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The tiger ( Panthera tigris) is the largest , most recognizable for their pattern of dark vertical stripes on reddish-orange fur with a lighter underside. The species is classified in the genus with the , , , and . Tigers are , primarily preying on such as and . They are territorial and generally solitary but social animals, often requiring large contiguous areas of that support their prey requirements. This, coupled with the fact that they are indigenous to some of the more densely populated places on Earth, has caused significant conflicts with humans.

Tigers once ranged widely across eastern , from the in the west, to the in the south, and from to in the . Over the past 100 years, they have lost 93% of their historic range, and have been extirpated from and , from the islands of Java and , and from large areas of , , and . Today, they range from the Siberian to open and tropical swamps. The remaining six tiger subspecies have been classified as endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Major reasons for population decline include habitat destruction, habitat fragmentation and . The extent of area occupied by tigers is estimated at less than , a 41% decline from the area estimated in the mid-1990s.

The global population in the is estimated to number between 3,062 and 3,948 individuals, down from around 100,000 at the start of the 20th century, with most remaining populations occurring in small pockets isolated from each other, in which about 2,000 tigers live on the Indian subcontinent. In 2016, an estimate of a global tiger population of approximately 3,890 individuals was presented during the Third Asia Ministerial Conference on Tiger Conservation. The WWF declared that the world's count of wild tigers has risen for the first time in a century.

Tigers are among the most recognisable and popular of the world's megafauna. They have featured prominently in ancient and , and continue to be depicted in modern films and literature. They appear on many , coats of arms, and as for sporting teams. The tiger is the of , , and .


Etymology
The word Panthera is probably of origin and retraceable to the word panther, the word panthera, the word pantère, most likely meaning "the yellowish animal", or from pandarah meaning whitish-yellow. The derivation from pan- ("all") and ther ("beast") may be .

The word specific name tigris derives from the Classical Greek language τίγρις meaning "tiger" as well as the river .

The tigre and the tigras (a plural word) were both used for the animal. These derive from the Old French tigre, itself a derivative of the word tigris. The original source may have been the tigra meaning pointed or sharp and the tigrhi meaning an arrow, perhaps referring to the speed with which a tiger launches itself at its prey.


Taxonomy
In 1758, described the tiger in his work and gave it the Felis tigris. In 1929, the British taxonomist Reginald Innes Pocock subordinated the species under the genus using the scientific name Panthera tigris.


Recent subspecies
Following Linnaeus's first descriptions of the species, several tiger specimens were described and proposed as . The validity of several tiger subspecies was questioned in 1999. Most putative subspecies described in the 19th and 20th centuries were distinguished on basis of fur length and coloration, striping patterns and body size, hence characteristics that vary widely within populations. Morphologically, tigers from different regions vary little, and between populations in those regions is considered to have been possible during the . Therefore, it was proposed to recognize only two tiger subspecies as valid, namely P. t. tigris in mainland Asia, and P. t. sondaica in the Greater Sunda Islands and possibly in .
(1999). 9780521648356, Cambridge University Press.

Results of analysis of 111 tiger skulls from Southeast Asian range countries indicate that Sumatran tiger skulls differ from Indochinese and Javan tiger skulls, whereas Bali tiger skulls are similar in size to Javan tiger skulls. The authors proposed to classify Sumatran and Javan tiger as distinct species, P. sumatrae and P. sondaica with Bali tiger as subspecies P. sondaica balica.

In 2015, morphological, ecological and molecular traits of all putative tiger subspecies were analysed in a combined approach. Results support distinction of the two evolutionary groups continental and Sunda tigers. The authors proposed recognition of only two subspecies, namely P. t. tigris comprising the Bengal, Malayan, Indochinese, South Chinese, Siberian and Caspian tiger populations, and P. t. sondaica comprising the Javan, Bali and Sumatran tiger populations. The authors also noted that this reclassification will affect tiger conservation management. One conservation specialist welcomed this proposal as it would make captive breeding programmes and future rewilding of zoo-born tigers easier. One was sceptical of this study and maintained that the currently recognised nine subspecies can be distinguished genetically.

In 2017, the Cat Classification Task Force of the IUCN Cat Specialist Group revised felid taxonomy and now recognizes the tiger populations in continental Asia as P. t. tigris, and those in the Sunda Islands as P. t. sondaica. At present, the and Catalogue of Life still recognise eight subspecies. ITIS Report: Panthera tigris... Taxonomic Hierarchy Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Generated August 9, 2017. Downloaded August 9, 2017. Subspecies listing for scientific names (genus: Panthera, species: tigris) Catalogue of Life. Downloaded July 30, 2017.

The following table is based on the classification of the species Panthera tigris provided in Mammal Species of the World. It also reflects the classification used by the Cat Classification Task Force:

+ Non-insular ! Subspecies !! Description !! Image
( P. t. tigris) (Linnaeus, 1758)The Bengal tiger's coat colour varies from light yellow to reddish yellow with black stripes.
(1993). 9780896583290, Voyageur Press. .
Males attain a total nose-to-tail length of and weigh between , while females range from and .Karanth, K. U. (2003). Tiger ecology and conservation in the Indian subcontinent. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 100 (2&3) 169–189. In northern India and Nepal, the average is larger; males weigh up to , while females average . Recorded body weights of wild individuals indicate that it is the heaviest subspecies.Slaght, J. C., Miquelle, D. G., Nikolaev, I. G., Goodrich, J. M., Smirnov, E., Traylor-Holzer, N. K., Christie, S., Arjanova, T., Smith, J. L. D., Karanth, K. U. (2005). Chapter 6. Who's king of the beasts? Historical and recent body weights of wild and captive Amur tigers, with comparisons to other subspecies. Pages 25–35 in: Miquelle, D.G., Smirnov, E.N., Goodrich, J.M. (Eds.) Tigers in Sikhote-Alin Zapovednik: Ecology and Conservation. PSP, Vladivostok, Russia (in Russian)

This population occurs in , , , , foremost in alluvial grasslands, subtropical and tropical rainforests, scrub forests, wet and dry and habitats. It is extinct in . In 2014, the population in India was estimated at 2,226 mature individuals, 163–253 in Nepal and 103 in Bhutan.

( P. t. tigris), formerly P. t. virgata (Illiger, 1815)The Caspian tiger was described as having narrow and closely set stripes. The size of its skull did not differ significantly from that of the Bengal tiger. According to genetic analysis, it was closely related to the Siberian tiger. The population inhabited forests and riverine corridors south and east of the and , from Eastern Anatolia into , along the coast of the and the southern shore of to the . It had been recorded in the wild until the early 1970s and is considered extinct since the late 20th century.

