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Siberia (; a=Ru-Сибирь.ogg) is an extensive geographical spanning much of and . Siberia has historically been a part of modern Russia since the 16th and 17th centuries.

The territory of Siberia extends eastwards from the to the between the and . The conditionally divides Siberia into two parts, and Eastern. Siberia stretches southwards from the to the hills of north-central and to the national borders of and . With an area of , Siberia accounts for 77% of Russia's land area, but it is home to approximately 36 million people—27% of the country's population. This is equivalent to an average population density of about (approximately equal to that of ), making Siberia one of the most sparsely populated regions on Earth. If it were a country by itself, it would still be the largest country in area, but in population it would be the world's 35th-largest and Asia's 14th-largest.

Worldwide, Siberia is well known primarily for its long, harsh winters, with a January average of −25 °C (−13 °F), as well as its extensive history of use by Russian and administrations as a place for prisons, labour camps, and exile.


Etymology
The origin of the name is unknown. Some sources say that "Siberia" originates from the word for "sleeping land" (Sib Ir). Another account sees the name as the ancient tribal ethnonym of the (also "Syopyr" (sʲɵpᵻr)), an ethnic group which spoke a language that later evolved into the . The Sirtya people were later assimilated into the .

The modern usage of the name was recorded in the Russian language after the Empire's conquest of the . A further variant claims that the region was named after the .

(2018). 9780631235910, Wiley-Blackwell. .
The Polish historian Chycliczkowski has proposed that the name derives from the word for "north" (север, sever), but Anatole Baikaloff has dismissed this explanation. He said that the neighbouring Chinese, Turks, and Mongolians, who have similar names for the region, would not have known Russian. He suggests that the name might be a combination of two words with origin, "su" (water) and "bir" (wild land).


Prehistory
The region has significance, as it contains bodies of animals from the Epoch, preserved in ice or in . Specimens of Goldfuss cave lion cubs, Yuka (mammoth) and another from , a woolly rhinoceros from the , and and from have been found.

The were formed by one of the largest-known volcanic events of the last 500 million years of Earth's geological history. Their activity continued for a million years and some scientists consider it a possible cause of the "Great Dying" about 250 million years ago,. Discovery Channel. – estimated to have killed 90% of species existing at the time.

(2018). 9780500285732, Thames & Hudson.

At least three species of human lived in Southern Siberia around 40,000 years ago: , , and the ." DNA identifies new ancient human dubbed 'X-woman'," BBC News. 25 March 2010. In 2010 DNA evidence identified the last as a separate species.


History
Siberia was inhabited by different groups of such as the , the , the , the and the . The Khan of Sibir in the vicinity of modern was known as a prominent figure who endorsed as Khagan of Old Great Bulgaria in 630. The Mongols conquered a large part of this area early in the 13th century.

With the breakup of the , the Khanate of Sibir was established in the late 15th century. Turkic-speaking migrated north from the region under pressure from the Mongol tribes during the 13th to 15th century. Siberia remained a sparsely populated area. Historian John F. Richards wrote: "... it is doubtful that the total early modern Siberian population exceeded 300,000 persons." Richards, 2003 p. 538.

The growing power of in the West began to undermine the Siberian Khanate in the 16th century. First, groups of traders and began to enter the area. The Russian Army was directed to establish forts farther and farther east to protect new settlers from European Russia. Towns such as , Tara, and were developed, the last being declared the capital of Siberia. At this time, Sibir was the name of a fortress at Qashlik, near Tobolsk. Gerardus Mercator, in a map published in 1595, marks Sibier both as the name of a settlement and of the surrounding territory along a left tributary of the Ob. Other sources contend that the , an indigenous , offered fierce resistance to Russian expansion beyond the Urals. Some suggest that the term "Siberia" is a Russification of their ethnonym.

