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Philadelphia (colloquially known simply as Philly) is a city in the Commonwealth of in the . It is the sixth-most-populous city in the United States and the most populous city in the state of Pennsylvania, with a 2020 population of 1,603,797. It is also the second-most populous city in the Northeastern United States, behind New York City. Since 1854, the city has had the same geographic boundaries as Philadelphia County, the most-populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U.S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents . Philadelphia is also the economic and cultural center of the greater along the lower and rivers within the Northeast megalopolis. The Delaware Valley's 2019 estimated population of 7.21 million makes it the ninth-largest combined statistical area in the United States.

Philadelphia is one of the oldest municipalities in the United States. , an , founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony.

(2021). 9781585730261, APA Publications. .
Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, and the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787. Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, and the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia remained the nation's largest city until being overtaken by New York City in 1790; the city was also one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, serving as temporary U.S. capital while Washington, D.C. was under construction. In the 19th and 20th centuries, Philadelphia became a major industrial center and a railroad hub. The city grew due to an influx of European immigrants, most of whom initially came from Ireland and Germany—the two largest reported ancestry groups in the city . Later immigrant groups in the 20th century came from Italy (Italian being the third largest European ethnic ancestry currently reported in Philadelphia) and other Southern European and Eastern European countries. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War. Puerto Ricans began moving to the city in large numbers in the period between World War I and II, and in even greater numbers in the period.The Puerto Rican Diaspora: Historical Perspectives, by Carmen Whalen and Víctor Vázquez-Hernández, Temple University Press, 2008, p. 90–91. The city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950.

The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. , the Philadelphia metropolitan area is estimated to produce a gross metropolitan product (GMP) of $490 billion. Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of almost 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia has more outdoor sculptures and than any other American city. , when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same , is one of the largest contiguous areas in the United States. The city is known for its arts, culture, cuisine, and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent $6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia has also emerged as a hub.

Philadelphia is the home of many U.S. firsts, including the nation's first library (1731), hospital (1751), Https:// accessed July 12, 2021 stock exchange (1790), (1874), and business school (1881). Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall. The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015, "Philadelphia's new branding as World Heritage City" . Organization of World Heritage Cities. Retrieved March 5, 2018. as the first World Heritage City in the United States.

Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Indians in the village of . The Lenape are a Native American tribe and .Pritzker 422 They are also called Delaware Indians,Josephy 188–189 and their historical territory was along the , western , and the . Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases, mainly , and violent conflict with Europeans. people occasionally fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper basin. The American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west. In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the (present-day Oklahoma and surrounding territory) under the policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in , with some communities living also in , Ontario (Canada), and in their traditional homelands.

Europeans came to the in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey. The Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of at (present-day Wilmington, Delaware) and quickly spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the in their war against Maryland colonists.Jennings, Francis, (1984) The Ambiguous Iroquois. New York: Norton In 1648, the Dutch built on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area. The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New , named after a town in with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a Dutch military campaign led by New Netherland Director-General took control of the Swedish colony, ending its claim to independence. The Swedish and Finnish settlers continued to have their own militia, religion, and court, and to enjoy substantial autonomy under the Dutch. An English fleet captured the New Netherland colony in 1664, though the situation did not change substantially until 1682 when the area was included in 's charter for Pennsylvania.

In 1681, in partial repayment of a debt, Charles II of England granted Penn a for what would become the Pennsylvania colony. Despite the royal charter, Penn bought the land from the local Lenape to be on good terms with the Native Americans and ensure peace for his colony.

(2021). 9781585730261, APA Publications. .
Penn made a treaty of friendship with Lenape chief under an elm tree at , in what is now the city's Fishtown neighborhood.
(1982). 9780393016109, W. W. Norton & Company. .
Penn named the city Philadelphia, which is for "brotherly love," derived from the terms phílos (beloved, dear) and adelphós (brother, brotherly). There were a number of cities named Philadelphia in the Eastern Mediterranean during the Greek and Roman periods, including one (modern Alaşehir) mentioned as the site of an early Christian congregation in the Book of Revelation. As a , Penn had experienced religious persecution and wanted his colony to be a place where anyone could worship freely. This tolerance, far more than afforded by most other colonies, led to better relations with the local native tribes and fostered Philadelphia's rapid growth into America's most important city.
(1999). 9780965882514, Otis Books. .

Penn planned a city on the Delaware River to serve as a port and place for government. Hoping that Philadelphia would become more like an English rural town instead of a city, Penn laid out roads on a to keep houses and businesses spread far apart, with areas for gardens and . The city's inhabitants did not follow Penn's plans, however, as they crowded by the Delaware River port, and subdivided and resold their lots. Philadelphia: A 300-Year History, pages 7, 14 – 16 Before Penn left Philadelphia for the last time, he issued the Charter of 1701 establishing it as a city. Though poor at first, the city became an important trading center with tolerable living conditions by the 1750s. Benjamin Franklin, a leading citizen, helped improve city services and founded new ones, such as fire protection, a library, and one of the American colonies' first hospitals.

A number of philosophical societies were formed, which were centers of the city's intellectual life: the Philadelphia Society for Promoting Agriculture (1785), the Pennsylvania Society for the Encouragement of Manufactures and the Useful Arts (1787), the Academy of Natural Sciences (1812), and the Franklin Institute (1824). These societies developed and financed new industries, attracting skilled and knowledgeable immigrants from Europe.

Philadelphia's importance and central location in the colonies made it a natural center for America's revolutionaries. By the 1750s, Philadelphia had surpassed to become the largest city and busiest port in , and second in the British Empire after London.

(2021). 9781416570912, Simon and Schuster. .
The city hosted the First Continental Congress (1774) before the Revolutionary War; the Second Continental Congress (1775–76), which signed the United States Declaration of Independence, during the war; and the Constitutional Convention (1787) after the war. Several battles were fought in and near Philadelphia as well.

Philadelphia served as the temporary capital of the United States while the new capital was under construction in the District of Columbia from 1790 to 1800. Insight Guides: Philadelphia and Surroundings, pages 30–33 In 1793, the largest yellow fever epidemic in U.S. history killed approximately 4,000 to 5,000 people in Philadelphia, or about 10% of the city's population.

The state capital was moved to Lancaster in 1799, then Harrisburg in 1812, while the federal government was moved to Washington, D.C. in 1800 upon completion of the and U.S. Capitol building. The city remained the young nation's largest until the late 18th century, being both a financial and a cultural center for America. In 1816, the city's free black community founded the African Methodist Episcopal Church (AME), the first independent black denomination in the country, and the first black Episcopal Church. The free black community also established many schools for its children, with the help of Quakers. New York City surpassed Philadelphia in population by 1790. Large-scale construction projects for new roads, , and railroads made Philadelphia the first major industrial city in the United States.

Throughout the 19th century, Philadelphia hosted a variety of industries and businesses, the largest being . Major corporations in the 19th and early 20th centuries included the Baldwin Locomotive Works, William Cramp & Sons Shipbuilding Company, and the Pennsylvania Railroad. Philadelphia: A 300-Year History, pages 214, 218, 428 – 429 Established in 1870, the Philadelphia Conveyancers' Association was chartered by the state in 1871. Industry, along with the U.S. Centennial, was celebrated in 1876 with the Centennial Exposition, the first official World's fair in the United States.

Immigrants, mostly from Ireland and Germany, settled in Philadelphia and the surrounding districts. These immigrants were largely responsible for the first general strike in North America in 1835, in which workers in the city won the ten-hour workday. The city was a destination for thousands of Irish immigrants fleeing the Great Famine in the 1840s; housing for them was developed south of South Street and later occupied by succeeding immigrants. They established a network of churches and schools and dominated the Catholic clergy for decades. Anti-Irish, anti-Catholic nativist riots erupted in Philadelphia in 1844. The rise in population of the surrounding districts helped lead to the Act of Consolidation of 1854, which extended the city limits from the of Center City to the roughly of Philadelphia County. In the latter half of the century, immigrants from Russia, Eastern Europe and Italy, and African Americans from the southern U.S. settled in the city. Insight Guides: Philadelphia and Surroundings, pages 38–39

Philadelphia was represented by the Washington Grays in the American Civil War. The African-American population of Philadelphia increased from 31,699 to 219,559 between 1880 and 1930." Notes on the historical development of population in West Philadelphia", University of Pennsylvania. Twentieth-century black newcomers were part of the Great Migration out of the rural south to northern and midwestern industrial cities.

File:The Birth of Pennsylvania 1680 cph.3g07157.jpg| The Birth of Pennsylvania, 1680, by Jean Leon Gerome Ferris – , holding paper, and King Charles II File:Treaty of Penn with Indians by Benjamin West.jpg| Penn's Treaty with the Indians by File:Declaration of Independence (1819), by John Trumbull.jpg|'s Declaration of Independence – the Committee of Five presents their draft in Independence Hall, June 28, 1776.John Hazelton, The Historical Value of Trumbull's: Declaration of Independence, Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, volume 31 (Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 1907), 38. File:Philadelphia Presidents house.jpg|President's House – the presidential mansion of George Washington and , 1790–1800 File:Centennial Exhibition, Opening Day.jpg|Opening day ceremonies at the Centennial Exposition at Memorial Hall, 1876 – first official World's fair in the United States

By the 20th century, Philadelphia had an entrenched Republican political machine and a complacent population. Philadelphia: A 300-Year History, pages 535, 537 The first major reform came in 1917 when outrage over the election-year murder of a police officer led to the shrinking of the City Council from two houses to just one. Philadelphia: A 300-Year History, pages 563 – 564 In July 1919, Philadelphia was one of more than 36 industrial cities nationally to suffer a race riot of ethnic whites against blacks during , in post-World War I unrest, as recent immigrants competed with blacks for jobs. In the 1920s, the public flouting of Prohibition laws, , mob violence, and police involvement in illegal activities led to the appointment of Brig. Gen. of the U.S. Marine Corps as director of public safety, but political pressure prevented any long-term success in fighting crime and corruption. Philadelphia: A 300-Year History, pages 578 – 581

In 1940, non-Hispanic whites constituted 86.8% of the city's population. The population peaked at more than two million residents in 1950, then began to decline with the restructuring of industry, which led to the loss of many middle-class union jobs. In addition, suburbanization had enticed many of the more affluent residents to outlying railroad commuting towns and newer housing. The resulting reduction in Philadelphia's tax base and the resources of local government caused the city to struggle through a long period of adjustment, with it approaching bankruptcy by the late 1980s.