The Siberian tiger has a thick coat with pale hues and few dark brown stripes. Males have a head and body length of between and weigh between , while females average and . Tail length is about .

This population inhabits the - region of and in far eastern , with a small population in National Siberian Tiger Nature Reserve in northeastern China near the border to North Korea. It is extinct in , , and . In 2005, there were 331–393 adult and subadult Siberian tigers in the region, with a breeding adult population of about 250 individuals. As of 2015, there was an estimated population of 480-540 individuals in the Russian Far East.

Indochinese tiger ( P. t. tigris), formerly P. t. corbetti Mazák, 1968The Indochinese tiger was described as being smaller than the Bengal tiger and as having a smaller skull. Males average in total length and weigh between , while females average and .

This population occurs in , , , but has not been recorded in since 1997. In 2010, the population in was estimated at about 350 individuals. In Southeast Asia, tiger populations have declined in key areas and are threatened by illegal production of tiger bone for use in traditional medicine.

( P. t. tigris), formerly P. t. jacksoni Luo et al., 2004There is no clear difference between the Malayan and the Indochinese tiger in or skull size. It was proposed as a distinct subspecies on the basis of mtDNA and that differs from the Indochinese tiger. Males range in total length from and weigh between , while females range from and .

The population was roughly estimated at 250 to 340 adult individuals in 2013, and likely comprised less than 200 mature breeding individuals at the time. The geographic division between Malayan and Indochinese tigers is unclear as tiger populations in northern Malaysia are contiguous with those in southern Thailand. In the last tiger was shot in 1932; tigers are considered since the 1950s.

South China tiger ( P. t. tigris), formerly P. t. amoyensis (Hilzheimer, 1905)The South China tiger is considered to be the most ancient of the tiger subspecies and is distinguished by a particularly narrow skull, long-muzzled nose, -like stripes and vivid orange colour. Males range in total length from and weigh between , while females range from and .

The population is extinct in the wild. Despite unconfirmed reports and some evidence of footprints, there has been no confirmed sighting in since the early 1970s. As of 2007, the captive population consisted of 73 individuals, which derived from six wild .

+ ! Subspecies !! Description !! Image
( P. t. sondaica) (Temminck, 1844)The Javan tiger was small compared to tigers of the mainland. Males weighed and females .

This population was limited to the island of , and had been recorded until the mid-1970s. After 1979, no more sightings were confirmed in the region of Mount Betiri.

(1987). 9780815511335, Noyes Publications.
An expedition to Mount Halimun Salak National Park in 1990 did not yield any definite, direct evidence for the continued existence of tigers.

( P. t. sondaica), formerly P. t. balica (, 1912)The Bali tiger was the smallest tiger and limited to the Indonesian island of . It had a weight of in males and in females. A typical feature of Bali tiger skulls is the narrow , which is analogous with the shape of skulls of Javan tigers.

In Bali, tigers were hunted to extinction; the last Bali tiger, an adult female, is thought to have been killed at Sumbar Kima, West Bali, on 27 September 1937, though there were unconfirmed reports that villagers found a tiger corpse in 1963.

(1996). 9789625930725, Oxford University Press. .

( P. t. sondaica), formerly P. t. sumatrae Pocock, 1929It is the smallest of all living tigers. Males range in total length from and weigh between , while females range between and . The reasons for its compared to mainland tigers are unclear, but probably the result of competition for limited and small prey. The population is thought to be of Asia mainland origin and to have been isolated about 6,000 to 12,000 years ago after a rise in sea-level created the Indonesian island of .

The population is the last surviving of the three Indonesian island tiger populations. It is listed as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List. By 2008, the wild population was estimated at between 441 and 679 in 10 protected areas covering about .


Evolution and genetics

The tiger's closest living relatives were previously thought to be the Panthera species lion, leopard and jaguar. Results of indicate that about 2.88 million years ago, the tiger and the diverged from the other Panthera species, and that both may be more closely related to each other than to the lion, leopard and jaguar. Results of a study indicate that all living tigers had a common ancestor 72,000–108,000 years ago.

remains of the Longdan tiger were found in the of northwestern China. This species lived at the beginning of the , about 2 million years ago, and is considered to be a of the modern tiger. It was about the size of a jaguar and probably had a different coat pattern. Despite being considered more "primitive", the Longdan tiger was functionally and possibly ecologically similar to the modern tiger. As it lived in northwestern China, that may have been where the tiger lineage originated. Tigers grew in size, possibly in response to adaptive radiations of prey species like and , which may have occurred in Southeast Asia during the early Pleistocene.

The earliest fossils of true tigers are between 1.6 and 1.8 million years old and were found in Java. Distinct fossils are known from the early and middle Pleistocene deposits in China and Sumatra. The ( Panthera tigris trinilensis) lived about 1.2 million years ago and is known from fossils found at in . The , , Trinil and Japanese tigers became extinct in times.

Tigers first reached India and northern Asia in the late Pleistocene, reaching eastern Beringia, , and . Some fossil skulls are morphologically distinct from lion skulls, which could indicate tiger presence in Alaska during the last glacial period, about 100,000 years ago.

(1997). 9780231102285, Columbia University Press. .
Fossils found in Japan indicate the local tigers were smaller than the mainland forms, possibly due to . Until the , tigers also lived in and on the island in the .

The tiger's full genome sequence was published in 2013. It was found to have similar repeat composition than other cat genomes and an appreciably conserved .


Hybrids
Lions have been known to with tigers (most often the and Bengal tigers) to create hybrids called and . Such hybrids were once commonly bred in zoos, but this is now discouraged due to the emphasis on conservation. Hybrids are still bred in private menageries and in zoos in .

The liger is a cross between a male lion and a tigress.

(2018). 059600494X, O'Reily. 059600494X
Because the lion sire passes on a growth-promoting gene, but the corresponding growth-inhibiting gene from the tiger is absent, ligers grow far larger than either parent species. They share physical and behavioural qualities of both parent species (spots and stripes on a sandy background). ligers are sterile, but female ligers are often fertile. Males have about a 50% chance of having a mane, but, even if they do, their manes will be only around half the size of that of a pure lion. Ligers are typically between in length, and can weigh between or more.