By the mid-17th century, Russia had established areas of control that extended to the . Some 230,000 had settled in Siberia by 1709. Siberia was a destination for sending /ref>

The first great modern change in Siberia was the Trans-Siberian Railway, constructed during 1891–1916. It linked Siberia more closely to the rapidly industrialising Russia of Nicholas II. Around seven million people moved to Siberia from between 1801 and 1914. From 1859 to 1917, more than half a million people migrated to the Russian Far East. The Russian Far East: A History. John J. Stephan (1996). Stanford University Press. p.62. Siberia has extensive natural resources. During the 20th century, large-scale exploitation of these was developed, and industrial towns cropped up throughout the region.Fiona Hill, Russia — Coming In From the Cold? , , 23 February 2004

At 7:15 a.m. on 30 June 1908, millions of trees were felled near the Podkamennaya Tunguska (Stony Tunguska) River in central Siberia in the . Most scientists believe this resulted from the air burst of a meteor or a comet. Even though no crater has ever been found, the landscape in the (sparsely inhabited) area still bears the scars of this event.

In the early decades of the (especially the 1930s and 1940s), the government established the state agency to administer a system of penal , replacing the previous system. The Unknown Gulag: The Lost World of Stalin's Special Settlements. (2007). Oxford University Press US. p.3. According to semi-official Soviet estimates, which were not made public until after the fall of the Soviet government, from 1929 to 1953 more than 14 million people passed through these camps and prisons, many of which were in Siberia. Another seven to eight million people were internally deported to remote areas of the Soviet Union (including entire nationalities or ethnicities in several cases). in "Victims of Stalinism: A Comment," Europe-Asia Studies, Vol. 49, No. 7 (Nov. 1997), pp. 1317–1319 states: "We are all inclined to accept the Zemskov totals (even if not as complete) with their 14 million intake to Gulag 'camps' alone, to which must be added four to five million going to Gulag 'colonies', to say nothing of the 3.5 million already in, or sent to, 'labour settlements'. However taken, these are surely 'high' figures."

Half a million (516,841) prisoners died in camps from 1941 to 1943Zemskov, "Gulag," Sociologičeskije issledovanija, 1991, No. 6, pp. 14–15. due to food shortages caused by World War II. At other periods, mortality was comparatively lower.Stéphane Courtois, Mark Kramer. Livre noir du Communisme: crimes, terreur, répression. Harvard University Press, 1999. p. 206. The size, scope, and scale of the GULAG slave labour camps remains a subject of much research and debate. Many Gulag camps were positioned in extremely remote areas of northeastern Siberia. The best known clusters are ( The North-East Camps) along the River and near , where 69,000 prisoners were kept in 1952.Courtois and Kramer (1999), Livre noir du Communisme, p.239. Major industrial cities of Northern Siberia, such as and , developed from camps built by prisoners and run by former prisoners.


Geography

With an area of , Siberia makes up roughly 77% of Russia's total territory and almost 10% of Earth's land surface (). While Siberia falls entirely within Asia, many authorities such as the will not subdivide countries and will place all of Russia as part of Europe and/or . Major geographical zones include the West Siberian Plain and the Central Siberian Plateau.

Eastern and central comprises numerous north-south mountain ranges of various ages. These mountains extend up to almost , but above a few hundred metres they are almost completely devoid of vegetation. The Verkhoyansk Range was extensively glaciated in the Pleistocene, but the climate was too dry for glaciation to extend to low elevations. At these low elevations are numerous valleys, many of them deep and covered with forest, except in the extreme north where the dominates. Soils are mainly turbels (a type of ). The active layer tends to be less than one metre deep, except near rivers.

The highest point in Siberia is the active Klyuchevskaya Sopka, on the Kamchatka Peninsula. Its peak is at .


