lived in mud brick houses, stored their grain in granaries, fashioned tools with local copper ore, and lined their large basket containers with bitumen. They cultivated six-row barley, einkorn and emmer wheat, jujubes and dates, and herded sheep, goats and cattle. Residents of the later period (5500 BC to 2600 BC) put much effort into crafts, including flint knapping, tanning, bead production, and metal working. The site was occupied continuously until about 2600 BC.2

In April 2006, it was announced in the scientific journal Nature that the oldest evidence in human history for the drilling of teeth in vivo (i.e. in a living person) was found in Mehrgarh. Mehrgarh is sometimes cited as the earliest known farming settlement in South Asia, based on archaeological excavations from 1974 (Jarrige et al.). The earliest evidence of settlement dates from 7000 BC. It is also cited for the earliest evidence of pottery in South Asia. Archaeologists divide the occupation at the site into several periods. Mehrgarh is now seen as a precursor to the Indus Valley Civilization.


Indus Valley Civilization
The (c. 3300–1700 BC, flourished 2600–1900 BC), abbreviated IVC, was an ancient that flourished in the and valleys primarily in what is now , although scattered settlements linked to this ancient civilization have been found in eastern , , eastern , western and . Another name for this civilization is the Harappan Civilization, after the first of its cities to be excavated, in the Pakistani province of . The IVC might have been known to the as the , and other trade contacts may have included Egypt, Africa, however the modern world discovered it only in the 1920s as a result of archaeological excavations and rail road building. Prominent historians of Ancient India would include and .


Mahajanapadas
The births of and in the 6th century BC mark the beginning of well-recorded history in the region. Around the 5th century BC, the ancient region of was invaded by the under in 522 BC 14:11:44 Achaemenian rule of Pakistan forming the easternmost satraps of the . The provinces of Sindh and Panjab were said to be the richest satraps of the Persian Empire and contributed many soldiers to various Persian expeditions. It is known that a Indian contingent fought in Xerxes' army on his expedition to Greece. Herodotus mentions that the Indus satrapy supplied cavalry and chariots to the Persian army. He also mentions that the Indus people were clad in armaments made of cotton, carried bows and arrows of cane covered with iron. Herodotus states that in 517 BC Darius sent an expedition under Scylax to explore the Indus. Under Persian rule, much irrigation and commerce flourished within the vast territory of the empire. The Persian empire was followed by the invasion of the Greeks under 's army. Since Alexander was determined to reach the eastern-most limits of the Persian Empire he could not resist the temptation to conquer Pakistan, which at this time was parcelled out into small chieftain- ships, who were feudatories of the Persian Empire. Alexander amalgamated the region into the expanding Hellenic empire. 14:11:37 Alexander's invasion of Pakistan The , in , goes back to about 1500 BC. The Indian literary tradition has an oral history reaching down into the of the later 2nd millennium BC.

is usually taken to refer to the "golden age" of classical , as reflected in literature, beginning around 500 BC with the sixteen monarchies and 'republics' known as the , stretched across the from modern-day Afghanistan to . The largest of these nations were , , and . Notably, the great epics of and are rooted in this classical period.

Amongst the sixteen Mahajanapadas, the kingdom of rose to prominence under a number of dynasties that peaked in power under the reign of , one of India's most legendary and famous emperors. During the reign of , the four dynasties of , , and were ruling in the South, while the King was controlling the Anuradhapura Kingdom (now ). These kingdoms, while not part of Asoka's empire, were in friendly terms with the . There was a strong alliance existed between (250–210 BC) and of India,Mendis (1999), p. 11 who sent , four monks, and a novice being sent to Sri Lanka.Wijesooriya (2006), p. 34 They encountered Devanampiya Tissa at . After this meeting, Devanampiya Tissa embraced Buddhism the order of monks was established in the country.Wijesooriya (2006), p. 38 Devanampiya Tissa, guided by Arahat Mahinda, took steps to firmly establish Buddhism in the country.

