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V (named vee "V", Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "vee", op. cit.) is the 22nd letter in the and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

The letter V comes from the Semitic letter Waw, as do the modern letters F, U, W, and Y."Letter V." Behind the Type. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Oct.2014. . See F for details.

In , the letter "Υ" was adapted from waw to represent, at first, the vowel as in "moon". This was later to , the front rounded vowel spelled "ü" in .

In , a stemless variant shape of the upsilon was borrowed in early times as V—either directly from the Western Greek alphabet or from the Etruscan alphabet as an intermediary—to represent the same sound, as well as the consonantal . Thus, "num"— originally spelled "NVM"— was pronounced and "via" was pronounced . From the 1st century AD on, depending on dialect, consonantal developed into (kept in ), then later to .

During the Late Middle Ages, two forms of "v" developed, which were both used for its ancestor and modern . The pointed form "v" was written at the beginning of a word, while a rounded form "u" was used in the middle or end, regardless of sound. So whereas "valour" and "excuse" appeared as in modern printing, "have" and "upon" were printed as "haue" and "vpon". The first distinction between the letters "u" and "v" is recorded in a from 1386, where "v" preceded "u". By the mid-16th century, the "v" form was used to represent the consonant and "u" the vowel sound, giving us the modern letter "u". Capital "U" was not accepted as a distinct letter until many years later.

(2019). 9781568987378, Princeton Architectural Press. .

In the , represents the voiced labiodental fricative. See .

In English, V is unusual in that it has not traditionally been doubled to indicate a , the way, for example, P is doubled to indicate the difference between "super" and "supper". However, that is changing with newly coined words, such as "divvy up" and "skivvies". Like J, K, Q, X, and Z, V is not used very frequently in English. It is the in the English language, with a frequency of about 1.03% in words. V is the only letter that cannot be used to form an English two-letter word in the Australian version of the game of . C also cannot be used in the American version.

The letter appears frequently in the Romance languages, where it is the first letter of the second person plural pronoun and (in Italian) the stem of the form of most verbs.

Name in other languages
  • ve, pronounced ; in dialects that lack contrast between and , the letter is called ve baixa "low B/V".
  • Vau
  • vi or vu
  • fał
  • uve is recommended, but ve is traditional. If V is pronounced in the second way, it would have the same pronunciation as the letter B in Spanish (i.e. after pause or nasal sound, otherwise );
    (2019). 9789977661612, Editorial Tecnologica de CR.
    thus further terms are needed to distinguish ve from be. In some countries it is called ve corta, ve baja, ve pequeña, ve chica or ve .

In Japanese, V is often called "bui" (ブイ), possibly due to the difficulty of typing "vi" (ヴィ) or even "vui" (ヴイ), an approximation of the English name which substitutes the voiced bilabial plosive for the voiced labiodental fricative (which does not exist in native Japanese phonology) and differentiates it from "bī" (ビー), the Japanese name of the letter B. Some words are more often spelled with the b equivalent character instead of vu due to the long-time use of the word without it (e.g. "" is more often found as バイオリン than as ヴァイオリン).

Use in writing systems
In most languages which use the Latin alphabet, has a or sound. In English, it is a voiced labiodental fricative. In most dialects of Spanish, it is pronounced the same as , that is, or . In Corsican, it is pronounced , , or , depending on the position in the word and the sentence. In current , it is pronounced in most loan-words while in native German words, it is always pronounced . In standard it is traditionally pronounced as but in many regions it is pronounced as in some or all positions.

In Native American languages of North America (mainly and ), represents a nasalized central vowel, /ə̃/.

In , while is not used, the letter is used by most input methods to enter letter , which most keyboards lack ( Chinese is a popular method to enter Chinese text). Informal romanizations of Mandarin use V as a substitute for the close front rounded vowel , properly written ü in and .

In , the letter is mostly used in loanwords, such as veidhlín from English violin. However the sound appears naturally in Irish when /b/ (or /m/) is or "softened", represented in the orthography by (or "mh"), so that bhí is pronounced , an bhean (the woman) is pronounced , etc. For more information, see .

This letter is not used in the Polish alphabet, where is spelled with the letter instead, following the convention of . In German, the letter sounds like /f/.

Other systems
In the 19th century, was sometimes used to transcribe a , , a function since partly taken over by .

Related characters

Descendants and related letters in the Latin alphabet
  • U u : Latin letter U, originally the same letter as V
  • W w : Latin letter W, descended from V/U
  • Ỽ ỽ : Middle Welsh V
  • V with : Ṿ ṿ Ʋ ʋ ᶌ
  • IPA-specific symbols related to V:
  • ᶹ : Modifier letter small v with hook is used in phonetic transcription
  • Ʌ ʌ ᶺ:
  • ⱴ : V with curl
  • Uralic Phonetic Alphabet-specific symbols related to V:

Ancestors and siblings in other alphabets
  • 𐤅: Semitic letter Waw, from which the following symbols originally derive
    • Υ υ : letter , from which V derives
      • Y y : Latin letter Y, which, like V, also derives from Upsilon (but was taken into the alphabet at a later date)
      • Ѵ ѵ : Cyrillic letter , also descended from Upsilon
      • У у : letter u, also descended from Upsilon via the digraph of omicron and upsilon
        • Ү ү : letter Ү, descended from У and izhitsa and used in the scripts for languages in the former Soviet Union and currently the Russian Federation, as well as in Mongolian. Most commonly it represents /y/ or /ʏ/.

Ligatures and abbreviations
  • ∨: Logical disjunction
  • ℣ : sign
  • Ꝟ ꝟ : Forms of V were used for medieval scribal abbreviations

Computing codes

Other representations
V is the symbol for . It is number 23 on the periodic table. derives its green coloring from either or .

v, v., and vs can also be used as an abbreviation for the word when between two or more competing items (Ex: Brown v. Board of Education).

See also
  • Dominant, in music theory
  • Vee
  • , logical disjunction

External links
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