Revitalization and of neighborhoods began in the late 1970s and continues into the 21st century, with much of the development occurring in the Center City and University City neighborhoods. After many of the old manufacturers and businesses left Philadelphia or shut down, the city started attracting service businesses and began to market itself more aggressively as a tourist destination. Contemporary glass-and-granite skyscrapers were built in Center City beginning in the 1980s. Historic areas such as Old City and were renovated during the reformist mayoral era of the 1950s through the 1980s, making those areas among the most desirable neighborhoods in Center City. These developments have begun a reversal of the city's population decline between 1950 and 2000 during which it lost about one-quarter of its residents. Insight Guides: Philadelphia and Surroundings, pages 44–45 A Concise History of Philadelphia, page 78 The city eventually began experiencing a growth in its population in 2007, which has continued with gradual yearly increases to the present. "Census: Phila. keeps on growing" (archive). by Dylan Purcell and Karie Simmons. March 14, 2013. Interstate General Media, LLC. Retrieved November 26, 2017. Although Philadelphia is rapidly undergoing , the city actively maintains strategies to minimize displacement of homeowners in gentrifying neighborhoods.


The geographic center of Philadelphia is about 40° 0′ 34″ north latitude and 75° 8′ 0″ west longitude. The 40th parallel north passes through neighborhoods in Northeast Philadelphia, North Philadelphia, and West Philadelphia including . The city encompasses , of which is land and , or 6%, is water. Natural bodies of water include the and rivers, the lakes in Franklin Delano Roosevelt Park, and , Wissahickon, and creeks. The largest artificial body of water is the East Park Reservoir in Fairmount Park.

The lowest point is sea level, while the highest point is in Chestnut Hill, about above sea level on Summit Street near the intersection of Germantown Avenue and (example coordinates near high point: 40.07815 N, 75.20747 W).

Philadelphia is situated on the Fall Line that separates the Atlantic coastal plain from the Piedmont.Railsback, Bruce. " The Fall Line." GEOL 1122: Earth's History of Global Change. University of Georgia Department of Geology. The rapids on the Schuylkill River at East Falls were inundated by the completion of the dam at the Fairmount Water Works." Philadelphia Neighborhoods and Place Names, A–K". Philadelphia Information Locator System.

The city is the seat of its own county. The adjacent counties are Montgomery to the northwest; Bucks to the north and northeast; Burlington County, New Jersey, to the east; Camden County, New Jersey, to the southeast; Gloucester County, New Jersey, to the south; and Delaware County to the southwest.


City planning
Philadelphia's central city was created in the 17th century following the plan by 's surveyor . Center City is structured with long, straight streets running nearly due east–west and north–south, forming a grid pattern between the and rivers that is aligned with their courses. The original city plan was designed to allow for easy travel and to keep residences separated by open space that would help prevent the spread of fire. In keeping with the idea of a "Greene Countrie Towne", and inspired by the many types of trees that grew in the region, Penn named many of the east–west streets for local trees.Laura Turner Igoe, " Trees", The Encyclopedia of Greater Philadelphia; accessed 2021.01.29. Penn planned the creation of five public parks in the city which were renamed in 1824 (new names in parentheses): Centre Square (Penn Square), "Philadelphia City Hall location". The Athenaeum of Philadelphia. Retrieved November 27, 2017. Northeast Square (Franklin Square), Southeast Square (Washington Square), Southwest Square (Rittenhouse Square), and Northwest Square (Logan Circle/Square). Center City had an estimated 183,240 residents , making it the second-most populated downtown area in the United States, after Midtown Manhattan in New York City.

Philadelphia's neighborhoods are divided into large sections—North, Northeast, South, Southwest, West, and Northwest—surrounding Center City, which correspond closely with the city's limits before consolidation in 1854. Each of these large areas contains numerous neighborhoods, some of whose boundaries derive from the boroughs, townships, and other communities that constituted Philadelphia County before their inclusion within the city.

The City Planning Commission, tasked with guiding growth and development of the city, has divided the city into 18 planning districts as part of the Philadelphia2035 physical development plan. Much of the city's 1980 zoning code was overhauled from 2007 to 2012 as part of a joint effort between former mayors John F. Street and . The zoning changes were intended to rectify incorrect zoning maps to facilitate future community development, as the city forecasts an additional 100,000 residents and 40,000 jobs will be added by 2035.

The Philadelphia Housing Authority (PHA) is the largest landlord in Pennsylvania. Established in 1937, the PHA is the nation's fourth-largest housing authority, serving about 81,000 people with affordable housing, while employing 1,400 on a budget of $371 million. The Philadelphia Parking Authority works to ensure adequate parking for city residents, businesses and visitors.

Philadelphia's architectural history dates back to colonial times and includes a wide range of styles. The earliest structures were constructed with , but brick structures were common by 1700. During the 18th century, the was dominated by Georgian architecture, including Independence Hall and Christ Church.

In the first decades of the 19th century, Federal and Greek Revival architecture were the dominant styles produced by Philadelphia architects such as Benjamin Latrobe, William Strickland, , , Thomas Walter, and Samuel Sloan. is considered Philadelphia's greatest architect of the second half of the 19th century. His contemporaries included John McArthur Jr., , , the Wilson Brothers, and . In 1871, construction began on the Second Empire-style Philadelphia City Hall. The Philadelphia Historical Commission was created in 1955 to preserve the cultural and architectural history of the city. The commission maintains the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, adding historic buildings, structures, sites, objects and districts as it sees fit.

In 1932, Philadelphia became home to the first modern International Style skyscraper in the United States, the , designed by George Howe and . The City Hall remained the tallest building in the city until 1987 when One Liberty Place was completed. Numerous glass and granite skyscrapers were built in Center City beginning in the late 1980s. In 2007, the surpassed One Liberty Place to become the city's tallest building. The Comcast Technology Center was completed in 2018, reaching a height of , as the tallest building in the United States outside of and Chicago.

For much of Philadelphia's history, the typical home has been the . The row house was introduced to the United States via Philadelphia in the early 19th century and, for a time, row houses built elsewhere in the United States were known as "Philadelphia rows". A variety of row houses are found throughout the city, from Federal-style continuous blocks in Old City and to Victorian-style homes in North Philadelphia to twin row houses in West Philadelphia. While newer homes have been built recently, much of the housing dates to the 18th, 19th and early 20th centuries, which has created problems such as and vacant lots. Some neighborhoods, including Northern Liberties and , have been rehabilitated through . File:Elfreth's Alley, Philadelphia, 2008.jpg|Elfreth's Alley, "Our nation's oldest residential street", 1702–1836Historical marker on Elfreth's Alley File:Carpenters' Hall, Philadelphia, USA, May 2015.jpg|Carpenters' Hall exhibiting Georgian architecture, 1770–1774 File:Second Bank of the United States with Robert Morris, Jr. statue, Philadelphia.jpg|Second Bank of the United States exhibiting Greek Revival architecture, 1818–1824 File:City hall Philadelphia.jpg|Second Empire-style Philadelphia City Hall, 1871–1901, from South Broad Street File:Thirty St Station.jpg|The of the 30th Street Station, in style, 1927–1933

, the total city parkland, including municipal, state and federal parks within the city limits, amounts to . Philadelphia's largest park is which includes the and encompasses of the total parkland, while the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park contains . Fairmount Park, when combined with Wissahickon Valley Park, is one of the largest contiguous areas in the United States. The two parks, along with the Colonial Revival, Georgian and Federal-style mansions contained in them, have been listed as one entity on the National Register of Historic Places since 1972.

According to the Köppen climate classification, Philadelphia falls under the northern periphery of the humid subtropical climate zone (Köppen Cfa), whereas according to the Trewartha climate classification, the city has a ( Do) limited to the north by the continental climate ( Dc).Trewartha GT, Horn LH (1980) Introduction to climate, 5th edn. McGraw Hill, New York, NY Summers are typically hot and muggy, fall and spring are generally mild, and winter is moderately cold. The plant life hardiness zones are 7a and 7b, representing an average annual extreme minimum temperature between . "USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map". United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved December 6, 2017. Note: high resolution map, may be slow to download.

Snowfall is highly variable with some winters having only light snow while others include major snowstorms. The normal seasonal snowfall averages , with rare snowfalls in November or April, and rarely any sustained snow cover. Seasonal snowfall accumulation has ranged from trace amounts in 1972–73 to in the winter of 2009–10. The city's heaviest single-storm snowfall was which occurred in January 1996.

Precipitation is generally spread throughout the year, with eight to eleven wet days per month, at an average annual rate of , but historically ranging from in 1922 to in 2011. The most rain recorded in one day occurred on July 28, 2013, when fell at Philadelphia International Airport. Philadelphia has a moderately sunny climate with an average of 2,498 hours of sunshine annually, and a percentage of sunshine ranging from 47% in December to 61% in June, July, and August.

The January daily average temperature is , though the temperature frequently rises to during thaws and dips to for 2 or 3 nights in a normal winter. July averages , although heat waves accompanied by high humidity and are frequent, with highs reaching or exceeding on 30 days of the year. The average window for freezing temperatures is November 6 thru April 2, allowing a growing season of 217 days. Early fall and late winter are generally dry with February having the lowest average precipitation at . The dewpoint in the summer averages between .

The highest recorded temperature was on August 7, 1918, but temperatures at or above are not common, with the last occurrence of such a temperature was July 21, 2019. The lowest officially recorded temperature was on February 9, 1934. Temperatures at or below are rare with the last such occurrence being January 19, 1994. The record low maximum is on February 10, 1899, and December 30, 1880, while the record high minimum is on July 23, 2011, and July 24, 2010.