The less common tigon is a cross between a lioness and a male tiger. Because the male tiger does not pass on a growth-promoting gene and the lioness passes on a growth inhibiting gene, tigons are often relatively small, only weighing up to . Like ligers, they have physical and behavioural traits from both parental species, and males are sterile. Females are sometimes fertile and have occasionally given birth to when mated to a male .


Characteristics
The tiger has a muscular body with powerful forelimbs, a large head and a tail that is about half the length of its body. Its is dense and heavy, and colouration varies between shades of orange and brown with white areas and distinctive vertical black stripes that are unique in each individual.
(1975). 9780795001284, Taplinger Pub. Co..
Stripes are likely advantageous for in vegetation such as long grass with strong vertical patterns of light and shade.
9780760719695, Oxford University Press.
The tiger is one of only a few striped cat species; it is not known why spotted patterns and rosettes are the more common camouflage pattern among felids. A tiger's coat pattern is still visible when it is . This is due not to skin pigmentation, but to the stubble and embedded in the skin, similar to human beards (colloquially five o'clock shadow), and is in common with other big cats. They have a mane-like heavy growth of fur around the neck and jaws and long whiskers, especially in males. The are circular with yellow irises. The small, rounded ears have a prominent white spot on the back, surrounded by black. These false "eyespots", called ocelli, apparently play an important role in intraspecies communication.

The skull is similar to that of the lion, though the frontal region is usually not as depressed or flattened, with a slightly longer postorbital region. The skull of a lion has broader nasal openings. However, due to variation in skulls of the two species, the structure of the lower jaw is a more reliable indicator of the species. The tiger also has fairly stout teeth; the somewhat curved are the longest among living felids with a crown height of up to .


Size
Tigers are the most variable in size of all big cats, much more so than . Barring hybrids like the liger, the Bengal and Siberian tigers, and
(2018). 9788173871832, Indus. .
appear to be the tallest felids at the shoulder.
(1983). 9780851122359, Guinness Superlatives.
The Bengal and Siberian tigers are also ranked with the extinct Caspian tiger among the that ever existed. However, on average in the wild, an adult, male Siberian tiger () is outweighed by both an adult, male Bengal tiger and Southern African lion (). Males vary in total length from and weigh between with skull length ranging from . Females vary in total length from , weigh with skull length ranging from .
(2018). 9780691152288, Princeton University Press.
The heaviest wild tiger ever reported had a total body length of over curves. In either sex, the tail represents about of total length.

There is a notable sexual dimorphism between males and females, latter being consistently smaller than males. The size difference between males and females is proportionally greater in the larger tiger subspecies, with males weighing up to 1.7 times more than females. Males also have wider forepaw pads than females, enabling gender to be told from tracks.

Large male Siberian tigers can reach a total length of more than over curves and between pegs, with a weight of up to . This is considerably larger than the weight of reached by the . At the shoulder, tigers may variously stand tall. The heaviest tiger on record was a Bengal tiger shot in 1967 allegedly weighing ; unverified is whether this individual had a full or empty stomach. It has been that body size of different tiger populations may be correlated with climate and be explained by and Bergmann's rule, or by distribution and size of available prey species.


Colour variations
A well-known found only in the Bengal subspecies produces the , a colour variant first recorded in the early 19th century and found in an estimated one in 10,000 natural births. Genetically, whiteness is : a cub is white only when both parents carry the allele for whiteness. It is not , pigment being evident in the white tiger's stripes and in their blue eyes. The causative mutation changes a single in the transporter protein SLC45A2.

White tigers are more frequently bred in captivity, where the comparatively small gene pool can lead to . This has given white tigers a greater likelihood of being born with physical defects, such as , (curvature of the spine), and (squint). Even apparently healthy white tigers generally do not live as long as their orange counterparts. Attempts have been made to cross white and orange tigers to remedy this, often mixing with other subspecies in the process.

Another recessive gene creates the "golden" or "golden tabby" colour variation, sometimes known as "strawberry". have thicker than usual light-gold fur, pale legs, and faint orange stripes. Few golden tigers are kept in captivity; they are invariably at least part Bengal. Some golden tigers carry the white tiger gene,

(2018). 9781401927219, Hay House.
and when two such tigers are mated, they can produce some stripeless white offspring. Although a "pseudo-" effect—wide stripes that partially obscure the orange background—has been seen in some pelts, no true black tigers have been authenticated, with the possible exception of one dead specimen examined in in 1846. These wholly or partially melanistic tigers, if they exist, are assumed to be intermittent mutations rather than a distinct species.
(1989). 9780709037064, Robert Hale.
McDougal, C. (1977) The Face of the Tiger. Rivington Books and André Deutsch, London. There are further unconfirmed reports of a "blue" or slate-coloured variant, the . However, while some felids do exhibit this colouration as a solid coat, there is no known genetic configuration that would result in black stripes on a blue-gray background.


Distribution and habitat
At the end of the last glacial period about 20,000 years ago, the tiger was widespread from Eastern Anatolia Region and , in to eastern and and to the Indonesian islands of Java, Bali and Sumatra.
(2018). 9780080947518, Academic Press.
Today, tigers are regionally extinct in , , , , , , , Pakistan and Singapore.

remains indicate tigers were also present in in the north, to the east, and and Palawan in the in the south during the and Early .

(2018). 9780802048172, University of Toronto Press. .

During the 20th century, tigers became extinct in and , and were restricted to isolated pockets in the remaining parts of their range. They were extirpated on the island of Bali in the 1940s, around the Caspian Sea in the 1970s, and on Java in the 1980s. This was the result of habitat loss and the ongoing killing of tigers and tiger prey. Today, their significantly fragmented and depopulated range extends eastward from to , , , , , , , , , , , and . The northern limit of their range is close to the in southeastern . The only large island they still inhabit is . Since the beginning of the 20th century, tigers' historical range has shrunk by 93%. In the decade from 1997 to 2007, the estimated area known to be occupied by tigers has declined by 41%.Sanderson, E., Forrest, J., Loucks, C., Ginsberg, J., Dinerstein, E., Seidensticker, J., Leimgruber, P., Songer, M., Heydlauff, A., O'Brien, T., Bryja, G., Klenzendorf, S., Wikramanayake, E. (2006). The Technical Assessment: Setting Priorities for the Conservation and Recovery of Wild Tigers: 2005–2015. WCS, WWF, Smithsonian, and NFWF-STF, New York and Washington, DC, USA.