The started out as feudatories to the , and declared independence soon after the death of (232 BC). Other notable ancient dynasties include the of Banavasi, western , , , , , , of Manyaketha and .


Middle kingdoms
The period between AD 320–550 is known as the Classical Age, when most of was reunited under the (c. AD 320–550). This was a period of relative peace, law and order, and extensive achievements in religion, education, mathematics, arts, Sanskrit literature and drama. Grammar, composition, logic, metaphysics, mathematics, medicine, and became increasingly specialized and reached an advanced level. The Gupta Empire was weakened and ultimately ruined by the raids of (a branch of the emanating from Central Asia). Under (r. 606–47), North India was reunited briefly.

The educated speech at that time was , while the dialects of the general population of northern India were referred to as . The South Indian and the of the age traded with the world. They were in contact with the , , , , , , and the .(Bjorn Landstrom, 1964; Miller, J. Innes. 1969; Thomas Puthiakunnel 1973; & Koder S. 1973; Leslie Brown, 1956

The regions of South Asia, primarily present-day Pakistan and India, were estimated to have had the largest of the world between the 1st and 15th centuries AD, controlling between one third and one quarter of the world's wealth up to the time of the , from whence it rapidly declined during British rule. (2001). E4 or E5 or P5&sf4=SubVersionCode&ds=maddison; All Subjects; &m=14&dc=27&plang=en The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective, , Paris


East Asia
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China

Ancient era
Written records of China's past dates from the (商朝) in perhaps the 13th century BC, and takes the form of inscriptions of divination records on the bones or shells of animals—the so-called (甲骨文). Archaeological findings providing evidence for the existence of the , c. 1600–1046 BC is divided into two sets. The first, from the earlier Shang period (c. 1600–1300) comes from sources at (二里崗), (鄭州) and Shangcheng. The second set, from the later Shang or Yin (殷) period, consists of a large body of oracle bone writings. (安陽) in modern day Henan has been confirmed as the last of the nine capitals of the Shang (c. 1300–1046 BC).

By the end of the 2nd millennium BC, the (周朝) began to emerge in the valley, overrunning the Shang. The Zhou appeared to have begun their rule under a semi-feudal system. The ruler of the Zhou, , with the assistance of his brother, the , as regent managed to defeat the Shang at the . The king of Zhou at this time invoked the concept of the to legitimize his rule, a concept that would be influential for almost every successive dynasty. The Zhou initially moved their capital west to an area near modern , near the Yellow River, but they would preside over a series of expansions into the valley. This would be the first of many population migrations from north to south in Chinese history.


Spring and Autumn
In the 8th century BC, power became decentralized during the (春秋時代), named after the influential . In this period, local military leaders used by the Zhou began to assert their power and vie for hegemony. The situation was aggravated by the invasion of other peoples from the northwest, such as the Quanrong, forcing the Zhou to move their capital east to . This marks the second large phase of the Zhou dynasty: the Eastern Zhou. In each of the hundreds of states that eventually arose, local strongmen held most of the political power and continued their subservience to the Zhou kings in name only. Local leaders for instance started using royal titles for themselves. The (諸子百家) of Chinese philosophy blossomed during this period, and such influential intellectual movements as (儒家), (道家), (法家) and (墨家) were founded, partly in response to the changing political world. The Spring and Autumn Period is marked by a falling apart of the central Zhou power. China now consists of hundreds of states, some only as large as a village with a fort.


Warring States
After further political consolidation, seven prominent states remained by the end of 5th century BC, and the years in which these few states battled each other is known as the (戰國時代). Though there remained a nominal king until 256 BC, he was largely a figurehead and held little power. As neighboring territories of these warring states, including areas of modern (四川) and (遼寧), were annexed, they were governed under the new local administrative system of and (郡縣). This system had been in use since the Spring and Autumn Period and parts can still be seen in the modern system of (province and county, 省縣). The final expansion in this period began during the reign of Ying Zheng (嬴政), the king of Qin. His unification of the other six powers, and further annexations in the modern regions of (浙江), (福建), (廣東) and (廣西) in 214 BC enabled him to proclaim himself the (Qin Shi Huangdi, 秦始皇帝).


