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The Yakuts, or the Sakha (саха, ; сахалар, ), are a ethnic group who mainly live in the in the Russian Federation, with some extending to the , , regions, and the Taymyr and Evenk Districts of the region. The belongs to the Siberian branch of the Turkic languages. The Russian word was taken from . The Yakuts call themselves , or in some old chronicles. Inside the New Russia (1994): Yakuts


Culture
The Yakuts engage in animal husbandry, traditionally having focused on rearing , mainly the , reindeer and the ('Yakutian cow'), a hardy kind of known as which is well adapted to the harsh local weather.

Certain named , as well as places such as , are held in high esteem by Yakuts. Murzin Yuri Andreyevich, Kigilyakhi of Yakutia


Origin and history
The ancestors of Yakuts were who migrated from river to and were subject to a certain Mongolian admixture prior to migrationV.A. Stepanov "Origin of Sakha: Analysis of Y-chromosome Haplotypes" Molecular Biology, 2008, Volume 42, No 2, pp. 226–237, 2008.
(2021). 9783110819724, Walter de Gruyter. .
(2021). 9783110218442, Walter de Gruyter. .
in the 7th century. The Yakuts originally lived around and the region of . Beginning in the 13th century they migrated to the basins of the Middle , the and rivers under the pressure of the rising . The northern Yakuts were largely hunters, fishermen and herders, while the southern Yakuts raised and .

In the 1620s the Tsardom of Muscovy began to move into their territory and annexed or settled down on it, imposed a fur tax and managed to suppress several Yakut rebellions between 1634 and 1642. The tsarist brutality in collection of the pelt tax ( yasak) sparked a rebellion and aggression among the Yakuts and also Tungusic-speaking tribes along the River in 1642. The , leader of the tsarist forces, responded with a reign of terror: native settlements were torched and hundreds of people were killed. The Yakut population alone is estimated to have fallen by 70 percent between 1642 and 1682, mainly because of and other infectious diseases.

(2021). 9780520939356, University of California Press. .

In the 18th century the Russians reduced the pressure, gave Yakut chiefs some privileges, granted freedom for all habitats, gave them all their lands, sent Eastern Orthodox missions, and educated the Yakut people regarding agriculture. The discovery of and, later, the building of the Trans-Siberian Railway, brought ever-increasing numbers of Russians into the region. By the 1820s almost all the Yakuts claimed to have converted to the church, but they retained (and still retain) a number of shamanist practices. Yakut literature began to rise in the late 19th century, and a national revival occurred in the early 20th century.

In 1922, the new Soviet government named the area the Yakut Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. The last conflict of the Russian Civil War, known as the , occurred here when Cornet Mikhail Korobeinikov, a officer, led an uprising and a last stand against the . In the late 1920s through the late 1930s, Yakut people were systematically persecuted, when launched his collectivization campaign.Book of Peoples of the World: A Guide to Cultures, ed. by Davis, Harrison, Howe, National Geographic Books, ç2008, p.141 It is possible that hunger and malnutrition during this period resulted in a decline in the Yakut total population from 240,500 in 1926 to 236,700 in 1959. By 1972, the population began to recover. Currently, Yakuts form a large plurality of the total population within the vast Sakha Republic. According to the 2010 Russian census, there were a total of 466,492 Yakuts residing in the Sakha Republic during that year, or 49.9% of the total population of the Republic.