Mountain ranges


Lakes and rivers


Grasslands


Geology
The West Siberian Plain consists mostly of alluvial deposits and is somewhat flat. Many deposits on this plain result from which produced a large . This mid- to late- lake blocked the northward flow of the and rivers, resulting in a redirection southwest into the and seas via the . Lioubimtseva E.U., Gorshkov S.P. & Adams J.M.; A Giant Siberian Lake During the Last Glacial: Evidence and Implications; Oak Ridge National laboratory The area is very swampy, and soils are mostly peaty and, in the treeless northern part, . In the south of the plain, where is largely absent, rich grasslands that are an extension of the formed the original vegetation, most of which is no longer visible.

The Central Siberian Plateau is an ancient (sometimes named Angaraland) that formed an independent before the (see the Siberian continent). It is exceptionally rich in minerals, containing large deposits of , , and ores of , , , , and . Much of the area includes the —a large igneous province. This massive eruptive period was approximately coincident with the Permian–Triassic extinction event. The volcanic event is said to be the largest known volcanic eruption in Earth's history. Only the extreme northwest was during the , but almost all is under exceptionally deep permafrost, and the only that can thrive, despite the warm summers, is the deciduous ( Larix sibirica) with its very shallow roots. Outside the extreme northwest, the is dominant, covering a significant fraction of the entirety of Siberia.C. Michael Hogan. 2011. Taiga. eds. M.McGinley & C.Cleveland. Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and the Environment. Washington DC Soils here are mainly , giving way to where the active layer becomes thicker and the ice content lower.

The Lena-Tunguska petroleum province includes the Central Siberian platform (some authors refer to it as the Eastern Siberian platform), bounded on the northeast and east by the Late Carboniferous through Verkhoyansk , on the northwest by the Taymr foldbelt, and on the southeast, south and southwest by the Middle to Baykalian foldbelt.Meyerhof, A. A., 1980, "Geology and Petroleum Fields in Proterozoic and Lower Cambrian Strata, Lena-Tunguska Petroleum Province, Eastern Siberia, USSR", in Giant Oil and Gas Fields of the Decade: 1968–1978, AAPG Memoir 30, Halbouty, M. T., editor, Tulsa: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, A regional geologic reconnaissance study begun in 1932, followed by surface and subsurface mapping, revealed the Markova-Angara Arch (). This led to the discovery of the Markovo Oil Field in 1962 with the Markovo 1 well, which produced from the Osa Horizon - at a depth of . The Sredne-Botuobin Gas Field was discovered in 1970, producing from the Osa and the Parfenovo Horizon. The Yaraktin Oil Field was discovered in 1971, producing from the Yaraktin Horizon at depths of up to , which lies below to .


Climate


in Siberia is mostly , with a belt on the northern fringe, and a temperate forest zone in the south.

The climate of Siberia varies dramatically, but it typically has short summers and long, brutally cold winters. On the north coast, north of the , there is a very short (about one-month-long) summer.

Almost all the population lives in the south, along the Trans-Siberian Railway. The climate in this southernmost part is Humid continental climate (Köppen Dfb) with cold winters but fairly warm summers lasting at least four months. The annual average is about . January averages about and July about while daytime temperatures in summer typically are above . With a reliable growing season, an abundance of sunshine and exceedingly fertile soils, southern Siberia is good enough for profitable , as was proven in the early 20th century.

By far the most commonly occurring climate in Siberia is continental subarctic (Koppen Dfc or Dwc), with the annual average temperature about and an average for January of and an average for July of , although this varies considerably, with a July average about in the taiga–tundra . The Business oriented website and blog Business Insider lists and , in Siberia's , as being in competition for the title of the Northern Hemisphere's Pole of Cold. is a village which recorded a temperature of on 6 February 1933. , a town further north and further inland, recorded a temperature of for 3 consecutive nights: 5, 6 and 7 February 1933. Each town is alternately considered the Northern Hemisphere's Pole of Cold, meaning the coldest inhabited point in the Northern hemisphere. Each town also frequently reaches in the summer, giving them, and much of the rest of Russian Siberia, the world's greatest temperature variation between summer's highs and winter's lows, often being well over between the seasons. Business Insider, February 2014, http://www.businessinsider.com/verkhoyansk-russia-most-miserable-place-2014-2