Japan
Japan first appeared in written records in AD 57 with the following mention in China's :後漢書, 會稽海外有東鯷人 分爲二十餘國 "Across the ocean from are the people of . Formed from more than one hundred tribes, they come and pay tribute frequently." The , written in the 3rd century, noted the country was the unification of some 30 small tribes or states and ruled by a queen named of .

During the and , Chinese travelers to recorded its inhabitants and claimed that they were the descendants of the Grand Count (Tàibó) of the . The inhabitants also show traits of the pre-sinicized Wu people with tattooing, teeth-pulling and baby-carrying. The Book of Wei records the physical descriptions which are similar to ones on statues, such men with braided hair, tattooing and women wearing large, single-piece clothing.


Korea
According to the and other Korean medieval-era Folklore collection, was the first kingdom.See also , , , and , 제왕연대력 帝王年代曆 Jewang yeondaeryeok, (최치원) (857 - ?) Gojoseon was founded in 2333 BC by the legendary ruler , said to be descended from the Lord of Heaven. Then, Korea was governed for Records vol.38 and the 40th generation descendant.『盎葉記』(李徳懋)清州韓氏族譜 According to , Korea was founded by from China in 197 BC. Vol.55 Korea 史記 朝鮮列伝第五十五 "朝鮮王満者、故燕人也" In 105 BC, ruined Korea and ruled for about 400 years.

The (, , and ) conquered other successor states of Gojoseon and came to dominate the peninsula and much of Manchuria. The three kingdoms competed with each other both economically and militarily; and were the more powerful states for much of the three kingdoms era. At times more powerful than the neighboring Sui Dynasty, Goguryeo was a regional power that defeated massive multiple times. As one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, Silla gradually extended across Korea and eventually became the first state since to cover most of Korean peninsula in 676. In 698, former Goguryeo general founded as the successor to Goguryeo.

itself fell apart in the late 9th century, giving way to the tumultuous (892-936), which ended with the establishment of the . Wang Geon changed the name of dynasty to Goryeo. After the fall of Balhae in 926 to the , much of its people were absorbed into .


Vietnam
Around 3000 BC, the 15 different ethnic tribes lived together in many areas with other inhabitants. Due to increasing needs to control floods, fights against invaders, and culture and trade exchanges, these tribes living near each other tended to gather together and integrate into a larger mixed group. Among these Lac Viet tribes was the Van Lang, which was the most powerful tribe. The leader of this tribe later joined all the tribes together to found the in 2897 BC. He became the first in a line of earliest Vietnamese kings, collectively known as the Hùng kings (). The Hùng kings called the country, which was then located on the delta in present-day , . The people of were referred to as the Lạc Việt. The next generations followed in their father's footsteps and kept this appellation. Based on historical documents, researchers correlatively delineated the location of Văn Lang Nation to the present day regions of North and north of Central Vietnam, as well as the south of present-day Kwangsi (China).

The culture was a prehistoric culture that was centered at the Valley of northern . Its influence flourished to other parts of Southeast Asia, including the Indo-Malayan Archipelago from about 2000 BC to 200 AD. The theory based on the assumption that bronze casting in eastern Asia originated in northern China; however, this idea has been discredited by archaeological discoveries in north-eastern Thailand in the 1970s. In the words of one scholar, "Bronze casting began in Southeast Asia and was later borrowed by the Chinese, not vice versa as the Chinese scholars have always claimed. Evidence of early kingdoms of Vietnam other than the in Northern Vietnam was found in , the ancient city situated near present-day .


