Product Code Database
Example Keywords: shoe -slippers $53
   » » Wiki: A
Tag Wiki 'A'.

A (named , plural As, A's, as, a's or aes) is the first letter and the first of the ISO basic Latin alphabet. It is similar to the Ancient Greek letter , from which it derives. The upper-case version consists of the two slanting sides of a triangle, crossed in the middle by a horizontal bar. The lower-case version can be written in two forms: the double-storey a and single-storey ɑ. The latter is commonly used in handwriting and fonts based on it, especially fonts intended to be read by children, and is also found in .


The earliest certain ancestor of "A" is (also written 'aleph), the first letter of the Phoenician alphabet, which consisted entirely of (for that reason, it is also called an to distinguish it from a true ). In turn, the ancestor of aleph may have been a of an ox head in proto-Sinaitic script influenced by Egyptian hieroglyphs, styled as a triangular head with two horns extended.

By 1600 BC, the Phoenician alphabet letter had a linear form that served as the base for some later forms. Its name is thought to have corresponded closely to the or aleph.



Another Blackletter A 

Modern Roman A

Modern Italic A

Modern script A
When the adopted the alphabet, they had no use for a letter to represent the —the consonant sound that the letter denoted in Phoenician and other Semitic languages, and that was the first of the Phoenician pronunciation of the letter—so they used their version of the sign to represent the vowel , and called it by the similar name of . In the earliest Greek inscriptions after the Greek Dark Ages, dating to the 8th century BC, the letter rests upon its side, but in the of later times it generally resembles the modern capital letter, although many local varieties can be distinguished by the shortening of one leg, or by the angle at which the cross line is set.

The Etruscans brought the Greek alphabet to their civilization in the Italian Peninsula and left the letter unchanged. The Romans later adopted the Etruscan alphabet to write the , and the resulting letter was preserved in the that would come to be used to write many languages, including English.

Typographic variants
During Roman times, there were many variant forms of the letter "A". First was the monumental or lapidary style, which was used when inscribing on stone or other "permanent" media. There was also a style used for everyday or utilitarian writing, which was done on more perishable surfaces. Due to the "perishable" nature of these surfaces, there are not as many examples of this style as there are of the monumental, but there are still many surviving examples of different types of cursive, such as cursive, cursive, and semicursive minuscule. Variants also existed that were intermediate between the monumental and cursive styles. The known variants include the early semi-uncial, the uncial, and the later semi-uncial.

include a double-storey a and single-storey ɑ.]]At the end of the (5th century AD), several variants of the cursive minuscule developed through Western Europe. Among these were the semicursive minuscule of , the Merovingian script in France, the Visigothic script in Spain, and the or Anglo-Irish semi-uncial or Anglo-Saxon majuscule of Great Britain. By the 9th century, the Caroline script, which was very similar to the present-day form, was the principal form used in book-making, before the advent of the printing press. This form was derived through a combining of prior forms.

15th-century Italy saw the formation of the two main variants that are known today. These variants, the Italic and Roman forms, were derived from the Caroline Script version. The Italic form, also called script a, is used in most current and consists of a circle and vertical stroke. This slowly developed from the fifth-century form resembling the Greek letter in the hands of medieval Irish and English writers. The Roman form is used in most printed material; it consists of a small loop with an arc over it ("a"). Both derive from the majuscule (capital) form. In Greek handwriting, it was common to join the left leg and horizontal stroke into a single loop, as demonstrated by the uncial version shown. Many fonts then made the right leg vertical. In some of these, the that began the right leg stroke developed into an arc, resulting in the printed form, while in others it was dropped, resulting in the modern handwritten form.

is commonly used to mark emphasis or more generally to distinguish one part of a text from the rest (set in Roman type). There are some other cases aside from italic type where script a ("ɑ"), also called , is used in contrast with Latin "a" (such as in the International Phonetic Alphabet).

Use in writing systems

In modern English orthography, the letter represents at least seven different vowel sounds:
  • the near-open front unrounded vowel as in pad;
  • the open back unrounded vowel as in father, which is closer to its original Latin and Greek sound;
  • the as in ace and major (usually when is followed by one, or occasionally two, consonants and then another vowel letter) – this results from Middle English lengthening followed by the Great Vowel Shift;
  • the modified form of the above sound that occurs before , as in square and Mary;
  • the rounded vowel of water;
  • the shorter rounded vowel (not present in ) in was and what;
  • a , in many unstressed syllables, as in about, comma, solar.