Air quality
Philadelphia County received an grade of F and a 24-hour rating of D in the American Lung Association's 2017 State of the Air report, which analyzed data from 2013 to 2015. The city was ranked 22nd for ozone, 20th for short-term particle pollution, and 11th for year-round particle pollution. According to the same report, the city experienced a significant reduction in high ozone days since 2001—from nearly 50 days per year to fewer than 10—along with fewer days of high particle pollution since 2000—from about 19 days per year to about 3—and an approximate 30% reduction in annual levels of particle pollution since 2000. Five of the ten largest combined statistical areas (CSAs) were ranked higher for ozone: Los Angeles (1st), New York City (9th), (12th), (13th), and San Jose (18th). Many smaller CSAs were also ranked higher for ozone including Sacramento (8th), (10th), (11th), El Paso (16th), and Salt Lake City (20th); however, only two of those same ten CSAs—San Jose and Los Angeles—were ranked higher than Philadelphia for both year-round and short-term particle pollution.

According to the 2020 United States Census Bureau estimate, there were 1,603,797 people residing in Philadelphia, representing a 1.2% increase from the 2019 census. After the 1950 Census, when a record high of 2,071,605 was recorded, the city's population began a long decline. The population dropped to a low of 1,488,710 residents in 2006 before beginning to rise again. Between 2006 and 2017, Philadelphia added 92,153 residents. In 2017, the Census Bureau estimated that the racial composition of the city was 41.3% Black (non-Hispanic), 34.9% White (non-Hispanic), 14.1% Hispanic or Latino, 7.1% Asian, 0.4% Native American, 0.05% Pacific Islander, and 2.8% multiracial.

* 2019 figures are estimates

The 2010 Census redistricting data indicated that the racial makeup of the city was 644,287 (42.2%) Black (non-Hispanic), 562,585 (36.9%) (non-Hispanic), 96,405 (6.3%) (2.0% Chinese, 1.2% , 0.9% Vietnamese, 0.4% , 0.3% Filipino, 0.1% Japanese, and 1.4% other), 6,996 (0.5%) Native Americans, 744 (0.05%) Pacific Islanders, and 43,070 (2.8%) from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 187,611 persons (12.3%); 8.0% Puerto Rican, 1.0% Mexican, 0.3% , and 3.0% other. The racial breakdown of Philadelphia's Hispanic/Latino population was 63,636 (33.9%) White, 17,552 (9.4%) Black, 3,498 (1.9%) Native American, 884 (0.47%) Asian, 287 (0.15%) Pacific Islander, 86,626 (46.2%) from other races, and 15,128 (8.1%) from two or more races. The five largest European ancestries reported in the 2010 Census included (13.0%), Italian (8.3%), (8.2%), (3.9%), and English (3.1%).

The estimated average population density was 11,782 people per square mile (4,549/km) in 2017. In 2010, the Census Bureau reported that 1,468,623 people (96.2% of the population) lived in households, 38,007 (2.5%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 19,376 (1.3%) were institutionalized. In 2013, the city reported having 668,247 total housing units, down slightly from 670,171 housing units in 2010. , 87 percent of housing units were occupied, while 13 percent were vacant, a slight change from 2010 where 89.5 percent of units were occupied, or 599,736 and 10.5 percent were vacant, or 70,435. Of the city's residents, 32 percent reported having no vehicles available while 23 percent had two or more vehicles available, .

In 2010, 24.9 percent of households reported having children under the age of 18 living with them, 28.3 percent were married couples living together and 22.5 percent had a female householder with no husband present, 6.0 percent had a male householder with no wife present, and 43.2 percent were non-families. The city reported 34.1 percent of all households were individuals living alone, while 10.5 percent had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 3.20. In 2013, the percentage of women who gave birth in the previous 12 months who were unmarried was 56 percent. Of Philadelphia's adults, 31 percent were married or lived as a couple, 55 percent were not married, 11 percent were divorced or separated, and 3 percent were widowed.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the median household income in 2013 was $36,836, down 7.9 percent from 2008 when the inflation-adjusted median household income was $40,008 (in 2013 dollars). For comparison, on an inflation-adjusted basis, the median household income among metropolitan areas was $60,482, down 8.2 percent in the same period, and the national median household income was $55,250, down 7.0 percent from 2008. The city's wealth disparity is evident when neighborhoods are compared. Residents in had a 2013 median household income of $93,720, while residents in one of North Philadelphia's districts reported the lowest median household income, $14,185.

More recently, Philadelphia has experienced a large shift toward a younger age profile. In 2000, the city's population pyramid had a largely stationary shape. In 2013, the city took on an expansive pyramid shape, with an increase in the three age groups, 20 to 24, 25 to 29, and 30 to 34. The city's 25- to 29-year-old age group was the city's largest age cohort. According to the 2010 Census, 343,837 (22.5%) were under the age of 18; 203,697 (13.3%) from 18 to 24; 434,385 (28.5%) from 25 to 44; 358,778 (23.5%) from 45 to 64; and 185,309 (12.1%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33.5 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.4 males; while among individuals age 18 and over, for every 100 females, there were 85.7 males. The city had 22,018 births in 2013, down from a peak 23,689 births in 2008. Philadelphia's death rate was at its lowest in at least a half-century, 13,691 deaths in 2013.

Immigration and cultural diversity
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Apart from economic growth, another factor contributing to the population increase is Philadelphia's rising immigration rate. Like the millennial population, Philadelphia's immigrant population is also growing rapidly. According to research by The Pew Charitable Trusts, the city's population had increased by 69% between 2000 and 2016 to constitute nearly 20% of Philadelphia's work force, and had doubled between 1990 and 2017 to constitute 13.8% of the city's total population, with the top five countries of origin being China by a significant margin, followed by the Dominican Republic, , , and .

Irish, Italian, German, , English, Russian, , and French constitute the largest European ethnic groups in the city. Philadelphia has the second-largest Irish and Italian populations in the United States, after New York City. South Philadelphia remains one of the largest neighborhoods in the country and is home to the Italian Market. The Pennsport neighborhood and Gray's Ferry section of South Philadelphia, home to many clubs, are well known as neighborhoods. The Kensington, Port Richmond, and Fishtown neighborhoods have historically been heavily Irish and Polish. Port Richmond is well known in particular as the center of the Polish immigrant and community in Philadelphia, and it remains a common destination for Polish immigrants. Northeast Philadelphia, although known for its Irish and Irish-American population, is also home to a large and Russian population. Mount Airy in Northwest Philadelphia also contains a large Jewish community, while nearby Chestnut Hill is historically known as an Anglo-Saxon Protestant community.

Philadelphia has a significant gay and lesbian population. Philadelphia's , which is near Washington Square, is home to a large concentration of gay and lesbian friendly businesses, restaurants, and bars.

The Black American population in Philadelphia is the third-largest in the country, after New York City and Chicago. West Philadelphia and North Philadelphia are largely African-American neighborhoods, but many are leaving those areas in favor of the Northeast and Southwest sections of Philadelphia. A higher proportion of African-American Muslims reside in Philadelphia than in most other cities in America. West Philadelphia and Southwest Philadelphia are also home to various significant Afro-Caribbean and African immigrant communities.

The Puerto Rican population in Philadelphia is the second-largest after New York City, and the second-fastest growing after Orlando. Eastern North Philadelphia, particularly Fairhill and surrounding areas to the north and east, has one of the highest concentrations of Puerto Ricans outside Puerto Rico, with many large swaths of blocks being close to 100% Puerto Rican. Large Puerto Rican and Dominican populations reside in North Philadelphia and the Northeast. In regard to other Latin American populations in Philadelphia, there are significant and Central American populations in South Philadelphia.

Philadelphia's population originates mainly from China, India, Vietnam, , and the . Over 35,000 Chinese Americans lived in the city in 2015, including a large Fuzhounese population. Center City hosts a growing Chinatown accommodating heavily traveled Chinese-owned bus lines to and from Chinatown, Manhattan in New York City, 95 miles to the north, as Philadelphia is experiencing significant Chinese immigration from New York City. A large Korean community initially settled in the North Philadelphia neighborhood of Olney; however, the primary Koreatown has subsequently shifted northward, straddling the border with the adjacent suburb of Cheltenham in Montgomery County, while also growing in nearby Cherry Hill, New Jersey. South Philadelphia is also home to large Cambodian, Vietnamese, , and Chinese communities. Philadelphia has the fifth largest population among American cities.Overcoming the World Missions Crisis: Thinking Strategically to Reach the World, Russell Penney, page 110, 2001

According to a 2014 study by the Pew Research Center, 68% of the population of the city identified themselves as . Major U.S. metropolitan areas differ in their religious profiles, Pew Research Center Approximately 41% of Christians in the city and area professed attendance at a variety of churches that could be considered , while 26% professed beliefs.

The Protestant Christian community in Philadelphia is dominated by mainline Protestant denominations including the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, United Church of Christ, the Episcopal Church in the United States, Presbyterian Church (USA) and American Baptist Churches USA. One of the most prominent mainline Protestant jurisdictions is the Episcopal Diocese of Pennsylvania. The African Methodist Episcopal Church was established in Philadelphia. Historically, the city has strong connections to the , Unitarian Universalism, and the , all of which continue to be represented in the city. The Quaker Friends General Conference is based in Philadelphia. Evangelical Protestants making up less than 15% of the population were also prevalent. Evangelical Protestant bodies included the Anglican Church in North America, Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod, Presbyterian Church in America, and National Baptist Convention of America.

The Catholic community is primarily served by the Catholic Archdiocese of Philadelphia, the Ukrainian Catholic Archeparchy of Philadelphia, and the Syro-Malankara Catholic Eparchy of the United States of America and Canada, though some independent Catholic churches exist throughout Philadelphia and its suburbs. The Latin Church-based jurisdiction is headquartered in the city, and its see is the Cathedral Basilica of Saints Peter and Paul. The Ukrainian Catholic jurisdiction is also headquartered in Philadelphia, and is seated at the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception.