The tiger occupies a wide range of types, but will usually require sufficient , proximity to , and an abundance of . It prefers dense vegetation, for which its camouflage colouring is ideally suited, and where a single predator is not at a disadvantage compared with the multiple cats in a . A further habitat requirement is the placement of suitably secluded den locations, which may consist of caves, large hollow trees, or dense vegetation.

(1999). 9780801857898, Johns Hopkins University Press.
The Bengal tiger in particular lives in many types of forests, including wet, , and the semi-evergreen forests of and eastern , swampy of the , in the , and in the . In various parts of its range it inhabits or had inhabited additionally partially open and as well as forests and rocky habitats.


Biology and behaviour


Social and daily activities
Adult tigers lead largely solitary lives. They establish and maintain territories but have much wider home ranges within which they roam. Resident adults of either sex generally confine their movements to their home ranges, within which they satisfy their needs and those of their growing cubs. Individuals sharing the same area are aware of each other's movements and activities. The size of the home range mainly depends on prey abundance, and, in the case of males, on access to females. A tigress may have a territory of , while the territories of males are much larger, covering . The range of a male tends to overlap those of several females, providing him with a large field of prospective mating partners.

The tiger is a long-ranging species, and individuals disperse over distances of up to to reach tiger populations in other areas.

It is strong swimmer and often bathes in ponds, lakes and rivers, thus keeping cool in the heat of the day. Among the , only the jaguar shares a similar fondness for water.Shoemaker, A.H., Maruska, E.J. and R. Rockwell (1997). Minimum Husbandry Guidelines for Mammals: Large Felids. American Association of Zoos and Aquariums Individuals can cross rivers up to wide and can swim up to in a day. They are able to carry prey through or capture it in the water.

Young female tigers establish their first territories close to their mother's. The overlap between the female and her mother's territory reduces with time. Males, however, migrate further than their female counterparts and set out at a younger age to mark out their own area. A young male acquires territory either by seeking out an area devoid of other male tigers, or by living as a transient in another male's territory until he is older and strong enough to challenge the resident male. Young males seeking to establish themselves thereby comprise the highest mortality rate (30–35% per year) amongst adult tigers.

To identify his territory, the male marks trees by and secretions, as well as marking trails with and marking trees or the ground with their claws. Females also use these "scrapes", as well as urine and scat markings. Scent markings of this type allow an individual to pick up information on another's identity, sex and reproductive status. Females in will signal their availability by scent marking more frequently and increasing their vocalisations.

Although for the most part avoiding each other, tigers are not always territorial and relationships between individuals can be complex. An adult of either sex will sometimes share its kill with others, even those who may not be related to them. observed a male share a kill with two females and four cubs. Unlike male lions, male tigers allow females and cubs to feed on the kill before the male is finished with it; all involved generally seem to behave amicably, in contrast to the competitive behaviour shown by a lion pride. In his book Tiger, Stephen Mills describes a social eating event witnessed by Valmik Thapar and Fateh Singh Rathore in Ranthambhore National Park thus:

Occasionally, male tigers participate in raising cubs, usually their own, but this is extremely rare and not always well understood. In May 2015, Amur tigers were photographed by camera traps in the Sikhote-Alin Bioshpere Reserve. The photos show a male Amur tiger pass by, followed by a female and three cubs within the span of about two minutes.Wildlife Conservation Society. (2015). Tiger dad: Rare family portrait of Amur tigers the first-ever to include an adult male. ScienceDaily, 6 March 2015. In Ranthambore, a male Bengal tiger raised and defended two orphaned female cubs after their mother had died of illness. The cubs remained under his care, he supplied them with food, protected them from his rival and sister, and apparently also trained them.

Male tigers are generally more intolerant of other males within their territories than females are of other females. Territory disputes are usually solved by displays of intimidation rather than outright aggression. Several such incidents have been observed in which the subordinate tiger yielded defeat by rolling onto its back and showing its belly in a submissive posture.

(1989). 9780816012381, Smithmark.
Once dominance has been established, a male may tolerate a subordinate within his range, as long as they do not live in too close quarters. The most aggressive disputes tend to occur between two males when a female is in oestrus, and may rarely result in the death of one of the males.

Facial expressions include the "defense threat", where an individual bares its teeth, flattens its ears and its pupils enlarge. Both males and females show a , a characteristic grimace, when sniffing urine markings but flehmen is more often associated with males detecting the markings made by tigresses in oestrus. Like other Panthera, tigers roar, particularly in aggressive situations, during the mating season or when making a kill. There are two different roars: the "true" roar is made using the and forced through an open mouth as it progressively closes, and the shorter, harsher "coughing" roar is made with the mouth open and teeth exposed. The "true" roar can be heard at up to away and is sometimes emitted three or four times in succession. When tense, tigers will moan, a sound similar to a roar but more subdued and made when the mouth is partially or completely closed. Moaning can be heard away. , soft, low-frequency snorting similar to in smaller cats, is heard in more friendly situations. Other vocal communications include grunts, woofs, snarls, miaows, hisses and growls.


Hunting and diet
In the wild, tigers mostly feed on large and medium-sized , preferring weighing at least . They typically have little or no deleterious effect on their prey populations. , , , , , and both water buffalo and , in descending order of preference, are the tiger's favoured prey in , , while gaur and sambar are the preferred prey and constitute the main diet of tigers in other parts of India. They also prey on other predators, including dogs, leopards, pythons, , and crocodiles.

In Siberia, the main prey species are Manchurian wapiti and wild boar (the two species comprising nearly 80% of the prey selected) followed by , moose, roe deer, and . Asiatic black bears and Ussuri brown bears may also fall prey to tigers, and they constitute up to 40.7% of the diet of Siberian tigers depending on local conditions and the bear populations. In Sumatra, prey include sambar deer, , wild boar, and . In the former Caspian tiger's range, prey included , , , , and wild horses. Like many predators, tigers are opportunistic and may eat much smaller prey, such as , and other ground-based , , , and .

Tigers generally do not prey on fully grown adult and Indian rhinoceros but incidents have been reported. More often, it is the more vulnerable small calves that are taken. Tigers have been reported attacking and killing elephants ridden by humans during tiger hunts in the 19th century.Frank Leslie's popular monthly, Volume 45, 1879, edited by Frank Leslie, New York: Frank Leslie's Publishing House. 53, 55, & 57 Park Place. p. 411 When in close proximity to humans, tigers will also sometimes prey on such domestic livestock as , , and . Old or wounded tigers, unable to catch wild prey, can become man-eaters; this pattern has recurred frequently across India. An exception is in the , where healthy tigers prey upon fishermen and villagers in search of forest produce, humans thereby forming a minor part of the tiger's diet.
(2018). 9780312981563, Macmillan.
Although almost exclusively carnivorous, tigers will occasionally eat vegetation for such as fruit of the .