Southwesterly winds bring warm air from Central Asia and the Middle East. The climate in West Siberia (Omsk, Novosibirsk) is several degrees warmer than in the East (Irkutsk, Chita) where in the north an extreme winter subarctic climate (Köppen Dfd or Dwd) prevails. But summer temperatures in other regions can reach . In general, is the coldest Siberian region, and the basin of the has the lowest temperatures of all, with permafrost reaching . Nevertheless, as far as Imperial Russian plans of settlement were concerned, cold was never viewed as an impediment. In the winter, southern Siberia sits near the center of the semi-permanent , so winds are usually light in the winter.

Precipitation in Siberia is generally low, exceeding only in Kamchatka where moist winds flow from the Sea of Okhotsk onto high mountains – producing the region's only major , though volcanic eruptions and low summer temperatures allow limited forests to grow. Precipitation is high also in most of in the extreme south where monsoonal influences can produce quite heavy summer rainfall.

Researchers, including Sergei Kirpotin at Tomsk State University and Judith Marquand at Oxford University, warn that Western Siberia has begun to thaw as a result of . The frozen in this region may hold billions of tons of , which may be released into the atmosphere. Methane is a 22 times more powerful than .Ian Sample, " Warming hits 'tipping point'". , 11 August 2005 In 2008, a research expedition for the American Geophysical Union detected levels of methane up to 100 times above normal in the atmosphere above the Siberian , likely the result of methane clathrates being released through holes in a frozen 'lid' of seabed , around the outfall of the and the area between the and East Siberian Sea.N. Shakhova, I. Semiletov, A. Salyuk, D. Kosmach, and N. Bel'cheva (2007), Methane release on the Arctic East Siberian shelf, Geophysical Research Abstracts, 9, 01071


Fauna


Order Artiodactyla
  • Manchurian wapiti
    (1998). 9780811704960, Stackpole Books. .
  • Siberian musk deer Database entry includes a brief justification of why this species is of vulnerable.


Order Carnivora

Family Felidae


Family Ursidae


Flora


Politics

Borders and administrative division
The term "Siberia" has a long history. Its meaning has gradually changed during ages. Historically, Siberia was defined as the whole part of Russia to the east of , including the Russian Far East. According to this definition, Siberia extended eastward from the to the Pacific coast, and southward from the Arctic Ocean to the border of Russian and the national borders of both Mongolia and China. Малый энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона (The Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary, in Russian)

Soviet-era sources ( Great Soviet Encyclopedia and others) Сибирь—Большая советская энциклопедия (The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, in Russian) and modern Russian ones Сибирь- Словарь современных географических названий (in Russian) usually define Siberia as a region extending eastward from the Ural Mountains to the between and drainage basins, and southward from the Arctic Ocean to the hills of north-central and the national borders of both and . By this definition, Siberia includes the federal subjects of the Siberian Federal District, and some of the Ural Federal District, as well as , which is a part of the Far Eastern Federal District. Geographically, this definition includes subdivisions of several other subjects of Urals and Far Eastern federal districts, but they are not included administratively. This definition excludes Sverdlovsk Oblast and Chelyabinsk Oblast, both of which are included in some wider definitions of Siberia.

Other sources may use either a somewhat wider definition that states the Pacific coast, not the watershed, is the eastern boundary (thus including the whole Russian Far East) or a somewhat narrower one that limits Siberia to the Siberian Federal District (thus excluding all subjects of other districts)., The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition In Russian, the word for Siberia is used as a substitute for the name of the federal district by those who live in the district itself and less commonly used to denote the federal district by people residing outside of it.