Less than 1% of Philadelphia's Christians were . The remainder of the Christian demographic is spread among smaller Protestant denominations and the Eastern and Oriental Orthodox among others. The Diocese of Eastern Pennsylvania (Orthodox Church in America) and Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America (Ecumenical Patriarchate) divide the Eastern Orthodox in Philadelphia. The Russian Orthodox St. Andrew's Cathedral is in the city.

The same study says that other religions collectively compose about 8% of the population, including Judaism, , , , and . The remaining 24% claimed .

The Philadelphia metropolitan area's Jewish population was estimated at 206,000 in 2001, which was the sixth largest in the United States at that time. Jewish traders were operating in southeastern Pennsylvania long before . Furthermore, Jews in Philadelphia took a prominent part in the War of Independence. Although the majority of the early Jewish residents were of Portuguese or Spanish descent, some among them had emigrated from Germany and . About the beginning of the 19th century, a number of Jews from the latter countries, finding the services of the Congregation Mickvé Israel unfamiliar to them, resolved to form a new congregation which would use the ritual to which they had been accustomed.

African diasporic religions are practiced in some Latino and Hispanic and Caribbean communities in North and West Philadelphia.

, 79.12% (1,112,441) of Philadelphia residents age 5 and older spoke English at home as a , while 9.72% (136,688) spoke Spanish, 1.64% (23,075) Chinese, 0.89% (12,499) Vietnamese, 0.77% (10,885) Russian, 0.66% (9,240) French, 0.61% (8,639) other Asian languages, 0.58% (8,217) African languages, 0.56% (7,933) Cambodian (Mon-Khmer), and Italian was spoken as a by 0.55% (7,773) of the population over the age of five. In total, 20.88% (293,544) of Philadelphia's population age 5 and older spoke a other than English.

Top publicly traded companies
headquartered in Philadelphia
Source: Fortune

Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in with the headquarters of five Fortune 1000 companies within city limits. , the Philadelphia metropolitan area is estimated to produce a gross metropolitan product (GMP) of $490 billion, an increase from the $445 billion calculated by the Bureau of Economic Analysis for 2017, representing the eighth largest U.S. metropolitan economy.

Philadelphia's economic sectors include financial services, health care, , information technology, trade and transportation, manufacturing, , , and tourism. Financial activities account for the largest economic sector of the metropolitan area, which is also one of the largest and research centers in the United States. Philadelphia's annualized unemployment rate was 7.8% in 2014, down from 10% the previous year. This is higher than the national average of 6.2%. Similarly, the rate of new jobs added to the city's economy lagged behind the national job growth. In 2014, about 8,800 jobs were added to the city's economy. Sectors with the largest number of jobs added were in education and health care, and , and professional and business services. Declines were seen in the city's manufacturing and government sectors.

About 31.9% of the city's population was not in the labor force in 2015, the second highest percentage after Detroit. The city's two largest employers are the federal and city governments. Philadelphia's largest private employer is the University of Pennsylvania followed by the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. A study commissioned by the city's government in 2011 projected 40,000 jobs would be added to the city within 25 years, raising the number of jobs from 675,000 in 2010 to an estimated 715,000 by 2035.

The city is home to the Philadelphia Stock Exchange and the headquarters of cable television and internet provider , Brandywine Realty Trust, insurance companies , , and Independence Blue Cross, food services company , chemical makers and Rohm and Haas, pharmaceutical company , apparel retailer and its subsidiaries including , automotive parts retailer , and stainless steel producer Carpenter Technology Corporation. The headquarters of Boeing Rotorcraft Systems, and its main factory, are in the Philadelphia suburb of Ridley Park, while The Vanguard Group and the US headquarters of Siemens Healthineers are headquartered in suburban Malvern.

Tech and biotech
Philadelphia has emerged as a hub for information technology and biotechnology. Philadelphia and Pennsylvania are attracting new ventures.[11] Accessed April 18, 2019. The Philadelphia metropolitan area, comprising the Delaware Valley, has also become a growing hub for funding.

Philadelphia's history attracts many tourists, with the Independence National Historical Park (which includes the , Independence Hall, and other historic sites) receiving over 5 million visitors in 2016. The city welcomed 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent $6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania.

Trade and transportation
Philadelphia International Airport is undergoing a $900 million infrastructural expansion to increase passenger capacity and augment passenger experience; while the Port of Philadelphia, having experienced the highest percentage growth by tonnage loaded in 2017 among major U.S. seaports, was in the process of doubling its capacity to accommodate super-sized shipping vessels in 2018. Philadelphia's 30th Street Station is the third-busiest rail hub, following Penn Station in and Union Station in Washington, D.C., carrying over 4 million passengers annually.[12] Accessed April 18, 2019.


Primary and secondary education
Education in Philadelphia is provided by many private and public institutions. The School District of Philadelphia runs the city's public schools. The Philadelphia School District is the eighth largest in the United States with 142,266 students in 218 traditional public schools and 86 .

The city's K-12 enrollment in district–run schools dropped from 156,211 students in 2010 to 130,104 students in 2015. During the same time period, the enrollment in charter schools increased from 33,995 students in 2010 to 62,358 students in 2015. This consistent drop in enrollment led the city to close 24 of its public schools in 2013. During the 2014 school year, the city spent an average of $12,570 per pupil, below the average among comparable urban school districts.

Graduation rates among district-run schools, meanwhile, steadily increased in the ten years from 2005. In 2005, Philadelphia had a district graduation rate of 52%. This number increased to 65% in 2014, still below the national and state averages. Scores on the state's standardized test, the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA) trended upward from 2005 to 2011 but subsequently decreased. In 2005, the district-run schools scored an average of 37.4% on math and 35.5% on reading. The city's schools reached their peak scores in 2011 with 59.0% on math and 52.3% on reading. In 2014, the scores dropped significantly to 45.2% on math and 42.0% on reading.

Of the city's public high schools, including charter schools, only four performed above the national average on the (1497 out of 2400) in 2014: Masterman, Central, Girard, and MaST Community Charter School. All other district-run schools were below average.

Higher education
Philadelphia has the third-largest student concentration on the East Coast, with more than 120,000 college and university students enrolled within the city and nearly 300,000 in the metropolitan area. More than 80 colleges, universities, trade, and specialty schools are in the Philadelphia region. One of the founding members of the Association of American Universities is in the city, the University of Pennsylvania, an institution with claims to be the First university in the United States.
(2021). 9780812235159, University of Pennsylvania Press. accessed July 12, 2021

The city's largest school by number of students is Temple University, followed by Drexel University. The University of Pennsylvania, Temple University, Drexel University, and Thomas Jefferson University comprise the city's nationally ranked research universities. Philadelphia is also home to five schools of medicine: Drexel University College of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine, Temple University School of Medicine, and Thomas Jefferson University's Sidney Kimmel Medical College. Hospitals, universities, and higher education research institutions in Philadelphia's four congressional districts received more than $252 million in National Institutes of Health grants in 2015.

Other institutions of higher learning within the city's borders include:

  • Community College of Philadelphia
  • Saint Joseph's University
  • La Salle University
  • Chestnut Hill College
  • Holy Family University
  • University of the Sciences
  • University of the Arts
  • The Art Institute of Philadelphia
  • Moore College of Art and Design
  • Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts
  • Curtis Institute of Music
  • The Restaurant School at Walnut Hill College

Philadelphia is home to many national historical sites that relate to the founding of the United States. Independence National Historical Park is the center of these historical landmarks being one of the country's 22 World Heritage Sites. Independence Hall, where the Declaration of Independence was signed, and the are the city's most famous attractions. Other national historic sites include the homes of Edgar Allan Poe and Thaddeus Kosciuszko, early government buildings like the First and the Second Bank of the United States, , and the Gloria Dei (Old Swedes') Church. Philadelphia alone has 67 National Historic Landmarks, the third most of any city in the country.

Philadelphia's major science museums include the Franklin Institute, which contains the Benjamin Franklin National Memorial; the Academy of Natural Sciences; the Mütter Museum; and the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. History museums include the National Constitution Center, the Museum of the American Revolution, the Philadelphia History Museum, the National Museum of American Jewish History, the African American Museum in Philadelphia, the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, the Masonic Library and Museum of Pennsylvania in the Masonic Temple, and the Eastern State Penitentiary. Philadelphia is home to the United States' first and hospital, as well as , one of America's oldest and largest urban parks, founded in 1855.

The city is home to important archival repositories, including the Library Company of Philadelphia, established in 1731 by Benjamin Franklin, "Library Company of Philadelphia: Overview". The Library Company of Philadelphia. Retrieved March 4, 2018. and the Athenaeum of Philadelphia, founded in 1814. "Athenaeum of Philadelphia: Mission and History" . The Athenaeum of Philadelphia. Retrieved March 4, 2018. The Presbyterian Historical Society is the country's oldest denominational historical society, organized in 1852. "Presbyterian Historical Society: About". The Presbyterian Historical Society. Retrieved March 4, 2018.

The city contains many art museums, such as the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts and the , which holds the largest collection of work by outside France. The city's major art museum, the Philadelphia Museum of Art, is one of the largest art museums in the world. The long flight of to the Art Museum's main entrance became famous after the film (1976).

Areas such as South Street and Old City have a vibrant night life. The Avenue of the Arts in Center City contains many restaurants and theaters, such as the Kimmel Center for the Performing Arts, home of the Philadelphia Orchestra, and the Academy of Music, home of Opera Philadelphia and the Pennsylvania Ballet. The Wilma Theatre and the Philadelphia Theatre Company at the Suzanne Roberts Theatre produce a variety of new plays. "Wilma Theater history". Retrieved March 2, 2018. "Philadelphia Theatre Company at the Suzanne Roberts Theatre". Retrieved March 2, 2018. Several blocks to the east are the Lantern Theater Company at St. Stephens Episcopal Church; "Lantern Theater Company". Retrieved March 2, 2018. and the Walnut Street Theatre, a National Historic Landmark stated to be the oldest and most subscribed-to theatre in the English-speaking world, founded in 1809. "Walnut Street Theatre Historical Marker". Retrieved May 4, 2019. In May 2019, the Walnut Street Theatre announced a major expansion to begin in 2020.