Tigers are thought to be mainly predators,
(2018). 9780815515708, Elsevier Inc..
but in areas where humans are typically absent, they have been observed via remote-controlled, hidden cameras, hunting in daylight. Tiger: Spy In The Jungle. John Downer Productions. BBC (2008) They generally hunt alone and ambush their prey as most other cats do, overpowering them from any angle, using their body size and strength to knock the prey off balance. Successful hunts usually require the tiger to almost simultaneously leap onto its quarry, knock it over, and grab the throat or nape with its teeth. Despite their large size, tigers can reach speeds of about but only in short bursts; consequently, tigers must be close to their prey before they break cover. If the prey catches wind of the tiger's presence before this, the tiger usually abandons the hunt rather than chase prey or battle it head-on. Horizontal leaps of up to have been reported, although leaps of around half this distance are more typical. One in 2 to 20 hunts, including stalking near potential prey, ends in a successful kill.
(2018). 9780815515708, Elsevier Inc..

When hunting larger animals, tigers prefer to bite the throat and use their powerful forelimbs to hold onto the prey, often simultaneously wrestling it to the ground. The tiger remains latched onto the neck until its target dies of . By this method, gaurs and water buffaloes weighing over a ton have been killed by tigers weighing about a sixth as much.Sankhala, p. 17 Although they can kill healthy adults, tigers often select the calves or infirm of very large species.

(2018). 9780691152288, Princeton University Press.
Healthy adult prey of this type can be dangerous to tackle, as long, strong horns, legs and tusks are all potentially fatal to the tiger. No other extant land predator routinely takes on prey this large on their own.
(1992). 9789004088764
Sunquist, M., Sunquist, F. (2002) Wild Cats of the World. University Of Chicago Press, Chicago Whilst hunting sambars, which comprise up to 60% of their prey in India, tigers have reportedly made a passable impersonation of the male sambar's rutting call to attract them.

With smaller prey, such as monkeys and hares, the tiger bites the , often breaking the , piercing the windpipe, or severing the or common carotid artery.Sankhala, p. 23 Though rarely observed, some tigers have been recorded to kill prey by swiping with their paws, which are powerful enough to smash the skulls of domestic cattle, and break the backs of .

(2018). 9781552979495, Firefly Books.

During the 1980s, a tiger named "Genghis" in Ranthambhore National Park was observed frequently hunting prey through deep lake water, a pattern of behaviour that had not previously been witnessed in over 200 years of observations. Moreover, he appeared to be unusually successful, with 20% of hunts ending in a kill.

(1992). 9781856261425, Kyle Cathie.

After killing their prey, tigers sometimes drag it to conceal it in vegetative cover, usually pulling it by grasping with their mouths at the site of the killing bite. This, too, can require great physical strength. In one case, after it had killed an adult gaur, a tiger was observed to drag the massive carcass over a distance of . When 13 men simultaneously tried to drag the same carcass later, they were unable to move it. An adult tiger can go for up to two weeks without eating, then gorge on of flesh at one time. In captivity, adult tigers are fed of meat a day.


Enemies and competitors
Tigers usually prefer to eat prey they have caught themselves, but are not above eating carrion in times of scarcity and may even prey from other large carnivores. Although predators typically avoid one another, if a prey item is under dispute or a serious competitor is encountered, displays of aggression are common. If these are not sufficient, the conflicts may turn violent; tigers may kill competitors as , , , , , , and on occasion. Tigers may also prey on these competitors.
(2018). 9783894327590, Westarp Wissenschaften Hohenwarsleben.
(in German)
(2018). 9780226779973, University of Chicago Press.
Mills, Gus; Hofer, Heribert (1998). Hyaenas: status survey and conservation action plan. IUCN/SSC Hyena Specialist Group. .Miquelle, D.G., Stephens, P.A., Smirnov, E.N., Goodrich, J.M., Zaumyslova, O.Yu. & Myslenkov, A.I. (2005). Tigers and Wolves in the Russian Far East: Competitive Exclusion, Functional Redundancy and Conservation Implications. In Large Carnivores and the Conservation of Biodiversity. Ray, J.C., Berger, J., Redford, K.H. & Steneck, R. (eds.) New York: Island Press. pp. 179–207 . Attacks on smaller predators, such as , , and , are almost certainly predatory. Crocodiles, bears, and large packs of dholes may win conflicts against tigers and in some cases even kill them.
(2018). 9781145111080, Nabu Press.
(2018). 9781552979495, Firefly Books.

The considerably smaller leopard avoids competition from tigers by hunting at different times of the day and hunting different prey.Ecology.info In India's Nagarhole National Park, most prey selected by leopards were from against a preference for prey weighing over in the tigers. The average prey weight in the two respective big cats in India was against . With relatively abundant prey, tigers and leopards were seen to successfully coexist without competitive exclusion or interspecies dominance hierarchies that may be more common to the savanna, where the leopard exists with the lion. may feed on the tiger's kills.Sillero-Zubiri, C., Hoffmann, M. and Macdonald, D.W. (eds). 2004. Canids: Foxes, Wolves, Jackals and Dogs. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.


Reproduction
Mating can occur all year round, but is more common between November and April. A female is only receptive for three to six days. is frequent and noisy during that time. ranges from 93 to 112 days, with an average of 103 to 105 days. Litters consist of one or three cubs, rarely also six. Cubs weigh from each at birth, and are born blind. Females lactate for five to six months. The females rears them alone, with the birth site and maternal den in a sheltered location such as a thicket, cave or rocky crevice. The father generally takes no part in rearing them. Unrelated wandering male tigers often kill cubs to make the female receptive, since the tigress may give birth to another litter within five months if the cubs of the previous litter are lost. The mortality rate of tiger cubs is about 50% in the first two years. Few other predators attack tiger cubs due to the diligence and ferocity of the mother. Apart from humans and other tigers, common causes of cub mortality are starvation, freezing, and accidents.

