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Saint Kitts, also known more formally as Saint Christopher Island, is an in the . The west side of the island borders the Sea, and the eastern coast faces the . Saint Kitts and the neighbouring island of constitute one country: the Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis. Saint Kitts and Nevis are separated by a shallow channel known as "The Narrows".

Saint Kitts became home to the first Caribbean British and French colonies in the mid-1620s. Along with the island nation of Nevis, Saint Kitts was a member of the British West Indies until gaining independence on September 19, 1983.

The island is one of the in the . It is situated about southeast of Miami, , US. The land area of Saint Kitts is about , being approximately long and on average about across.

Saint Kitts has a population of around 40,000, the majority of whom are of . The primary language is , with a literacy rate of approximately 98%. Residents call themselves Kittitians.

Brimstone Hill Fortress National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is the largest fortress ever built in the Western Caribbean. The island of Saint Kitts is home to the Warner Park Cricket Stadium, which was used to host 2007 Cricket World Cup matches. This made Saint Kitts and Nevis the smallest nation to ever host a World Cup event. Saint Kitts is also home to several institutions of higher education, including Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine, Windsor University School of Medicine, and the University of Medicine and Health Sciences.

The capital of the two-island nation, and also its largest port, is the town of on Saint Kitts. There is a modern facility for handling large there. A ring road goes around the perimeter of the island with smaller roads branching off it; the interior of the island is too steep for habitation.

Saint Kitts is away from to the north and from to the south. St. Kitts has three distinct groups of peaks: the North West or Mount Misery Range; the Middle or Verchilds Range and the South East or Olivees Range. The highest peak is Mount Liamuiga, formerly Mount Misery, a dormant volcano 1,156 m high.

The youngest volcanic center is , 5 km in diameter and rising to an elevation of 1155 m. Its last eruption was 1620 years ago, corresponding with the Steel Dust series of deposits on the western flank. The Mansion Series of pyroclastic deposits and andesite with basalt layers occur on the northern flank, along with . This volcano has a crater 900 m wide and 244 m deep, plus two distinct parasitic domes consisting primarily of , Brimstone Hill and Sandy Point Hill which is coalesced with Farm Flat. Brimstone Hill is noted for having on its flanks, which was dragged upward with the formation of the dome 44,400 years ago. Mt. Liamuiga partially overlays the Middle Range to the southeast. This Middle Range is another 976 m in height with a small summit crater containing a lake. Next in line is the 900 m South East Range, 1 in age, consisting of four peaks. Ottley's and Monkey Hill dome are on the flanks, while the older volcanoes represented by Canada Hills, and Conaree Hills lie past the airport and Bassaterre on the southeast flank. The Salt Dome Peninsula contains the oldest volcanic deposits, 2.3-2.77 Myr in age, consisting of at least nine rising up to 319 m in height, which includes Williams Hill and St. Anthony's Peak.

During the last , the sea level was up to lower and St. Kitts and Nevis were one island along with and (also known as Statia).
(2019). 9780333747605, Macmillan Caribbean. .

St. Kitts was originally settled by pre-agricultural, pre-ceramic "Archaic people", who migrated south down the archipelago from Florida. In a few hundred years they disappeared, to be replaced by the -using and people around 100 BC, who migrated to St. Kitts north up the archipelago from the banks of the in . Around 800 AD, they were replaced by the people, members of the group.

Around 1300, the , or Carib people arrived on the islands. These agriculturalists quickly dispersed the Igneri, and forced them northwards to the . They named Saint Kitts "Liamuiga" meaning "fertile island", and would likely have expanded further north if not for the arrival of Europeans.

A expedition under Christopher Columbus arrived and claimed the island for Spain in 1493.

The first was established in 1623, followed by a colony in 1625. The English and French briefly united to massacre the local Kalinago," Top 10 attractions in St Kitts". . October 1, 2013. and then partitioned the island, with the English colonists in the middle and the French on either end. In 1629, a sent to clear the islands of foreign settlement seized St. Kitts. The English settlement was rebuilt following the 1630 peace between England and Spain.

The island alternated repeatedly between English (then British) and French control during the 17th and 18th centuries, as one power took the whole island, only to have it switch hands due to treaties or military action. Parts of the island were heavily fortified, as exemplified by the UNESCO World Heritage Site at and the now-crumbling Fort Charles.

Since 1783, Saint Kitts has been affiliated with the Kingdom of Great Britain, which became the .

The island originally produced ; but it changed to in 1640, due to stiff competition from the colony of . The labour-intensive cultivation of sugar cane was the reason for the large-scale importation of African . The importation began almost immediately upon the arrival of Europeans to the region.

The purchasing of enslaved Africans was outlawed in the by an Act of Parliament in 1807. was abolished by an Act of Parliament which became law on 1 August 1834. This emancipation was followed by four years of apprenticeship, put in place to protect the planters from losing their labour force.

August the 1st is now celebrated as a public holiday and is called . In 1883, Saint Kitts, , and were all linked under one presidency, located on Saint Kitts, to the dismay of the Nevisians and Anguillans. Anguilla eventually separated out of this arrangement, in 1971, after an armed raid on Saint Kitts.

Sugar production continued to dominate the local economy until 2005, when, after 365 years of having a mono-culture, the government closed the sugar industry. This was due to huge losses and plans to greatly cut sugar prices.