Philadelphia has more than any other American city. In 1872, the Association for Public Art (formerly the Fairmount Park Art Association) was created as the first private association in the United States dedicated to integrating public art and . In 1959, lobbying by the Artists Equity Association helped create the Percent for Art , the first for a U.S. city. The program, which has funded more than 200 pieces of public art, is administered by the Philadelphia Office of Arts and Culture, the city's art agency. The city also has more murals than any other American city, due to the 1984 creation of the Department of Recreation's Mural Arts Program, which seeks to beautify neighborhoods and provide an outlet for artists. The program has funded more than 2,800 by professional, staff and volunteer artists and educated more than 20,000 youth in underserved neighborhoods throughout Philadelphia.

The city is home to a number of art organizations including the regional art advocacy nonprofit Philadelphia Tri-State Artists Equity, the Philadelphia Sketch Club, one of the country's oldest artists' clubs, and The Plastic Club, started by women excluded from the Sketch Club. Many Old City art galleries stay open late on the First Friday event of each month. Annual events include film festivals and parades, the most famous being the Thanksgiving Day Parade and the on New Year's Day.

The Philadelphia Orchestra is generally considered one of the top five orchestras in the United States. The orchestra performs at the Kimmel Center "The Kimmel Center: Home of The Philadelphia Orchestra" . The Philadelphia Orchestra Association. Retrieved April 13, 2018. and has a summer concert series at the Mann Center for the Performing Arts. "Summer Home of The Philadelphia Orchestra: Mann Center for the Performing Arts" . The Philadelphia Orchestra Association. Retrieved April 13, 2018. Opera Philadelphia performs at the nation's oldest continually operating opera house—the Academy of Music. The Philadelphia Boys Choir & Chorale has performed its music all over the world. The plays orchestral versions of popular , , , and songs at the Kimmel Center and other venues within the mid-Atlantic region. The Curtis Institute of Music is one of the world's premier and among the most selective institutes of higher education in the United States.

Philadelphia has played a prominent role in the music of the United States. The culture of American popular music has been influenced by significant contributions of Philadelphia area musicians and producers, in both the recording and broadcasting industries. In 1952, the teen dance party program called Bandstand premiered on local television, hosted by Bob Horn. The show was renamed American Bandstand in 1957 when it began national syndication on ABC, hosted by and produced in Philadelphia until 1964 when it moved to Los Angeles.Rodney Buxton "American Bandstand: U.S. Music Program". Museum of Broadcast Communications. Retrieved April 9, 2018. Promoters marketed youthful musical artists known as to appeal to the young audience. Philadelphia-born singers such as , , Eddie Fisher, , and , along with South Philly-raised , topped the music charts, establishing a clean-cut rock and roll image.

Philly soul music of the late 1960s–1970s is a highly produced version of which led to later forms of popular music such as and urban contemporary rhythm and blues. "R&B » Soul » Philly Soul". Retrieved March 2, 2018. On July 13, 1985, John F. Kennedy Stadium was the American venue for the concert. "Live Aid 1985: A day of magic". CNN. Retrieved March 2, 2018. The city also hosted the Live 8 concert, which attracted about 700,000 people to the Benjamin Franklin Parkway on July 2, 2005. Famous rock and pop musicians from Philadelphia or its suburbs include Bill Haley & His Comets, and , Hall & Oates, , , Cinderella, and Pink. Local hip-hop artists include , DJ Jazzy Jeff & The Fresh Prince, Lil Uzi Vert, and his rap collective State Property, , , and .

The city is known for its hoagies, stromboli, roast pork sandwich, , soft pretzels, , Irish potato candy, , and the sandwich which was developed by Italian immigrants. The Philadelphia area has many establishments that serve cheesesteaks, including restaurants, , and pizza parlors. "Top 10 Spots for Authentic Philly Cheesesteaks". Retrieved March 5, 2018. "The Best Cheesesteaks in Philadelphia". Retrieved March 5, 2018. "Find Philadelphia cheesesteak shops near you and order online for free". Retrieved March 5, 2018. The originator of the thinly-sliced steak sandwich in the 1930s, initially without cheese, is Pat's King of Steaks, which faces its rival Geno's Steaks, founded in 1966, "About us: Geno's Steaks". Retrieved March 4, 2018. across the intersection of 9th Street and Passyunk Avenue in the Italian Market of South Philadelphia. "Pat's King Of Steaks". Retrieved March 4, 2018.

McGillin's Olde Ale House, opened in 1860 on Drury Street in Center City, is the oldest continuously operated tavern in the city. The is a replica of a historic 18th-century building first opened in 1773, demolished in 1854 after a fire, and rebuilt in 1975 on the same site as part of Independence National Historical Park. "City Tavern Timeline". Retrieved March 4, 2018. The tavern offers authentic 18th-century recipes, served in seven period dining rooms, three wine cellar rooms and an outdoor garden. "City Tavern: Private Affairs". Retrieved March 4, 2018.

The Reading Terminal Market is a historic founded in 1893 in the building, a designated National Historic Landmark. The enclosed market is one of the oldest and largest markets in the country, hosting over a hundred merchants offering Pennsylvania Dutch specialties, and meat, locally grown groceries, and specialty and ethnic foods.

The traditional Philadelphia accent is considered by some to be the most distinctive accent in North America. New York Times Sunday Review, Loose Ends "The Sound of Philadelphia Fades Out" Daniel Nester March 1, 2014 The Philadelphia dialect, which is spread throughout the and , is part of a larger Mid-Atlantic American English family, a designation that also includes the Baltimore dialect. Additionally, it shares many similarities with the New York accent. Owing to over a century of linguistic data collected by researchers at the University of Pennsylvania under sociolinguist , the Philadelphia dialect has been one of the best-studied forms of . The accent is especially found within the Irish American and Italian American working-class neighborhoods. Philadelphia also has its own unique collection of and slang terms.

Philadelphia's first professional sports team was baseball's Athletics, organized in 1860.Jordan, David M (1999). The Athletics of Philadelphia: Connie Mack's White Elephants, 1901–1954. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Co. The Athletics were initially an amateur league team that turned professional in 1871, and then became a founding team of the current in 1876. "Athletics (Philadelphia) (1871–1876)". Retrieved March 6, 2018. The city is one of 13 U.S. cities to have teams in all four major league sports: the Philadelphia Phillies in the of Major League Baseball, the Philadelphia Eagles of the National Football League, the Philadelphia Flyers of the National Hockey League, and the Philadelphia 76ers of the National Basketball Association. The Phillies, formed in 1883 as the Quakers and renamed in 1884,
(2021). 9780761139430, Workman.
are the oldest team continuously playing under the same name in the same city in the history of American professional sports.

The Philadelphia metro area is also home to the Philadelphia Union of Major League Soccer. The Union began playing their home games in 2010 at Park, a soccer-specific stadium in Chester, Pennsylvania. The stadium's name was changed to Stadium in 2016, and to in 2020.

Philadelphia was the second of eight American cities to have won titles in all four major leagues (MLB, NFL, NHL and NBA), and also has a title in soccer (from the now-defunct North American Soccer League in the 1970s). The city's professional teams and their fans endured 25 years without a championship, from the 76ers 1983 NBA Finals win "1983 NBA Finals: Lakers vs. 76ers". Retrieved March 6, 2018. until the Phillies 2008 World Series win. "2008 World Series: Philadelphia Phillies over Tampa Bay Rays (4–1)". Retrieved March 6, 2018. The lack of championships was sometimes attributed in jest to the Curse of Billy Penn after One Liberty Place became the first building to surpass the height of the statue on top of City Hall's tower in 1987. After nine years passed without another championship, the Eagles won their first Super Bowl following the 2017 season. In 2004, placed Philadelphia second on its list of The Fifteen Most Tortured Sports Cities.Sal Paolantonio. "The 15 Most Tortured Sports Cities". ESPN Internet Ventures. Retrieved March 5, 2018. Fans of the Eagles and Phillies were singled out as the worst fans in the country by GQ magazine in 2011, which used the subtitle of "Meanest Fans in America" to summarize incidents of drunken behavior and a history of .Adam Winer (March 17, 2011). "The Worst Sports Fans in America". Retrieved March 5, 2018.

Major professional sports teams that originated in Philadelphia but which later moved to other cities include the Golden State Warriors basketball team—in Philadelphia from 1946 to 1962—and the Oakland Athletics baseball team—originally the Philadelphia Athletics from 1901 to 1954 (a different Athletics team than the one mentioned above).

(2021). 9780975441930, B B& A Publishers. .

Philadelphia is home to professional, semi-professional, and elite amateur teams in , (Philadelphia Fight), and . Major running events in the city include the (track and field), the Philadelphia Marathon, and the Broad Street Run. The Philadelphia International Cycling Classic was held annually from 1985 to 2016, but not in 2017 due to insufficient sponsorship. "The Philadelphia International Cycling Classic Cancels 2017 Race" (archive). Retrieved March 6, 2018. The Collegiate Rugby Championship is played every June at Talen Energy Stadium in Chester, Pennsylvania. "Penn Mutual Collegiate Rugby Championship" . Retrieved March 6, 2018.

Rowing has been popular in Philadelphia since the 18th century. is a symbol of Philadelphia's rich rowing history, and each Big Five member has its own boathouse. Philadelphia hosts numerous local and collegiate rowing clubs and competitions, including the annual Dad Vail Regatta, which is the largest intercollegiate rowing event in North America with more than 100 U.S and Canadian colleges and universities participating; the annual , which is billed as the world's oldest and largest rowing event for high school students;Staff (May. 13, 2007). "Stotesbury expecting record field" (archive). Retrieved March 6, 2018. and the Head of the Schuylkill Regatta. The regattas are held on the and organized by the , an association of area rowing clubs that has produced numerous Olympic rowers.