A dominant cub emerges in most litters, usually a male. This cub is more active than its siblings and takes the lead in their play, eventually leaving its mother and becoming independent earlier. The cubs open their eyes at six to fourteen days old. By eight weeks, the cubs make short ventures outside the den with their mother, although they do not travel with her as she roams her territory until they are older. The cubs are nursed for three to six months. Around the time they are weaned, they start to accompany their mother on territorial walks and they are taught how to hunt. The cubs often become capable (and nearly adult size) hunters at eleven months old. The cubs become independent around eighteen months of age, but it is not until they are around two to two and a half years old that they fully separate from their mother. Females reach sexual maturity at three to four years, whereas males do so at four to five years. The oldest recorded captive tiger lived for 26 years. A wild specimen, having no natural predators, could in theory live to a comparable age.


Threats
Major threats to the tiger include habitat destruction, habitat fragmentation and for fur and body parts, which have simultaneously greatly reduced tiger populations in the wild In India, only 11% of the historical tiger habitat remains due to habitat fragmentation.Dinerstein, E., Loucks, C., Heydlauff, A., Wikramanayake, E., Bryja, G., Forrest, J., Ginsberg, J., Klenzendorf, S., Leimgruber, P., O'Brien, T., Sanderson, E., Seidensticker, J., Songer, M. (2006) Setting Priorities for the Conservation and Recovery of Wild Tigers: 2005–2015. A User's Guide. 1–50. Washington, D.C., New York, WWF, WCS, Smithsonian, and NFWF-STF. Demand for tiger parts for use in traditional Chinese medicine has also been cited as a major threat to tiger populations.


Commercial hunting and traditional medicine

Historically, tigers have been hunted at a large scale so their famous striped skins could be collected. The trade in tiger skins peaked in the 1960s, just before international conservation efforts took effect. By 1977, a tiger skin in an market was considered to be worth US$4,250.

Many people in China and other parts of Asia have a belief that various tiger parts have medicinal properties, including as pain killers and . There is no scientific evidence to support these beliefs. The use of tiger parts in pharmaceutical drugs in China is already banned, and the government has made some offences in connection with tiger poaching punishable by death. Furthermore, all trade in tiger parts is illegal under the and a domestic trade ban has been in place in China since 1993.

However, the trading of tiger parts in has become a major black market industry and governmental and conservation attempts to stop it have been ineffective to date. Almost all black marketers engaged in the trade are based in and have either been shipped and sold within in their own country or into , or . The Chinese subspecies was almost completely decimated by killing for commerce due to both the parts and skin trades in the 1950s through the 1970s. Contributing to the illegal trade, there are a number of tiger farms in the country specialising in breeding the cats for profit. It is estimated that between 5,000 and 10,000 captive-bred, semi-tame animals live in these farms today. However, many tigers for traditional medicine black market are wild ones shot or snared by and may be caught anywhere in the tiger's remaining range (from Siberia to India to the to ). In the Asian black market, a tiger penis can be worth the equivalent of around $300 U.S. dollars. In the years of 1990 through 1992, 27 million products with tiger derivatives were found. In July 2014 at an international convention on endangered species in , , a Chinese representative admitted for the first time his government was aware trading in tiger skins was occurring in China.


Conservation
+ Tiger population status (2016) !Country !Estimate
106
103
0
>7
2,226
371
2
250
no data
198
433
189
<5
3,890

At the start of the 20th century, it was estimated there were over 100,000 tigers in the wild, but the population has dwindled outside of captivity to between 1,500 and 3,500. Some estimates suggest that there are fewer than 2,500 mature breeding individuals, with no subpopulation containing more than 250 mature breeding individuals. The global wild tiger population was estimated by the World Wide Fund for Nature at 3,200 in 2011 and 3,890 in 2015— Vox reported that this was the first increase in a century. WWF – Tiger – Overview. Worldwildlife.org (10 August 2011). Retrieved on 27 September 2011.

India is home to the world's largest population of wild tigers. A 2014 census estimated a population of 2,226, a 30% increase since 2011. In 1973, India's , started by , established over 25 tiger reserves in reclaimed land, where human development was forbidden. The project was credited with tripling the number of wild Bengal tigers from some 1,200 in 1973 to over 3,500 in the 1990s, but a 2007 census showed that numbers had dropped back to about 1,400 tigers because of poaching. Following the report, the Indian government pledged $153 million to the initiative, set up measures to combat poaching, promised funds to relocate up to 200,000 villagers in order to reduce human-tiger interactions, and set up eight new tiger reserves. India also reintroduced tigers to the Sariska Tiger Reserve and by 2009 it was claimed that poaching had been effectively countered at Ranthambore National Park.

In the 1940s, the Siberian tiger was on the brink of extinction with only about 40 animals remaining in the wild in Russia. As a result, anti-poaching controls were put in place by the and a network of protected zones () were instituted, leading to a rise in the population to several hundred. Poaching again became a problem in the 1990s, when the economy of Russia collapsed. The major obstacle in preserving the species is the enormous territory individual tigers require (up to 450 km2 needed by a single female and more for a single male). Current conservation efforts are led by local governments and 's in concert with international organisations, such as the World Wide Fund for Nature and the Wildlife Conservation Society. The competitive exclusion of wolves by tigers has been used by Russian conservationists to convince hunters to tolerate the big cats. Tigers have less impact on ungulate populations than do wolves, and are effective in controlling the latter's numbers.

(2018). 9780849374876, CRC Press.
In 2005, there were thought to be about 360 animals in Russia, though these exhibited little genetic diversity. However, in a decade later, the Siberian tiger census was estimated from 480 to 540 individuals. Having earlier rejected the Western-led environmentalist movement, China changed its stance in the 1980s and became a party to the treaty. By 1993 it had banned the trade in tiger parts, and this diminished the use of tiger bones in traditional Chinese medicine. After this, the 's trade in tiger skins became a relatively more important threat to tigers. The pelts were used in clothing, tiger-skin being worn by singers and participants in horse racing festivals, and had become . In 2004, international conservation organizations launched successful environmental propaganda campaigns in China against the Tibetan tiger skin trade. There was outrage in India, where many Tibetans live, and the 14th Dalai Lama was persuaded to take up the issue. Since then there has been a change of attitude, with some Tibetans publicly burning their chubas.