Mongols
North-western Mongolia was Turkic while south-western Mongolia had come under Indo-European (Tocharian and Scythian) influence. In antiquity, the eastern portions of both and Mongolia were inhabited by Mongolic peoples descended from the , including the , , , , , , and . These were horse-riding pastoralist kingdoms that had close contact with the Chinese. The Donghu are first mentioned by as already existing in Inner Mongolia north of the in 699-632 BC. The Mongolic-speaking Xianbei (208 BC-234 AD) originally formed a part of the Donghu confederation, but existed even before that time, as evidenced by a mention in the "晉語八" section which states that during the reign of (reigned 1042-1021 BC) the Xianbei came to participate at a meeting of Zhou subject-lords at Qiyang (岐阳) (now ) but were only allowed to perform the fire ceremony under the supervision of Chu (楚), since they were not vassals by covenant (诸侯). As a nomadic confedation composed of the Xianbei and Wuhuan, the Donghu were prosperous in the 4th century BC, forcing surrounding tribes to pay tribute and constantly harassing the (325 BC, during the early years of the reign of ) and the State of Yan (in 304 BC was given as a hostage to the Donghu).

In 208 BC Xiongnu emperor , in his first major military campaign, defeated the formerly superior Donghu, who split into the Xianbei and Wuhuan. The Xianbei fled east all the way to Liaodong. In 49 AD the Xianbei ruler Bianhe attacked the Xiongnu and killed 2000 people after having received generous gifts from Emperor Guangwu of Han. In 54 AD the Xianbei rulers Yuchoupen and Mantu presented themselves to the Han emperor and received the titles of wang and gou. Until 93 AD the Xianbei were quietly protecting the Chinese border from Wuhuan and Xiongnu attacks and received ample rewards. From 93 AD the Xianbei began to occupy the lands of the Xiongnu. 100,000 Xiongnu families changed their name to Xianbei. In 97 AD Feijuxian in Liaodong was attacked by the Xianbei, and the governor Qi Sen was dismissed for inaction. Other Xianbei rulers who were active before the rise of the Xianbei emperor Tanshihuai (141-181) were Yanzhiyang, Lianxu and Cizhiqian. The Xianbei gave rise to different Mongolic branches, for example the Rouran (330-555), Khitan (388-1218) and Shiwei (444-present day). The Khitans developed the in 920-925 AD. The Rouran king was the first major leader of the steppes to adopt (in 402 AD) the title of Khagan (可汗) or Qiudoufa Khan (丘豆伐可汗) (which was originally a title used by Xianbei nobles).

The Mongols of Genghis Khan were the Menggu sub-tribe of the Shiwei Xianbei. The first surviving Mongolian text is the Stele of Yisüngge, a report on sports in on stone, that is most often dated at the verge of 1224 and 1225.e.g. Γarudi 2002: 7 Other early sources are written in Mongolian, (decrets), (the ), (dictionaries) and a few other western scripts.Rybatzki 2003: 58


Huns
The Huns left practically no written records. There is no record of what happened between the time they left Mongolian Plateau and arrived in Europe 150 years later. The last mention of the northern Xiongnu was their defeat by the Chinese in 151 at the , after which they fled to the western steppe at (centered on the city of in ). Chinese records between the 3rd and 4th centuries suggest that a small tribe called , remnants of northern Xiongnu, was distributed about the steppe of .


Americas
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In times, several large, centralized ancient civilizations developed in the , The Encyclopedia of world history By Peter N. Stearns, William Leonard Langer. Page 21. "Ancient and Classical Periods; 3500 BCE - 500 BCE." both in and western .


Andean civilizations
The Central in has the largest ancient civilization register, spanning 4,500 years from to the latest civilization, the .


Mesoamerica
Mesoamerican ancient civilizations included the and . Between 2000 and 300 BC, complex cultures began to form and many matured into advanced civilizations such as the: Olmec, , , Maya, , , , , "" and , which flourished for nearly 4,000 years before the first contact with Europeans. These civilizations' progress included pyramid-temples, mathematics, astronomy, medicine, and theology.