The Philadelphia Spinners were a professional ultimate team in Major League Ultimate (MLU) until 2016. The Spinners were one of the original eight teams of the American Ultimate Disc League (AUDL) that began in 2012. They played at and won the inaugural AUDL championship and the final MLU championship in 2016.Charlie Eisenhood (December 8, 2016). "A Philly Talent Skirmish Highlights Waning Battle Between AUDL, MLU". Retrieved March 6, 2018. The MLU was suspended indefinitely by its investors in December 2016.Charlie Eisenhood (December 21, 2016). "Major League Ultimate Suspends Operations: The league's investors pulled funding". Retrieved March 6, 2018. , the Philadelphia Phoenix continue to play in the AUDL. "Philadelphia Phoenix history". Retrieved March 6, 2018.

Philadelphia is home to the Philadelphia Big 5, a group of five NCAA Division I college basketball programs. The Big 5 are La Salle, Penn, Saint Joseph's, Temple, and Villanova universities. "History: A Family of Philadelphia Rivals". Philadelphia Big 5. Retrieved April 9, 2018. The sixth NCAA Division I school in Philadelphia is Drexel University. Villanova won the 2016Mike DeCourcy (April 5, 2016). "Villanova beating UNC was the greatest NCAA championship game ever, period". Retrieved March 6, 2018. and the 2018 championship of the NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament.

Law and government
From a governmental perspective, Philadelphia County is a , as all county functions were assumed by the city in 1952. The city has been coterminous with the county since 1854.

Philadelphia's 1952 Charter was written by the City Charter Commission, which was created by the Pennsylvania General Assembly in an act of April 21, 1949, and a city ordinance of June 15, 1949. The existing received a proposed draft on February 14, 1951, and the electors approved it in an election held April 17, 1951. The first elections under the new Home Rule Charter were held in November 1951, and the newly elected officials took office in January 1952.

The city uses the strong-mayor version of the mayor–council form of government, which is led by one mayor in whom executive authority is vested. The mayor has the authority to appoint and dismiss members of all boards and commissions without the approval of the city council. Elected , the mayor is limited to two consecutive four-year terms, but can run for the position again after an intervening term.

Philadelphia County is coterminous with the First Judicial District of Pennsylvania. The Philadelphia County Court of Common Pleas is the of general jurisdiction for the city, hearing -level criminal cases and civil suits above the minimum jurisdictional limit of $10,000. The court also has appellate jurisdiction over rulings from the Municipal and Traffic Courts, and some administrative agencies and boards. The trial division has 70 commissioned judges elected by the voters, along with about one thousand other employees. "Trial Division". First Judicial District of Pennsylvania. Retrieved February 6, 2018. The court also has a family division with 25 judges "Family Division". First Judicial District of Pennsylvania. Retrieved February 6, 2018. and an orphans' court with three judges. "Orphans' Court". First Judicial District of Pennsylvania. Retrieved February 6, 2018.

, the city's District Attorney is , a Democrat.Chris Brennan & Aubrey Whelan (November 7, 2017). "Larry Krasner wins race for Philly DA". Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved February 6, 2018. The last Republican to hold the office is Ronald D. Castille, who left in 1991 and later served as the Chief Justice of the Pennsylvania Supreme Court from 2008 to 2014.Peter Hall (January 10, 2015). "Retiring Chief Justice Castille says he kept faith in fellow jurists". The Morning Call. Retrieved February 6, 2018.

The Philadelphia Municipal Court handles traffic cases, misdemeanor and felony criminal cases with maximum incarceration of five years, and civil cases involving $12,000 or less ($15,000 in real estate and school tax cases), and all landlord-tenant disputes. The municipal court has 27 judges elected by the voters.

Pennsylvania's three also have sittings in Philadelphia. The Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, the court of last resort in the state, regularly hears arguments in Philadelphia City Hall. "Courts>Supreme Court>Calendar". The Unified Judicial System of Pennsylvania. Retrieved February 6, 2018. The Superior Court of Pennsylvania and the Commonwealth Court of Pennsylvania also sit in Philadelphia several times a year. "Courts>Superior Court>Calendar". The Unified Judicial System of Pennsylvania. Retrieved February 6, 2018. "Courts>Commonwealth Court>Calendar". The Unified Judicial System of Pennsylvania. Retrieved February 6, 2018. Judges for these courts are elected at large. "How Judges Are Elected". The Unified Judicial System of Pennsylvania. Retrieved February 6, 2018. The state Supreme Court and Superior Court have deputy offices in Philadelphia. "Supreme Court Prothonotary's Addresses". The Unified Judicial System of Pennsylvania. Retrieved February 6, 2018. "Superior Court Prothonotary's Addresses". The Unified Judicial System of Pennsylvania. Retrieved February 6, 2018.

Additionally, Philadelphia is home to the federal United States District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania and the Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit, both of which are housed in the James A. Byrne United States Courthouse. "Court Info » Court Locations – Philadelphia". United States District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. Retrieved February 6, 2018. "About the Court » Court Location – Philadelphia". United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit. Retrieved February 6, 2018.

The current mayor is who won the election in November 2015. Kenney's predecessor was who had served two terms from 2009 to January 2016. Kenney is a member of the Democratic Party as all Philadelphia mayors have been since 1952. Philadelphia City Council is the legislative branch which consists of ten council members representing individual districts and seven members elected , all of whom are elected to four-year terms. "The Philadelphia Code Philadelphia Home Rule Charter Article II Legislative Branch The Council – Its Election, Organization, Powers and Duties Chapter 1 The Council § 2–100. Number, Terms and Salaries of Councilmen". American Legal Publishing Corp. Retrieved February 28, 2018. Democrats are currently the majority and hold 14 seats including nine of the ten districts and five at-large seats. Republicans hold two seats, one at-large seats and the Northeast-based Tenth District, while Working Families Party holds one at-large seat. The current council president is Darrell L. Clarke. "Council Members". The Council of the City of Philadelphia. Retrieved February 28, 2018.

As of December 31, 2016, there were 1,102,620 registered voters in Philadelphia. Registered voters constitute 70.3% of the total population.

  • Democratic: 853,140 (77.4%)
  • Republican: 125,530 (11.4%)
  • Other parties and unaffiliated: 123,950 (11.2%)

Philadelphia was a bastion of the Republican Party from the American Civil War until the mid-1930s.Keels, Thomas H. (2016). "Contractor Bosses (1880s to 1930s)". The Encyclopedia of Greater Philadelphia. Retrieved March 1, 2018. "Long before 2016 craziness, there was Philadelphia 1935". The Philadelphia Inquirer. September 25, 2016. Retrieved March 1, 2018. The city hosted the first Republican National Convention in 1856. "The Birth Of The Republican Party". Republican Views. August 29, 2015. Retrieved March 1, 2018. Democratic registrations increased after the ; however, the city was not carried by Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt in his landslide victory of 1932 as Pennsylvania was one of only six states won by Republican . Voter turnout surged from 600,000 in 1932 to nearly 900,000 in 1936 and Roosevelt carried Philadelphia with over 60% of the vote. The city has voted Democratic in every presidential election since 1936. In 2008, Democrat drew 83% of the city's vote. Obama's win was even greater in 2012, capturing 85% of the vote. In 2016, Democrat won 82% of the vote.

As a result of the declining population in the city and state, Philadelphia has only three congressional districts of the 18 districts in Pennsylvania, based on the 2010 Census apportionment: "Pennsylvania is currently represented by 18 individuals in the 435-member United States House of Representatives. Three districts cover parts of Philadelphia." . Committee of Seventy. Retrieved March 1, 2018. the 2nd district, represented by ; the 3rd, represented by Dwight Evans; and the 5th, represented by Mary Gay Scanlon. "Congress / Members of Congress / Pennsylvania". Civic Impulse, LLC. Retrieved March 1, 2018. All three representatives are Democrats though Republicans still have some support in the city, primarily in the Northeast. "Councilman Brian J. O’Neill District 10 Minority Leader". The Council of the City of Philadelphia. Retrieved February 28, 2018. Sam Katz ran competitive mayoral races as the Republican nominee in 1999 and 2003, losing to Democrat John Street both times.Clines, Francis X. (November 4, 1999). "Democrat Wins in a Squeaker Election for Mayor of Philadelphia". The New York Times. Retrieved February 28, 2018.Clemetson, Lynette (November 5, 2003). "Philadelphia Easily Gives Second Term to Its Mayor". The New York Times. Retrieved February 28, 2018.

Pennsylvania's longest-serving Senator, , was an of the University of Pennsylvania who opened his first law practice in Philadelphia. "Specter, Arlen, (1930–2012)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved March 1, 2018. Specter served as a Republican from 1981 and as a Democrat from 2009, losing that party's primary in 2010 and leaving office in January 2011.Toeplitz, Shira (May 18, 2010). "The admiral sinks Arlen Specter". Politico. Retrieved March 1, 2018. He had also been assistant counsel on the Warren Commission in 1964 and the city's district attorney from 1966 to 1974.

Philadelphia has hosted various national conventions, including in 1848 (Whig), 1856 (Republican), 1872 (Republican), 1900 (Republican), 1936 (Democratic), 1940 (Republican), 1948 (Republican), 1948 (Progressive), 2000 (Republican), and 2016 (Democratic). Philadelphia has been home to one vice president, George M. Dallas, and one Civil War general, George B. McClellan, who won his party's nomination for president but lost in the general election to in 1864. "Historical Election Results: Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996". National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved March 1, 2018. In May 2019, former U.S. Vice President chose Philadelphia to be his 2020 U.S. presidential campaign headquarters.

Environmental policy
“Green Cities, Clean Water" is an environmental policy initiative based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, that has shown promising results in mitigating the effects of climate change. The researchers on the policy have stated that despite such promising plans of green infrastructure building, "the city is forecasted to grow warmer, wetter, and more urbanized over the century, runoff and local temperatures will increase on average throughout the city". Even though landcover predictive models on the effects of the policy initiative have indicated that green infrastructure could be useful at decreasing the amount of runoff in the city over time, the city government would have to expand its current plans and "consider the cobenefit of climate change adaptation when planning new projects[ in limiting the scope of city-wide temperature increase.