In 1994, the Indonesian Sumatran Tiger Conservation Strategy addressed the potential crisis that tigers faced in Sumatra. The Sumatran Tiger Project (STP) was initiated in June 1995 in and around the Way Kambas National Park in order to ensure the long-term viability of wild Sumatran tigers and to accumulate data on tiger life-history characteristics vital for the management of wild populations.Franklin, N., Bastoni, Sriyanto, Siswomartono, D., Manansang, J. and R. Tilson (1999). Last of the Indonesian tigers: a cause for optimism, pp. 130–147 in: Seidensticker, J., Christie, S. and Jackson, P. (eds). Riding the tiger: tiger conservation in human-dominated landscapes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, . By August 1999, the teams of the STP had evaluated 52 sites of potential tiger habitat in Lampung Province, of which only 15 these were intact enough to contain tigers.Tilson, R. (1999). Sumatran Tiger Project Report No. 17 & 18: July − December 1999. Grant number 1998-0093-059. Indonesian Sumatran Tiger Steering Committee, Jakarta. In the framework of the STP a community-based conservation programme was initiated to document the tiger-human dimension in the park in order to enable conservation authorities to resolve tiger-human conflicts based on a comprehensive database rather than anecdotes and opinions.Nyhus, P., Sumianto and R. Tilson (1999). The tiger-human dimension in southeast Sumatra, pp. 144–145 in: Seidensticker, J., Christie, S. and Jackson, P. (eds). Riding the tiger: tiger conservation in human-dominated landscapes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, .

The Wildlife Conservation Society and Panthera Corporation formed the collaboration Tigers Forever, with field sites including the world's largest tiger reserve, the in Myanmar. Other reserves were in the in India, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, the Russian Far East covering in total about .

Tigers have been studied in the wild using a variety of techniques. Tiger population have been estimated using plaster casts of their , although this method was criticized as being inaccurate. More recent techniques include the use of and studies of from tiger scat, while has been used to track tigers in the wild. Tiger spray has been found to be just as good, or better, as a source of DNA than scat.

The exact number of wild tigers is unknown, as many estimates are outdated or educated guesses; few estimates are based on reliable scientific censuses. The table shows estimates according to IUCN Red List accounts and range country governments dating from 2009 to April 2016.


Rewilding and reintroduction projects
In 1978, the Indian conservationist Billy Arjan Singh attempted to rewild a tiger in Dudhwa National Park; this was the captive-bred tigress Tara.
(1981). 070432282X, Quartet Books. 070432282X
Soon after the release, numerous people were killed and eaten by a tigress that was subsequently shot. Government officials claimed it was Tara, though Singh disputed this. Further controversy broke out with the discovery that Tara was partly Siberian tiger.Menon, S. (1997). Tainted Royalty. India Today (17 November 1997).Bagla, P. (19 November 1998). Indian tiger isn't 100 per cent "swadeshi". The Indian Express.Singh, R.K. (2000). Tara: The Cocktail Tigress. Print World, Allahabad.

The organisation Save China's Tigers has attempted to rewild the South China tigers, with a breeding and training programme in a reserve known as Laohu Valley Reserve (LVR) and eventually reintroduce them to the wild of China.

A future rewilding project was proposed for Siberian tigers set to be reintroduced to northern Russia's . The Siberian tigers sent to for a captive breeding project in Tehran are set to be rewilded and reintroduced to the Miankaleh peninsula, to replace the now extinct .


In captivity
In times, tigers were kept in menageries and amphitheatres to be exhibited, trained and paraded, and were often provoked to fight humans and exotic beasts.
(1994). 9780415104531, Psychology Press.
(1988). 9780252060427, University of Illinois Press.
Since the 17th century, tigers, being rare and ferocious, were sought after to keep at European castles as symbols of their owners' power.
(2018). 9781861892089, Reaktion Books.
Tigers became central and exhibits in the 18th century: a tiger could cost up to 4,000 francs in France (for comparison, a professor of the Beaux-Arts at Lyons earned only 3,000 francs a year),
(2018). 9781861892089, Reaktion Books.
or up to $3,500 in the United States where a lion cost no more than $1,000.

China (2007) had over 4,000 captive tigers, of which 3,000 were held by about twenty larger facilities, with the rest held by some 200 smaller facilities.Nowell, K., Ling, X. (2007) Taming the tiger trade: China's markets for wild and captive tiger products since the 1993 domestic trade ban. TRAFFIC East Asia, Hong Kong, China. The USA (2011) had 2,884 tigers in 468 facilities. Nineteen states have banned private ownership of tigers, fifteen require a license, and sixteen states have no regulation. of 105 captive tigers from fourteen countries and regions showed that forty-nine animals belonged distinctly to five subspecies; fifty-two animals had mixed subspecies origins. As such, "many Siberian tigers in zoos today are actually the result of crosses with Bengal tigers."

(1998). 9781439832622, CRC Press.

The Tiger Species Survival Plan has condemned the breeding of , alleging they are of mixed ancestry and of unknown lineage. The responsible for white colouration are represented by 0.001% of the population. The disproportionate growth in numbers of white tigers points to among individuals. This would lead to inbreeding depression and loss of genetic variability.


Relation with humans


Tiger hunting
The tiger has been one of the big five game animals of . Tiger hunting took place on a large scale in the early 19th and 20th centuries, being a recognised and admired sport by the in colonial India as well as the and aristocratic class of the erstwhile princely states of pre-independence India. A single maharaja or English hunter could claim to kill over a hundred tigers in their hunting career. Tiger hunting was done by some hunters on foot; others sat up on with a goat or buffalo tied out as bait; yet others on elephant-back. Royal Tiger (nom-de-plume) in The Manpoora Tiger – about a Tiger Hunt in Rajpootanah. (1836) Bengal Sporting Magazine, Vol IV. reproduced in The Treasures of Indian Wildlife