The Zapotec emerged around 1500 years BC. They left behind the great city . Their writing system had been thought to have influenced the Olmecs but, with recent evidence, the Olmec may have been the first civilization in the area to develop a true writing system independently. At the present time, there is some debate as to whether or not Olmec symbols, dated to 650 BC, are actually a form of writing preceding the oldest Zapotec writing dated to about 500 BC. Script Delivery: New World writing takes disputed turn Science News December 7th, 2002; Vol.162 #23 Olmec symbols found in 2002 and 2006 date to 650 BCPohl, Mary; Kevin O. Pope, and Christopher von Nagy (2002). "Olmec Origins of Mesoamerican Writing". Science 298: 1984–1987. . and 900 BC respectively, preceding the oldest Zapotec writing. The earliest Mayan inscriptions found which are identifiably Maya date to the 3rd century BC in , . Science (subscription required)


Europe
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[[Image:Mediterranian Sea 16.61811E 38.99124N.jpg|300px|thumb|

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Etruria
The can be traced relatively accurately, based on the examination of sites, , and . culture that is identifiably and certainly developed in Italy in earnest by 800 BC approximately over the range of the preceding . The latter gave way in the 7th century to a culture that was influenced by Greek traders and Greek neighbors in , the of southern Italy.

From the descendants of the people in in central , a separate Etruscan culture emerged in the beginning of the 7th century BC, evidenced by around 7,000 inscriptions in an alphabet similar to that of , in the non- . The burial tombs, some of which had been fabulously decorated, promotes the idea of an aristocratic , with centralized power structures maintaining order and constructing public works, such as irrigation networks, roads, and town defenses.


Greece
is the period in lasting for close to a millennium, until the rise of . It is considered by most historians to be the foundational culture of . Greek culture was a powerful influence in the , which carried a version of it to many parts of .

The civilization of the ancient Greeks has been immensely influential on the language, politics, educational systems, philosophy, science, art, and architecture of the modern world, fueling the in Europe and again resurgent during various revivals in 18th- and 19th-century Europe and the .

Ancient Greece was the -speaking world in ancient times. It includes not only to the of modern , but also to areas of culture that were settled in ancient times by Greeks: and the Aegean islands, the coast of (then known as ), and southern (known as ), and the scattered Greek settlements on the coasts of , , , , , southern , east and northeast of the , , and further to the east in exotic Asian cities such as , and in modern day .

During its twelve-century existence, the Roman civilization shifted from a to an to a vast . It came to dominate and the entire area surrounding the through and . However, a number of factors led to the eventual . The western half of the empire, including , , and Italy, eventually broke into independent kingdoms in the 5th century; the Eastern Roman Empire, governed from , is referred to as the after AD 476, the traditional date for the "fall of Rome" and subsequent onset of the .

'' For more details, see the articles in the category of


Rome
was a civilization that grew out of the city-state of Rome, originating as a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula in the 9th century BC. In its twelve centuries of existence, Roman civilization shifted from a monarchy to an oligarchic republic to an increasingly autocratic empire.

Roman civilization is often grouped into "classical antiquity" with , a civilization that inspired much of the . Ancient Rome contributed greatly to the development of , , , , , and in the , and its continues to have a major influence on the world today. The Roman civilization came to dominate Europe and the Mediterranean region through conquest and assimilation.

Throughout the territory under the control of ancient Rome, residential ranged from very modest houses to . A number of Roman founded cities had structures. Many contained fountains with fresh drinking-water supplied by hundreds of miles of , , , sometime with libraries and shops, marketplaces, and occasionally functional sewers.


Late Antiquity
The underwent considerable social, cultural and organizational change starting with reign of , who began the custom of splitting the Empire into and halves ruled by multiple emperors. Beginning with the Empire was , and a new capital founded at . of tribes disrupted Roman rule from the late 4th century onwards, culminating in the eventual in 476, replaced by the so-called . The resultant cultural fusion of Greco-Roman, Germanic and Christian traditions formed the cultural foundations of .