Public safety

Police and law enforcement
According to a 2015 report by the Pew Charitable Trusts, the police districts with the highest rates of violent crime were Frankford (15th district) and Kensington (24th district) in the Near Northeast, and districts to the North (22nd, 25th, and 35th districts), West (19th district) and Southwest (12th district) of Center City. Each of those seven districts recorded more than a thousand violent crimes in 2014. The lowest rates of violent crime occurred in Center City, South Philadelphia, the Far Northeast, and Roxborough districts, the latter of which includes Manayunk.

Philadelphia had 525 murders in 1990, a rate of 31.5 per 100,000. An average of about 400 murders occurred each year for most of the 1990s. The murder count dropped in 2002 to 288, then rose to 406 by 2006, before dropping slightly to 392 in 2007. A few years later, Philadelphia began to see a rapid decline in homicides and violent crime. In 2013, the city had 246 murders, which is a decrease of nearly 40% since 2006. In 2014, 248 homicides were committed. The homicide rate rose to 280 in 2015, then fell slightly to 277 in 2016, before rising again to 317 in 2017.

In 2006, Philadelphia's homicide rate of 27.7 per 100,000 people was the highest of the country's 10 most populous cities. In 2012, Philadelphia had the fourth-highest homicide rate among the country's most populous cities. The rate dropped to 16 homicides per 100,000 residents by 2014 placing Philadelphia as the sixth-highest city in the country.

The number of shootings in the city has declined significantly since the early years of the 21st century. Shooting incidents peaked at 1,857 in 2006 before declining nearly 44 percent to 1,047 shootings in 2014. Major crimes have decreased gradually since a peak in 2006 when 85,498 major crimes were reported. The number of reported major crimes fell 11 percent in three years to 68,815 occurrences in 2014. , which include homicide, rape, aggravated assault, and robbery, decreased 14 percent in three years to 15,771 occurrences in 2014.

Philadelphia was ranked as the 76th most dangerous city in a 2018 report based on FBI data from 2016 for the rate of violent crimes per 1,000 residents in American cities with 25,000 or more people. The latest four years of reports indicate a steady reduction in violent crime as the city placed 67th in the 2017 report, Https://" target="_blank" rel="nofollow"> "2017: Top 100 Most Dangerous Cities in the U.S." (archive). Retrieved March 5, 2018. 65th in 2016, "2016: Top 100 Most Dangerous Cities in the U.S." (archive). Retrieved March 5, 2018. and 54th in 2015. "2015: Top 100 Most Dangerous Cities in the U.S." (archive). Retrieved March 5, 2018.

In 2014, Philadelphia enacted an ordinance decriminalizing the possession of less than 30 grams of marijuana or 8 grams of hashish; the ordinance gave police officers the discretion to treat possession of these amounts as a civil infraction punishable by a $25 ticket, rather than a crime. Philadelphia was at the time the largest city to decriminalize the possession of marijuana. From 2013 to 2018, marijuana arrests in the city dropped by more than 85%. The purchase or sale of marijuana remains a criminal offense in Philadelphia.

The Philadelphia Fire Department provides and emergency medical services (EMS). The department's official mission is to protect public safety by quick and professional response to emergencies and the promotion of sound emergency prevention measures. This mandate encompasses all traditional firefighting functions, including fire suppression, with 60 engine companies and 30 ladder companies as well as specialty and support units deployed throughout the city; specialized firefighting units for Philadelphia International Airport and the Port of Philadelphia; investigations conducted by the 's office to determine the origins of fires and develop preventive strategies; programs to educate the public; and support services including research and planning, management of the fire communications center within the city's 911 system, and operation of the Philadelphia Fire Academy.


Philadelphia's two major are The Philadelphia Inquirer, first published in 1829—the third-oldest surviving daily newspaper in the country—and the Philadelphia Daily News, first published in 1925. The Daily News has been published as an edition of the Inquirer since 2009. Recent owners of the Inquirer and Daily News have included , The McClatchy Company, and Philadelphia Media Holdings, with the latter organization declaring bankruptcy in 2010. After two years of financial struggle, the newspapers were sold to Interstate General Media in 2012. The two newspapers had a combined daily circulation of 306,831 and a Sunday circulation of 477,313 —the eighteenth largest circulation in the country—while the website of the newspapers,, Philadelphia Media Network (Digital), LLC. Retrieved December 29, 2017. was ranked thirteenth in popularity among online U.S. newspapers by for the same year.

Smaller publications include the Philadelphia Tribune published five days each week for the African-American community; Philadelphia Tribune. Retrieved December 29, 2017. Philadelphia magazine, a monthly regional magazine; Philadelphia magazine. Retrieved December 29, 2017. Philadelphia Weekly, a weekly alternative newspaper; Philadelphia Weekly. Retrieved December 29, 2017. Philadelphia Gay News, a weekly newspaper for the community; Philadelphia Gay News . Retrieved December 29, 2017. The Jewish Exponent, a weekly newspaper for the Jewish community; The Jewish Exponent. Retrieved December 29, 2017. Al Día, a weekly newspaper for the community; Al Día. Retrieved December 29, 2017. and Philadelphia Metro, a free daily newspaper. Philadelphia Metro. Retrieved December 29, 2017.

Student-run newspapers include the University of Pennsylvania's The Daily Pennsylvanian, The Daily Pennsylvanian. Retrieved December 29, 2017. Temple University's The Temple News, The Temple News. Retrieved December 29, 2017. and Drexel University's The Triangle. The Triangle. Retrieved December 29, 2017.

The first experimental radio license was issued in Philadelphia in August 1912 to St. Joseph's College. The first commercial radio stations began broadcasting in 1922: first WIP, then owned by department store, followed by , then owned by Strawbridge & Clothier department store, and WOO, a defunct station owned by Wanamaker's department store, as well as and WDAS.

, the FCC lists 28 and 11 am stations for Philadelphia. "FM Query Results" ( Https://" target="_blank" rel="nofollow"> archive). FCC. Retrieved January 14, 2018. "AM Query Results" ( Https://" target="_blank" rel="nofollow"> archive). FCC. Retrieved January 14, 2018. As of December 2017, the ten highest-rated stations in Philadelphia were adult contemporary (101.1), (94.1), (102.9), urban adult contemporary (105.3), (98.1), album-oriented rock (93.3), (92.5), KYW-AM (1060), (90.9), and urban adult contemporary (100.3). "#9 Philadelphia PA" ( Https://" target="_blank" rel="nofollow"> archive). Radio Online. Retrieved January 15, 2018.Venta, Lance (October 6, 2016). "WRNB Drops Old School 100.3 Branding ". RadioBB Networks. Retrieved January 15, 2018. "...the station’s playlist had shifted back towards Urban AC." Philadelphia is served by three non-commercial public radio stations: WHYY-FM (), "WHYY Radio & Podcasts" WHYY Inc. Retrieved January 18, 2018. (classical and jazz), "WRTI 90.1 Your Classical and Jazz Source" WRTI-FM / Temple University. Retrieved January 18, 2018. and (adult alternative music). "WXPN 88.5 FM :: Public Radio from the University of Pennsylvania". WXPN-FM / The Trustees of The University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved January 18, 2018.

In the 1930s, the experimental station , owned by , became the first television station in Philadelphia. The station became 's first affiliate in 1939, and later became (currently a affiliate). , WFIL-TV, and were all founded by the 1960s. In 1952, WFIL (renamed ) premiered the television show Bandstand, which later became the nationally broadcast American Bandstand hosted by .
(1999). 9780316633796, Little, Brown and Company. .

Each commercial network has an affiliate, and call letters have been replaced by corporate branding for promotional purposes: , , , , , , , , and . The region is served also by public broadcasting stations WPPT-TV (Philadelphia), (Wilmington, Delaware and Philadelphia), (Lehigh Valley), and (New Jersey).

Philadelphia has owned-and-operated stations for all five major English-language broadcast networks: , , ABC – , Fox – , and . The major Spanish-language networks are , UniMás – , and .

, the city is the nation's fourth-largest consumer in , as ranked by the Nielsen Media Research firm, with nearly 2.9 million TV households.


Philadelphia is served by the Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority () which operates buses, trains, (subway and ), , and (electric buses) throughout Philadelphia, the four Pennsylvania suburban counties of Bucks, Chester, Delaware, and Montgomery, in addition to service to Mercer County, New Jersey (Trenton) and New Castle County, Delaware (Wilmington and Newark, Delaware). "Clickable Regional Rail & Rail Transit Map". SEPTA. Retrieved January 29, 2018. The city's subway system consists of two routes: the subway section of the Market–Frankford Line running east–west under Market Street which opened in 1905 to the west and 1908 to the east of City Hall, and the Broad Street Line running north–south beneath Broad Street which opened in stages from 1928 to 1938. "Renovations to City Hall and 15th Street Stations History". SEPTA. Retrieved January 29, 2018.

Beginning in the 1980s, large sections of the SEPTA Regional Rail service to the far suburbs of Philadelphia were discontinued due to a lack of funding for equipment and infrastructure maintenance.

Philadelphia's 30th Street Station is a major railroad station on Amtrak's Northeast Corridor with 4.4 million passengers in 2017 making it the third-busiest station in the country after New York City's Pennsylvania Station and Washington's Union Station. 30th Street Station offers access to Amtrak, "Amtrak: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 30th Street Station". Amtrak/National Railroad Passenger Corporation. Retrieved January 29, 2018. SEPTA, "Connecting Transit Services". SEPTA. Retrieved January 29, 2018. and lines. "NJ Transit: Philadelphia 30th Street". NJ Transit. Retrieved January 29, 2018. Over 12 million SEPTA and NJ Transit rail commuters use the station each year, and more than 100,000 people on an average weekday.

The provides rapid transit service to Camden, Collingswood, Westmont, Haddonfield, Woodcrest (Cherry Hill), Ashland (Voorhees), and Lindenwold, New Jersey, from stations on Locust Street between 16th and 15th, 13th and 12th, and 10th and 9th Streets, and on Market Street at 8th Street. "PATCO Maps & Stations". Port Authority Transit Corporation. Retrieved January 29, 2018.