+ Federal subjects of Siberia (GSE)
Ural Federal District
Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug
Kurgan
Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug
Siberian Federal District
Buryat Republic
Novosibirsk Oblast
Chita
Far Eastern Federal District

+ Federal subjects of Siberia (in wide sense)
Far Eastern Federal District
Chukotka Autonomous OkrugAnadyr
Jewish Autonomous Oblast
Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky
Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk
Ural Federal District
Chelyabinsk Oblast
Sverdlovsk Oblast


Major cities
The most populous city of Siberia, as well as the third most populous city of Russia, is the city of . Other major cities include:

Wider definitions of Siberia also include:


Economy

Siberia is extraordinarily rich in , containing ores of almost all economically valuable . It has some of the world's largest deposits of nickel, , , , , , , , and , as well as extensive unexploited resources of and . Statistics on the Development of Gas Fields in Western Siberia, Daily Questions on Energy and Economy Around 70% of Russia's developed oil fields are in the region. Russia contains about 40% of the world's known resources of at the deposit in Siberia. is the world's biggest nickel and producer.

Siberian agriculture is severely restricted by the short growing season of most of the region. However, in the southwest where soils are exceedingly fertile black earths and the climate is a little more moderate, there is extensive cropping of , , and , along with the grazing of large numbers of and . Elsewhere food production, owing to the poor fertility of the soils and the extremely short growing seasons, is restricted to the herding of in the tundra—which has been practiced by natives for over 10,000 years. Siberia has the world's largest . Timber remains an important source of revenue, even though many forests in the east have been logged much more rapidly than they are able to recover. The Sea of Okhotsk is one of the two or three richest fisheries in the world owing to its cold currents and very large , and thus Siberia produces over 10% of the world's annual fish catch, although fishing has declined somewhat since the collapse of the USSR.

While the development of renewable energy in Russia is held back by the lack of a conducive government policy framework, Siberia still offers special opportunities for off-grid renewable energy developments. Remote parts of Siberia are too costly to connect to central electricity and gas grids, and have therefore historically been supplied with costly diesel, sometimes flown in by helicopter. In such cases renewable energy is often cheaper.


Sport
Professional football teams include FC Tom Tomsk, FC Sibir Novosibirsk and FK Yenisey Krasnoyarsk.

The Yenisey Krasnoyarsk basketball team has played in the VTB United League since 2011–12.

Russia's third most popular sport, , is important in Siberia. In the 2015–16 Russian Bandy Super League season Yenisey from became champions for the third year in a row by beating Baykal-Energiya from /ref> Two or three more teams (depending on the definition of Siberia) play in the Super League, the 2016-17 champions SKA-Neftyanik from as well as Kuzbass from and Sibselmash from . In 2007 Kemerovo got Russia's first indoor arena specifically built for bandy. Now Khabarovsk has the world's biggest indoor arena specifically built for bandy, . It will be the venue for Division A of the 2018 World Championship.

The 2019 Winter Universiade will be hosted by Krasnoyarsk.


Demographics
According to the Russian Census of 2010, the Siberian and Far Eastern Federal Districts, located entirely east of the , together have a population of about 25.6 million. and Oblasts, which are geographically in Siberia but administratively part of the Urals Federal District, together have a population of about 4.3 million. Thus, the whole region of Asian Russia (or Siberia in the broadest usage of the term) is home to approximately 30 million people." Census 2010 official results (Russian) " It has a population density of about three people per square kilometre.

All Siberians are Russian citizens, and of these Russian citizens of Siberia, most are Slavic-origin and russified Ukrainians." Ukrainians in Russia's Far East try to maintain community life". The Ukrainian Weekly. May 4, 2003. The remaining Russian citizens of Siberia consists of other groups of non-indigenous ethnic origins and those of indigenous Siberian origin.

Among the largest non-Slavic group of Russian citizens of Siberia are the approximately 400,000 ethnic . The original indigenous groups of Siberia, including and groups such as , , , and still mostly reside in Siberia, though they are minorities outnumbered by all other non-indigenous Siberians. Indeed, Slavic-origin Russians by themselves outnumber all of the indigenous peoples combined, both in Siberia as a whole and its cities, except in the Republic of .