For purposes of governing, the island is divided into nine parishes:
  • Christ Church Nichola Town
  • Saint Anne Sandy Point
  • Saint George Basseterre
  • Saint John Capisterre
  • Saint Mary Cayon
  • Saint Paul Capisterre
  • Saint Peter Basseterre
  • Saint Thomas Middle Island
  • Trinity Palmetto Point

Saint Kitts & Nevis uses the Eastern Caribbean dollar, which maintains a fixed exchange rate of 2.7-to-one with the United States dollar. The US dollar is almost as widely accepted as the Eastern Caribbean dollar. St Kitts Tourism Authority Eastern Caribbean Dollar (XCD$). U.S. bills are accepted by most stores and businesses and change is given in E.C. currency. U.S. coins are not accepted.

For hundreds of years, Saint Kitts operated as a , but due to decreasing profitability, the government closed the industry in 2005. is a major and growing source of income to the island, although the number and density of resorts is less than on many other Caribbean islands. , non-sugar agriculture, manufacturing and construction are the other growing sectors of the economy.[3]

Saint Kitts is dependent on tourism to drive its economy. Tourism has been increasing since 1978. In 2009, there were 587,479 arrivals to Saint Kitts compared to 379,473 in 2007, which represents an increase of just under 40% growth in a two-year period. As tourism grows, the demand for vacation property increases in conjunction.

Saint Kitts & Nevis also acquires foreign direct investment from their unique citizenship by investment programme, outlined in their Citizenship Act of 1984. Interested parties can acquire citizenship if they pass the government's strict background checks and make an investment into an approved real estate development. Purchasers who pass government due diligence and make a minimum investment of US$400,000, into qualifying government approved real estate, are entitled to apply for citizenship of the Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis. Many projects are approved under the citizenship by investment programme, and the main qualifying projects of interest can be found within the Henley Estates market overview .

The country hosts an annual St. Kitts Music Festival.

Robert L. Bradshaw International Airport serves Saint Kitts. (BA) flies in twice a week from London and daily connections from Charlotte, Miami and New York are available.

The Basseterre Ferry Terminal facilitates travel between Saint Kitts and sister island Nevis.

The narrow-gauge (30 inches Schwartzman, M. T. "St. Kitts Railway: One Sweet Ride," Cruise Travel, December 2005, accessed 15 December 2012.) St Kitts Scenic Railway circles the island and offers passenger service from its headquarters near the airport, although the service is geared more for tourists than as day-to-day transportation for residents. Built between 1912 and 1926 to haul sugar cane from farms to the sugar factory in Basseterre, since 2003 the railway has offered a 3.5 hour, 30-mile circle tour of the island on specially designed double-decker open-air coaches, with 12 miles of the trip being by bus. Saint Kitts Scenic Railway, official site, accessed 15 December 2012.

Notable residents
Saint Kitts is or was the residence of:

  • , a British singer-songwriter.
  • , born in St. Kitts, was a physician who gave steroids to the sprinter Ben Johnson.
  • , born in St. Kitts, film maker and writer.
  • Hutchens C. Bishop, pre-civil rights era clergyman who led the 1917 in New York.
  • Robert Bradshaw, first Premier of Saint Kitts and Nevis.
  • , born in St. Kitts first Chief Justice of Western Australia
  • , born in St. Kitts, actor, broadcaster and director.
  • is a British artist, television producer and director.
  • is a woman possessing both United States and British citizenship who is on death row in Texas.
  • is a former world champion sprinter (2003).
  • was an actor, comedian, and writer.
  • , founder of Telegram
  • was born in St. Kitts, became a professional bodybuilder and was convicted of murder.[6]
  • , doctor and planter, who published the georgic poem The Sugar Cane in 1764 and also wrote about diseases among the slaves.
  • is an International football player who currently plays as a striker for the Liga Indonesia side Sriwijaya FC.
  • Sir was Administrator of Saint Christopher from 1940 to 1946.
  • is a Kittitian footballer who currently plays for FC Dallas in Major League Soccer.[7]
  • is a female sprinter specialising in the 200 metres event.
  • is a Calypso musician and politician.
  • Major-General Sir Robert Nickle was governor of Saint Christopher from 1830.
  • , born in St. Kitts, novelist playwright and essayist.
  • is a female sprinter specialising in the 200 metres and the 400 metres.
  • , professional footballer for Manchester United and England. Born in Manchester of Kittian descent.
  • Lord Hercules George Robert Robinson was governor of Saint Christopher from 1855 to 1859.
  • Sir Cuthbert Sebastian, Governor-General of St Kitts-Nevis from 1 January 1996 to 31 December 2012, his retirement.
  • Joseph Matthew Sebastian was a Caribbean trade union leader and politician.
  • was a freed Afro-Caribbean slave who became a well-known fop in the UK during the 1760s and 1770s.
  • is an American author and journalist.
  • businessman who renounced his U.S. citizenship.
  • is a former sprinter who won a bronze medal in the 1984 Olympics.



See also
  • Chief Justice of the Leeward Islands
  • Culture of St. Kitts and Nevis
  • List of people on stamps of Saint Kitts
  • , St. Kitts' sister island

External links

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