Germanic tribes
Migration of to Britain from what is now northern Germany and southern is attested from the 5th century (e.g. ). Based on Bede's Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum, the intruding population is traditionally divided into Angles, Saxons, and Jutes, but their composition was likely less clear-cut and may also have included and . The contains text that may be the first recorded indications of the movement of these to Britain. Parker Library on the Web, The Parker Library. (cf., " One of the most important collections of Anglo-Saxon manuscripts – for centuries kept at Corpus Christi College – has been entirely digitised, making it the first research library to have every page of its collection captured.".) The Angles and Saxons and Jutes were noted to be a in the Greek written by in around AD 150.

is the term usually used to describe the peoples living in the south and east of from the early 5th century AD. Benedictine monk identified them as the descendants of three : the , the , and the , from the peninsula and (Niedersachsen, ). The Angles may have come from , and Bede wrote their nation came to Britain, leaving their land empty. They spoke dialects. The Anglo-Saxons knew themselves as the "Englisc," from which the word "English" derives.

The were a diverse group of in . culture formed in the in ( period, named for the site in present-day Austria). By the later Iron Age ( period), Celts had expanded over wide range of lands: as far west as and the , as far east as (central ), and as far north as . Britannica (Turkey) People and Culture By the early centuries AD, following the expansion of the and the of , Celtic culture had become restricted to the (), with the languages extinct by the mid-1st millennium AD.

refers to a member of the () peoples, famous as , , , and , who raided and colonized wide areas of beginning in the late 8th.Roesdahl, Else. The Vikings. Penguin, 1998. ISBN 0-14-025282-7 p. 9-22. These used their famed to travel. The forms a major part of , with a minor, yet significant part in .


Developments

Religion and philosophy
New and arose in both east and west, particularly about the 6th century BC. Over time, a great variety of religions developed around the world, with some of the earliest major ones being , , and in , and in . The trace their origin to , around 1800 BC.

The ancient is a fusion of two ancient traditions: tradition and . Indian philosophy begins with the where questions related to laws of nature, the origin of the universe and the place of man in it are asked. and are continuation of the Sramana school of thought. The Sramanas cultivated a pessimistic world view of the samsara as full of suffering and advocated renunciation and austerities. They laid stress on philosophical concepts like Ahimsa, Karma, Jnana, Samsara and Moksa. While there are ancient relations between the Indian and the Iranian , the two main families of the were characterized by fundamental differences in their implications for the human being's position in society and their view on the role of man in the universe.

In the east, three schools of thought were to dominate thinking until the modern day. These were , and . The Confucian tradition, which would attain dominance, looked for not to the force of law but to the power and example of tradition. Confucianism would later spread into the and and toward .

In the west, the philosophical tradition, represented by , , and , was diffused throughout and the in the 4th century BC by the conquests of , more commonly known as . After the formed, the rise and spread of through the Roman world marked the end of philosophy and ushered in the beginnings of .


Science and technology
In the and during the growth of the ancient civilizations, advances were produced in . These advances stimulated other societies to adopt new ways of living and governance.

The characteristics of are indicated by a set of artifacts and customs that lasted for thousands of years. The Egyptians invented and used many basic machines, such as the ramp and the lever, to aid construction processes. The Egyptians also played an important role in developing Mediterranean maritime technology including ships and lighthouses.

The dates back to ancient times. The Indus Valley civilization yields evidence of hydrography, metrology and sewage collection and disposal being practiced by its inhabitants. Among the fields of science and technology pursued in India were , , and . Some ancient include , , and .

