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   » » Wiki: United States Minor Outlying Islands
Tag Wiki 'United States Minor Outlying Islands'.

The United States Minor Outlying Islands, a statistical designation defined by the International Organization for Standardization's ISO 3166-1 code, consist of eight in the (, , , , , , , and ) and one in the ().

Except for , all of these islands are unincorporated, unorganized territories of the United States. , none of the islands have any permanent residents. The only human population consists of temporarily stationed scientific and military personnel. The 2000 census counted 315 people on and 94 people on . US Census 2000 Population Summary — see Table I

There has been no modern indigenous population, except at the 1940 census. In 1936 a colonization program began to settle Americans on Baker, Howland, and Jarvis, but all three islands were evacuated in 1942 as a result of World War II.

The islands are grouped together as a statistical convenience. They are not administered collectively, nor do they share a single cultural or political history beyond being uninhabited islands under the sovereignty of the United States. The Pacific islands are surrounded by large Exclusive Economic Zones, and are within the bounds of the Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument.

They are collectively represented by the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code . The individual islands have ISO 3166-2 numerical codes.

The (ccTLD) ".um" has historically been assigned to the islands; however, the .um ccTLD was retired in January 2007.

ISO introduced the term "United States Minor Outlying Islands" in 1986. From 1974 until 1986, five of the islands (Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Palmyra Atoll and Kingman Reef) were grouped under the term United States Miscellaneous Pacific Islands, with ISO 3166 code . The code of Midway Atoll was , the code of Johnston Atoll was , and the code of Wake Island was . Prior to 1986, Navassa Island, along with several small islands in the —that are no longer under U.S. sovereignty—were grouped under the term United States Miscellaneous Caribbean Islands, with FIPS country code .

The populated , called Sikaiana and now effectively controlled by the , are not included in official lists of U.S. Minor Outlying Islands. In 1856, the Kingdom of Hawaii Privy Council and King Kamehameha IV voted to accept their voluntary cession. The Kingdom later became the Republic of Hawaii, all of which was annexed by the in 1898. In 1959, the resulting federal U.S. Territory of Hawaii, excluding only and , became a U.S. state. Residents of the Stewarts, who are like the rather than , claimed to be citizens of the United States since the Stewarts were given to King Kamehameha IV in 1856 and were part of Hawaii at the time of the United States' annexation in 1898. The U.S. federal and Hawaii state governments informally accept the recent claim of the over the Stewarts, and the United States makes no official claim of sovereignty.


Airports in the United States Minor Outlying Islands provide critical emergency landing points across the vast Pacific Ocean for all types of aircraft, allow for important military presence in key strategic zones, and have limited scheduled commercial services. The following is a list of island airports with ICAO (IATA) codes:

Other airports include:

  • Kamakaiwi Field: (1937 to about 1945)
  • : The lagoon was used as a halfway station between Hawaii and American Samoa by Pan American Airways for in 1937 and 1938.
  • Johnston Atoll Airport, (Formerly PJON/JON): The airport was built during WWII, and saw significant commercial traffic during the second half of the 20th century. However, it was abandoned in 2003.

Three of the islands are listed with ports in the World Port Index, with World Port Number:

  • 56325 JOHNSTON ATOLL: Johnston Atoll
  • 56328 MIDWAY ISLAND: Midway Atoll
  • 56330 WAKE ISLAND: Wake Island
  • not listed WEST LAGOON: Palmyra Atoll

Baker Island, Howland Island and Jarvis Island each have a small boat landing place. Kingman Reef and Navassa Island have offshore anchorage only.

North , Northwestern Hawaiian Islands
1867 August 28
North Pacific Ocean, scattered isolated islands
1899 January 17
1859 September 6
North Pacific Ocean, Northern
1860 February 8
1912 February 21
North Pacific Ocean, Northern
1856 October 28
1856 October 28
South Pacific Ocean, Central
1856 October 28
North ,
1858 October 31
1869 November 22
1879 September 8
1880 September 13
A Claimed by the .
B Previously claimed by when independent. was officially part of Hawaii until 1959.
C Claimed by .
D Administered by and claimed by and , not included in the ISO list of territories; its area is not included in the total.
E Administered by and claimed by and , not included in the ISO list of territories; its area is not included in the total.

Flora and fauna

See also

External links

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