The double sequence does not occur in native English words, but is found in some words derived from foreign languages such as Aaron and . However, occurs in many common digraphs, all with their own sound or sounds, particularly , , , , and .

is the third-most-commonly used letter in English (after  and ), and the second most common in Spanish and French. In one study, on average, about 3.68% of letters used in English texts tend to be , while the number is 6.22% in Spanish and 3.95% in French.

Other languages
In most languages that use the Latin alphabet, denotes an open unrounded vowel, such as , , or . An exception is , in which (and the glyph Á) stands for a close-mid front unrounded vowel .

Other systems
In phonetic and phonemic notation:
  • in the International Phonetic Alphabet, is used for the open front unrounded vowel, is used for the open central unrounded vowel, and is used for the open back unrounded vowel.
  • in , is used for the open front unrounded vowel and is used for the open back unrounded vowel.

Other uses
In , the letter a along with other letters at the beginning of the alphabet is used to represent known quantities, whereas the letters at the end of the alphabet ( x, y, z) are used to denote unknown quantities.

In , capital A, B, C etc. are used to denote , lines, rays, etc. A capital A is also typically used as one of the letters to represent an angle in a , the lowercase a representing the side opposite angle A.

"A" is often used to denote something or someone of a better or more prestigious quality or status: A-, A or A+, the best grade that can be assigned by teachers for students' schoolwork; "A grade" for clean restaurants; celebrities, etc. Such associations can have a effect, as exposure to the letter A has been found to improve performance, when compared with other letters.

Finally, the letter A is used to denote size, as in a narrow size shoe, or a small cup size in a .

Related characters

Descendants and related characters in the Latin alphabet
  • Æ æ : Latin AE ligature
  • A with : Å å Ǻ ǻ Ḁ ḁ ẚ Ă ă Ặ ặ Ắ ắ Ằ ằ Ẳ ẳ Ẵ ẵ Ȃ ȃ Â â Ậ ậ Ấ ấ Ầ ầ Ẫ ẫ Ẩ ẩ Ả ả Ⱥ ⱥ Ȧ ȧ Ǡ ǡ Ạ ạ Ä ä Ǟ ǟ À à Ȁ ȁ Á á Ā ā Ā̀ ā̀ Ã ã Ą ą Ą́ ą́ Ą̃ ą̃ ᶏ

  • Phonetic alphabet symbols related to A (the International Phonetic Alphabet only uses lowercase, but uppercase forms are used in some other writing systems):
    • Ɑ ɑ : , which represents an open back unrounded vowel in the IPA
    • ᶐ : Latin small letter alpha with retroflex hook
    • Ɐ ɐ : , which represents a near-open central vowel in the IPA
    • Λ ʌ : (also called a wedge, a caret, or a hat), which represents an open-mid back unrounded vowel in the IPA
    • Ɒ ɒ : Turned alpha / script A, which represents an open back rounded vowel in the IPA
    • ᶛ : Modifier letter small turned alpha
    • ᴀ : Small capital A, an obsolete or non-standard symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet used to represent various sounds (mainly open vowels)
    • ᴬ ᵃ ᵄ : Modifier letters are used in the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet (UPA).
    • ₐ : Subscript small a is used in Indo-European studies
    • ꬱ : Small letter a reversed-schwa is used in the phonetic transcription system

Derived signs, symbols and abbreviations
  • ª : an ordinal indicator
  • Å : Ångström sign
  • ∀ : a turned capital letter A, used in to specify universal quantification ("for all")
  • @ :
  • ₳ : Argentine austral

Ancestors and siblings in other alphabets
  • 𐤀 : Semitic letter , from which the following symbols originally derive

Computing codes

Other representations



External links

Page 1 of 1


Pages:  ..   .. 
Items:  .. 


General: Atom Feed Atom Feed  .. 
Help:  ..   .. 
Category:  ..   .. 
Media:  ..   .. 
Posts:  ..   ..   .. 


Page:  .. 
Summary:  .. 
1 Tags
10/10 Page Rank
5 Page Refs
1s Time