The show significant advances in science, technology, mathematics, and astronomy. The first recorded observations of comets and were made in China. Traditional , and herbal medicine were also practiced.

developed at an unprecedented speed during the 5th century BC, continuing up to and including the Roman period, and beyond. Inventions that are credited to the ancient Greeks such as the gear, screw, bronze casting techniques, water clock, water organ, torsion catapult and the use of steam to operate some experimental machines and toys. Many of these inventions occurred late in the Greek period, often inspired by the need to improve weapons and tactics in war. is the engineering practice which supported Roman civilization and made the expansion of Roman commerce and Roman military possible over nearly a thousand years. The Roman Empire had the most advanced set of technology of their time, some of which may have been lost during the turbulent eras of Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages. Roman technological feats of many different areas, like civil engineering, construction materials, transport technology, and some inventions such as the mechanical reaper went unmatched until the 19th century.

which likely emerged on the plateau and possibly also in the sometime in the early 1st millennium BC spread from there slowly west- and eastward.: "Hydraulic Engineering and Water Supply", in: : Handbook of Engineering and Technology in the Classical World, New York: Oxford University Press, 2008 (editor), ISBN 978-0-19-973485-6, p.291f.


Maritime activity
The history of ancient navigation began in earnest when men took to the sea in boats and ships propelled by hung on , like the from the mid-3rd millennium BC. According to the historian , sent out an expedition of , which in three years sailed from the around to the mouth of the . Many current historians tend to believe Herodotus on this point, even though Herodotus himself was in disbelief that the Phoenicians had accomplished the act.

was an (around 2750 BC) and the first explorer of whom there is any knowledge. He made the first recorded exploring expedition, writing his account of his exploration in stone. Hannu travelled along the to , and sailed to what is now part of eastern and . He returned to Egypt with great treasures, including precious , and .


Warfare
is war as conducted from the beginnings of recorded history to the end of the ancient period. In Europe, the end of antiquity is often equated with the fall of Rome in 476. In China, it can also be seen as ending in the 5th century, with the growing role of mounted warriors needed to counter the ever-growing threat from the north.

The difference between and ancient warfare is less one of technology than of organization. The development of first , and then , allowed warfare to change dramatically. Beginning in , states produced sufficient agricultural surplus that full-time ruling elites and military commanders could emerge. While the bulk of military forces were still farmers, the society could support having them campaigning rather than working the land for a portion of each year. Thus, organized armies developed for the first time.

These new armies could help states grow in size and became increasingly centralized, and the first empire, that of the , formed in Mesopotamia. Early ancient armies continued to primarily use and , the same weapons that had been developed in prehistoric times for hunting. Early armies in and followed a similar pattern of using massed infantry armed with bows and spears.


Artwork and music
attached great importance to music and poetry.
7th-century silver plate. The British Museum.]]

is music that developed in literate cultures, replacing prehistoric music. Ancient music refers to the various musical systems that were developed across various geographical regions such as Persia, India, China, Greece, Rome, Egypt and Mesopotamia (see , , , ). Ancient music is designated by the characterization of the basic audible tones and scales. It may have been transmitted through oral or written systems. refers to the many types of art that were in the cultures of ancient societies, such as those of ancient China, Egypt, Greece, India, Persia, Mesopotamia and Rome.


See also


Citations and notes

General information
  • ξ4
  • Thorndike 1923, Becker 1931, MacMullen 1966, MacMullen 1990, Thomas & Wick 1993, Loftus 1996.
  • ξ5
  • ξ6 Web edition is constantly updated.
  • ξ7
  • ξ8
  • Schwarz, Georg (2010). Kulturexperimente im Altertum, Berlin.
  • ξ9
  • Eight volumes.


External links

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References
    ^ (2019). 9780231017671, Columbia University Press. .
    ^ (2019). 9781856694599, Laurence King Publishing. .
    ^ (2019). 174081195X, . . 174081195X
    ^ 9780521770200, Cambridge University Press.
    ^ (1992). 9780880298933, Barnes & Noble.
    ^ (1998). 9780941690874, Regina Books. .
    ^ (1996). 9780674287778, Harvard University Press.
    ^ (1993). 9780691036014, Princeton University Press.
    ^ (1994). 9780132002059, Prentice Hall.

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