Slavic-origin Russians make up the majority in the Buryat, , and , outnumbering the indigenous , , and . The Buryat make up only 25% of their own republic, and the Sakha and Altai each are only one-third, and the Chukchi, , , , and are outnumbered by non-indigenous peoples by 90% of the population. Batalden 1997, p. 37.

According to the 2002 census there are 500,000 , but of these, 300,000 are who also settled in Siberia during periods of colonization and are thus also non-indigenous Siberians, in contrast to the 200,000 Siberian Tatars which are indigenous to Siberia.

Of the indigenous Siberians, the , numbering approximately 500,000, are the most numerous group in Siberia, and they are mainly concentrated in their homeland, the . World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples – Russian Federation: Buryats. According to the 2002 census there were 443,852 indigenous . World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples – Russian Federation: Yakuts. Other indigenous to Siberia include , , , , , and .

About seventy percent of Siberia's people live in cities, mainly in apartments. Many people also live in rural areas, in simple, spacious, log houses. is the largest city in Siberia, with a population of about 1.5 million. , , , , , and are the older, historical centers.


Religion

There are a variety of beliefs throughout Siberia, including Orthodox Christianity, other denominations of Christianity, and . The Siberian Federal District alone has an estimation of 250,000 Muslims. An estimated 70,000 Jews live in Siberia, some in the Jewish Autonomous Region." Why some Jews would rather live in Siberia than Israel", The Christian Science Monitor. 7 June 2010 The predominant religious group is the Russian Orthodox Church.

Tradition regards Siberia the archetypal home of , and is popular.Hoppál 2005:13 These native sacred practices are considered by the tribes to be very ancient. There are records of Siberian tribal healing practices dating back to the 13th century. The vast territory of Siberia has many different local traditions of gods. These include: , , , Kara Khan, , Kini'je, Ku'urkil, Nga, Nu'tenut, , , , Pugu, , Toko'yoto, , , . Places with sacred areas include , an island in .


Transport
Many cities in northern Siberia, such as Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, cannot be reached by road, as there are virtually none connecting from other major cities in Russia or Asia. The best way to tour Siberia is through the Trans-Siberian Railway. The Trans-Siberian Railway operates from Moscow in the west to in the east. Cities that are located far from the railway are best reached by air or by the separate Baikal-Amur-Railway (BAM).


Culture

Cuisine
is a raw fish dish of the indigenous people of northern Arctic Siberia made from raw, thin, long-sliced frozen fish.
(1997). 9780810115750, Northwestern University Press. .
It is a popular dish with native Siberians.


See also
  • Siberian regionalism


Bibliography
  • (1997). 9780897749404, Greenwood Publishing Group. .
  • (2018). 9781135765958, Routledge. .
  • (2018). 9781135765965, Routledge. .
  • (2018). 9780300147698, Yale University Press. .
  • Nicholas B. Breyfogle, Abby Schrader and Willard Sunderland (eds), Peopling the Russian Periphery: Borderland Colonization in Eurasian history (London, Routledge, 2007).
  • (2018). 9780745673547, John Wiley & Sons. .
  • (1994). 9780521477710, Cambridge University Press. .
  • James Forsyth, A History of the Peoples of Siberia: Russia's North Asian Colony, 1581–1990 (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1994).
  • (2018). 9780803219076, U of Nebraska Press. .
  • Steven G. Marks, Road to Power: The Trans-Siberian Railroad and the Colonization of Asian Russia, 1850–1917 (London, I.B. Tauris, 1991).
  • (1998). 9780813312989, Westview Press. .
  • Igor V. Naumov, The History of Siberia. Edited by David Collins (London, Routledge, 2009) (Routledge Studies in the History of Russia and Eastern Europe).
  • (1996). 9780804727013, Stanford University Press. .
  • (2018). 034097124X, A&C Black. . 034097124X
  • Alan Wood (ed.), The History of Siberia: From Russian Conquest to Revolution (London, Routledge, 1991).

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