DNA and genetics analysis
The majority of Yakut males (around 89%) belong to Haplogroup N-M231. However, some samples of Yakut males from northern Yakutia has revealed a somewhat lower frequency of this haplogroup (Northern Yakut 47/66 = 71% N-TAT).Sardana A Fedorova, Maere Reidla, Ene Metspalu, et al., "Autosomal and uniparental portraits of the native populations of Sakha (Yakutia): implications for the peopling of Northeast Eurasia." BMC Evolutionary Biology 2013, 13:127. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/13/127 The remainder of the Yakut Y-DNA pool consists of members of haplogroup C-M217 (approximately 4.0%, including members of the C-M48 and C-M407 subclades), haplogroup R1a-M17 (approximately 3.5%, including members of the R1a-M458 subclade), and haplogroup N-P43 (approximately 2.1%), with sporadic instances of haplogroup I1-M253, haplogroup R1b-M269, haplogroup J2, and haplogroup Q.Duggan AT, Whitten M, Wiebe V, Crawford M, Butthof A, et al. (2013), "Investigating the Prehistory of Tungusic Peoples of Siberia and the Amur-Ussuri Region with Complete mtDNA Genome Sequences and Y-chromosomal Markers." PLoS ONE 8(12): e83570. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0083570

The mtDNA of the Yakut people reveal they are majority haplogroup C (75/164 = 45.7% Central Yakut, 60/148 = 40.5% Northern Yakut, 40/111 = 36.0% Yakut) or haplogroup D (54/164 = 32.9% Central Yakut, 33/111 = 29.7% Vilyuy Yakut, 38/148 = 25.7% Northern Yakut), with subclades D5a2a2 (57/423 = 13.48%), C4a1c (47/423 = 11.11%), C4a2 (35/423 = 8.27%), C4b1 (33/423 = 7.80%), and C5b1b (19/423 = 4.49%) being particularly well represented. Minor mtDNA haplogroups of Eastern Eurasian origin include haplogroup G (22/423 = 5.20%, including 19/423 = 4.49% G2a and 3/423 = 0.71% G1b), haplogroup F (19/423 = 4.49%, including 13/423 = 3.07% F1b and 6/423 = 1.42% F2b1), haplogroup M13a1b (15/423 = 3.55%), haplogroup A (8/423 = 1.89%), haplogroup Y1a (5/423 = 1.18%), haplogroup B (5/423 = 1.18%), haplogroup Z3 (4/423 = 0.95%), and haplogroup M7 (3/423 = 0.71%). A minority of Yakuts (42/423 = 9.93%) belong to mtDNA haplogroups of Western Eurasian origin, including haplogroup H (15/423 = 3.55%), haplogroup W (6/423 = 1.42%), haplogroup J1c5 (6/423 = 1.42%), haplogroup T2 (5/423 = 1.18%), haplogroup HV1a1a (5/423 = 1.18%), haplogroup R1b2a (2/423 = 0.47%), haplogroup U5b1b1a (2/423 = 0.47%), and haplogroup U4d2 (1/423 = 0.24%).


Language
According to the 2010 census, some 87% of the Yakuts in the Sakha Republic are fluent in the , while 90% are fluent in Russian.http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/new_site/perepis2010/croc/Documents/Vol4/pub-04-07.pdf The Sakha/Yakut language belongs to the North Siberian of the Siberian Turkic languages. It is most closely related to the , and also to a lesser extent related to and .


Cuisine
The cuisine of Sakha prominently features the traditional drink , dairy products of cow, mare, and reindeer milk, sliced frozen salted fish (строганина), loaf meat dishes (), , frozen fish, thick pancakes, and —a millet porridge with butter and horse fat. (Куэрчэх) or , a popular dessert, is made of cow milk or cream with various . is a traditional fish salad. This cuisine is only used in .


Notable people

Academia


Arts
  • Evgenia Arbugaeva, photographer


Cinema and Television


Military


Models


Musicians


Politicians


Rulers


Sports


See also


Further reading
  • Conolly, Violet. "The Yakuts," Problems of Communism, vol. 16, no. 5 (Sept.-Oct. 1967), pp. 81–91.
  • Tomskaya, Maria. 2018. "Verbalization of Nomadic Culture in Yakut Fairytales". In: Przegląd Wschodnioeuropejski Https://doi.org/10.31648/pw.3210.
  • Tomskaya, Maria. 2020. "Fairy Tale Images As a Component of Cultural Programming: Gender Aspect" Сказочные. In: Przegląd Wschodnioeuropejski Https://doi.org/10.31648/pw.6497.


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