Man-eating tigers
Wild tigers that have had no prior contact with humans actively avoid interactions with humans. However, tigers cause more human deaths through direct attack than any other wild mammal. Attacks are occasionally provoked, as tigers lash out after being injured while they themselves are hunted. Attacks can be provoked accidentally, as when a human surprises a tiger or inadvertently comes between a mother and her young, or as in a case in rural India when a postman startled a tiger, used to seeing him on foot, by riding a bicycle.
(2018). 817769183X, Pilgrims Publishing. 817769183X
Occasionally tigers come to view people as prey. Such attacks are most common in areas where population growth, logging, and farming have put pressure on tiger habitats and reduced their wild prey. Most man-eating tigers are old, missing teeth, and unable to capture their preferred prey. For example, the , a tigress found in and then , had two broken canines. She was responsible for an estimated 430 human deaths, the most attacks known to be perpetrated by a single wild animal, by the time she was shot in 1907 by . According to Corbett, tiger attacks on humans are normally in daytime, when people are working outdoors and are not keeping watch. Early writings tend to describe man-eating tigers as cowardly because of their ambush tactics.The Man-Eater of Segur", from Nine Man-Eaters and One Rogue, Kenneth Anderson, Allen & Unwin, 1954 Man-eaters have been a particular problem in recent decades in India and Bangladesh, especially in , and the mangrove swamps of , where some healthy tigers have hunted humans. Because of rapid habitat loss attributed to , tiger attacks have increased in the Sundarbans. The Sundarbans area had 129 human deaths from tigers from 1969 to 1971. In the 10 years prior to that period, about 100 attacks per year in the Sundarbans, with a high of around 430 in some years of the 1960s. Unusually, in some years in the Sundarbans, more humans are killed by tigers than vice versa. In 1972, India's production of and beeswax dropped by 50% when at least 29 people who gathered these materials were devoured. In 1986 in the Sundarbans, since tigers almost always attack from the rear, masks with human faces were worn on the back of the head, on the theory that tigers usually do not attack if seen by their prey. This decreased the number of attacks only temporarily. All other means to prevent attacks, such as providing more prey or using electrified human dummies, worked less well.
(2018). 9780395641699, Chelsea Green Publishing.

At least 27 people were killed or seriously injured by captive tigers in the United States from 1998 to 2001.

In some cases, rather than being predatory, tiger attacks on human seem to be territorial in nature. At least in one case, a tigress with cubs killed eight people entering her territory without consuming them at all.


Cultural depictions
Tigers and their superlative qualities have been a source of fascination for mankind since ancient times, and they are routinely visible as important cultural and media motifs. They are also considered one of the charismatic megafauna, and are used as the face of conservation campaigns worldwide. In a 2004 online poll conducted by cable television channel , involving more than 50,000 viewers from 73 countries, the tiger was voted the world's favourite animal with 21% of the vote, narrowly beating the dog.


In myth and legend
In Chinese myth and , the tiger is one of the 12 animals of the Chinese zodiac. In , the tiger is depicted as an earth symbol and equal rival of the – the two representing matter and spirit respectively. The Southern Chinese martial art is based on the movements of the tiger and the crane. In Imperial China, a tiger was the personification of war and often represented the highest army (or present day defense secretary), while the emperor and empress were represented by a and , respectively. The White Tiger () is one of the Four Symbols of the Chinese constellations. It is sometimes called the White Tiger of the West (西方白虎), and it represents the and the autumn season.

The appears in stories from countries including China and Korea, it being generally inadvisable to grasp a tiger by the tail.

In , the tiger is one of the Three Senseless Creatures, symbolising anger, with the monkey representing greed and the deer lovesickness.

(1992). 9781855381186, Aquarian Press.
The considered the Siberian tiger a near-deity and often referred to it as "Grandfather" or "Old man". The and called it "Amba". The considered the Siberian tiger as "Hu Lin," the king.
(2018). 9780865475960, North Point Press.
In , the god wears and sits on tiger skin.SIVKISHEN (17 July 2014) Kingdom of Shiva, PartridgeIndia, p. 301. The ten-armed warrior goddess rides the tigress (or lioness) Damon into battle. In southern India the god was associated with a tiger.

The replaces the in folklore in Asia;

(1966). 9780517180938, University Books.
in India they were evil sorcerers, while in Indonesia and Malaysia they were somewhat more benign.
(2018). 9780786472185, McFarland. .
In the Hindu epic , tigers are fiercer and more ruthless than lions.


In literature, art and film

In 's poem in the Songs of Experience, titled "," the tiger is a menacing and fearful animal. In 's 2001 Man Booker Prize winning novel Life of Pi, the protagonist, surviving shipwreck for months in a small boat, somehow avoids being eaten by the other survivor, a large Bengal tiger. The story was adapted in 's 2012 feature film of the same name. 's 1944 Man-Eaters of Kumaon tells ten true stories of his tiger-hunting exploits in what is now the northern region of India. The book has sold over four million copies,Booth, Martin (1991) Carpet Sahib; A Life of Jim Corbett, New York: Oxford University Press, , p. 230. and has been the basis of both fictional and documentary films. In 's 1894 The Jungle Book, the tiger, , is the mortal enemy of the human protagonist, ; the book has formed the basis of both live-action and animated films. Other tiger characters aimed at children tend to be more benign, as for instance in A. A. Milne's and Hobbes of the comic strip Calvin and Hobbes, both of whom are represented as simply stuffed animals come to life.

Tiger are also mascots for various sports teams around the world. Tony the Tiger is a famous mascot for Kellogg's . The brand of petrol was advertised from 1969 onwards with the slogan 'put a tiger in your tank', and a tiger mascot; more than 2.5 million synthetic tiger tails were sold to motorists, who tied them to their petrol tank caps.

The tiger appears in but is distinct from the heraldic beast tyger, a wolflike, snouted creature which has its roots in European Medieval .


Political symbolism
The tiger is one of the animals displayed on the Pashupati seal of the Indus Valley Civilisation. The tiger was the emblem of the and was depicted on coins, seals and banners.Hermann Kulke, K Kesavapany, Vijay Sakhuja (2009) Nagapattinam to Suvarnadwipa: Reflections on the Chola Naval Expeditions to Southeast Asia, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, p. 84. The seals of several Chola copper coins show the tiger, the emblem fish and the emblem bow, indicating that the Cholas had achieved political supremacy over the latter two dynasties. Gold coins found in Kavilayadavalli in the of have motifs of the tiger, bow and some indistinct marks.Singh, U. (2008). A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century. Pearson Education, India. The tiger symbol of Chola Empire was later adopted by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam and the tiger became a symbol of the unrecognised state of and Tamil independence movement.Daya Somasundaram (11 February 2014) Scarred Communities: Psychosocial Impact of Man-made and Natural Disasters on Sri Lankan Society, SAGE Publications India, p. 73.

The Bengal tiger is the of India and Bangladesh. The Malaysian tiger is the national animal of .

(2018). 9780822526742, Twenty-First Century Books. .
The Siberian tiger is the national animal of . Since the successful economies of , , and were described as the Four Asian Tigers, a is a metaphor for a nation in rapid development.


See also
  • 21st Century Tiger, information about tigers and conservation projects
  • Siegfried & Roy, two famous tamers of tigers
  • Tiger in Chinese culture
  • , a Buddhist temple in Thailand famous for its tame tigers
  • Tiger versus lion


Bibliography
  • (1997). 9788174370884, Roli Books Pvt Limited, India.


External links

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