Two airports serve Philadelphia: the Philadelphia International Airport (PHL) is south-southwest of Center City on the boundary with Delaware County, providing scheduled domestic and international air service, "Philadelphia International Airport: About Us" . Philadelphia International Airport. Retrieved January 29, 2018. while Northeast Philadelphia Airport (PNE) is a in Northeast Philadelphia serving general and corporate aviation. "Northeast Philadelphia Airport" . Philadelphia International Airport. Retrieved January 29, 2018. Philadelphia International Airport is among the busiest airports in the world measured by traffic movements (i.e., takeoffs and landings). More than 30 million passengers pass through the airport annually on 25 airlines, including all major domestic carriers. The airport has nearly 500 daily departures to more than 120 destinations worldwide. SEPTA's Airport Regional Rail Line provides direct service between Center City railroad stations and Philadelphia International Airport. "SEPTA Airport Line Regional Rail Schedule". SEPTA. Retrieved January 29, 2018.

planned Philadelphia with numbered streets traversing north and south, and streets named for trees, such as Chestnut, Walnut, and Mulberry, traversing east and west. The two main streets were named Broad Street (the north–south , since designated Pennsylvania Route 611) and High Street (the east–west artery, since renamed Market Street) converging at Centre Square which later became the site of City Hall.

Interstate 95 (the Delaware Expressway) traverses the southern and eastern edges of the city along the as the main north–south controlled-access highway, connecting Philadelphia with Newark, New Jersey and New York City to the north and with and Washington, D.C. southward. The city is also served by Interstate 76 (the Schuylkill Expressway), which runs along the , intersecting the Pennsylvania Turnpike at King of Prussia and providing access to Harrisburg and points west. Interstate 676 (the Vine Street Expressway) links I-95 and I-76 through Center City by running below street level between the eastbound and westbound lanes of Vine Street. Entrance and exit ramps for the Benjamin Franklin Bridge are near the eastern end of the expressway, just west of the I-95 interchange. "OpenStreetMap". Retrieved January 29, 2018.

The Roosevelt Boulevard and Expressway (U.S. 1) connect Northeast Philadelphia with Center City via I-76 through . Woodhaven Road (Route 63) and Cottman Avenue (Route 73) serve the neighborhoods of Northeast Philadelphia, running between I-95 and the Roosevelt Boulevard. The Fort Washington Expressway (Route 309) extends north from the city's northern border, serving Montgomery County and Bucks County. U.S. Route 30 (Lancaster Avenue) extends westward from West Philadelphia to Lancaster.

Interstate 476 (locally referred to as the Blue Route) traverses Delaware County, bypassing the city to the west and serving the city's western suburbs, as well as providing a link to Allentown and points north. Interstate 276 (the Pennsylvania Turnpike's Delaware River extension) acts as a bypass and commuter route to the north of the city as well as a link to the New Jersey Turnpike and New York City.

The Delaware River Port Authority operates four bridges in the Philadelphia area across the Delaware River to : the Walt Whitman Bridge (I-76), the Benjamin Franklin Bridge (I-676 and U.S. 30), the Betsy Ross Bridge (New Jersey Route 90), and the Commodore Barry Bridge (U.S. 322 in Delaware County, south of the city). "Delaware River Port Authority: Our Bridges". Delaware River Port Authority. Retrieved January 29, 2018. The Burlington County Bridge Commission maintains two bridges across the Delaware River: the Tacony–Palmyra Bridge which connects PA Route 73 in the Tacony section of Northeast Philadelphia with New Jersey Route 73 in Palmyra, Burlington County, and the Burlington–Bristol Bridge which connects NJ Route 413/U.S. Route 130 in Burlington, New Jersey with PA Route 413/U.S. 13 in Bristol Township, north of Philadelphia. "Burlington County Bridge Commission: About Our Bridges". Burlington County Bridge Commission. Retrieved January 29, 2018.

Bus service
Philadelphia is a hub for . The Greyhound terminal is at 1001 Filbert Street (at 10th Street) in Center City, southeast of the Pennsylvania Convention Center and south of Chinatown. "Philadelphia Bus Station". Greyhound. Retrieved January 29, 2018. Several other bus operators provide service at the Greyhound terminal including Fullington Trailways, "Trailways: Visit Philadelphia, PA". Retrieved January 29, 2018. , "Martz Group: Locations (enter Philadelphia, PA)". Retrieved January 29, 2018. Peter Pan Bus Lines, "Peter Pan: Philadelphia, PA Station". Retrieved January 29, 2018. and NJ Transit buses. "NJ Transit: South Jersey to Philly (Market Street, Greyhound Bus Terminal and on weekdays at 30th Street Station)" . Retrieved January 29, 2018.

Other intercity bus services include Megabus with stops at 30th Street Station and the visitor center for Independence Hall, "Megabus Stops: Philadelphia, PA" . Retrieved January 29, 2018. (operated by Greyhound) at 30th Street Station, "BoltBus Buy Tickets" . Retrieved January 29, 2018. at various stops in the city.

Since the early days of rail transportation in the United States, Philadelphia has served as a hub for several major rail companies, particularly the Pennsylvania Railroad and the . The Pennsylvania Railroad first operated Broad Street Station, then 30th Street Station and , and the Reading Railroad operated , now part of the Pennsylvania Convention Center. The two companies also operated competing commuter rail systems in the area. The two systems now operate as a single system under the control of , the regional transit authority. Additionally, the subway system and 's Atlantic City Line operate successor services to southern . 

In 1911, Philadelphia had nearly 4,000 electric running on 86 lines. "Trolley Lines". SEPTA. Retrieved January 30, 2018. In 2005, SEPTA reintroduced trolley service to the Girard Avenue Line, Route 15."Philadelphia's PCCs Return to Service." Railway Age. Vol. 205, No. 10, p. 30. October 1, 2005. SEPTA operates six "subway-surface" trolleys that run on street-level tracks in West Philadelphia and subway tunnels in Center City, along with two surface trolleys in adjacent suburbs. "Trolley Schedules". SEPTA. Retrieved January 30, 2018.

Philadelphia is a regional hub of the federally owned system, with 30th Street Station being a primary stop on the Washington-Boston Northeast Corridor and the Keystone Corridor to Harrisburg and . 30th Street also serves as a major station for services via the Pennsylvania Railroad's former Pennsylvania Main Line to Chicago. , 30th Street is Amtrak's third-busiest station in the country, after New York City and Washington.

Walk Score ranks
A 2017 study by ranked Philadelphia the fifth most walkable major city in the United States with a score of 79 out of 100, in the middle of the "very walkable" range. The city was just edged out by fourth place Miami (79.2), with the top three cities being New York, San Francisco, and Boston. Philadelphia placed fifth in the public transit friendly category, behind Washington, D.C., with the same three cities for walkability topping this category. The city ranked tenth in the bike friendly cities category, with the top three cities being Minneapolis, San Francisco and Portland.

The readers of newspaper voted the Schuylkill River Trail the best urban trail in the nation in 2015.


Water purity and availability
In 1815, Philadelphia began sourcing its water via the Fairmount Water Works on the , the nation's first major urban water supply system. In 1909, the Water Works was decommissioned as the city transitioned to modern methods. Today, the Philadelphia Water Department (PWD) provides , collection, and services for Philadelphia, as well as surrounding counties. PWD draws about 57 percent of its drinking water from the and the balance from the Schuylkill River. The city has two filtration plants on the Schuylkill River and one on the Delaware River. The three plants can treat up to 546 million gallons of water per day, while the total storage capacity of the combined plant and distribution system exceeds one billion gallons. The wastewater system consists of three water pollution control plants, 21 pumping stations, and about of sewers.

subsidiary PECO Energy Company, founded as the Brush Electric Light Company of Philadelphia in 1881 and renamed Philadelphia Electric Company (PECO) in 1902, provides electricity to about 1.6 million customers and more than 500,000 natural gas customers in the southeastern Pennsylvania area including the city of Philadelphia and most of its suburbs. PECO is the largest electric and natural gas utility in the state with 472 power substations and nearly of electric transmission and distribution lines, along with of natural gas transmission, distribution & service lines. "PECO_Investing_in_our_Community_Booklet". page 2. PECO Energy Company. Retrieved January 30, 2018.

Natural gas
Philadelphia Gas Works (PGW), overseen by the Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission, is the nation's largest municipally-owned natural gas utility. PGW serves over 500,000 homes and businesses in the Philadelphia area. Founded in 1836, the company came under city ownership in 1987 and has been providing the majority of gas distributed within city limits. In 2014, the City Council refused to conduct hearings on a $1.86 billion sale of PGW, part of a two-year effort that was proposed by the mayor. The refusal led to the prospective buyer terminating its offer.

Southeastern Pennsylvania was assigned the 215 in 1947 when the North American Numbering Plan of the went into effect. The geographic area covered by the code was split nearly in half in 1994 when area code 610 was created, with the city and its northern suburbs retaining 215. Overlay area code 267 was added to the 215 service area in 1997, and 484 was added to the 610 area in 1999. A plan in 2001 to introduce a third overlay code to both service areas (area code 445 to 215, area code 835 to 610) was delayed and later rescinded.  Area code 445 was implemented as an overlay for area codes 215 and 267 starting on February 3, 2018. 

Notable people

Sister cities
South Korea1984

Philadelphia also has three partnership cities or regions:


Philadelphia has eight official as designated by the Citizen Diplomacy International of Philadelphia: Philadelphia has dedicated landmarks to its sister cities. The Sister Cities Park, a site of at 18th and Benjamin Franklin Parkway within Logan Square, was dedicated in June 1976. The park was built to commemorate Philadelphia's first two sister city relationships, with and . The Toruń Triangle, honoring the sister city relationship with Toruń, Poland, was constructed in 1976, west of the United Way building at 18th Street and the Benjamin Franklin Parkway. Sister Cities Park was redesigned and reopened in 2012, featuring an interactive fountain honoring Philadelphia's sister and partnership cities, a café and visitor's center, children's play area, outdoor garden, and boat pond, as well as a pavilion built to environmentally friendly standards.

The Chinatown Gate, erected in 1984 and crafted by artisans of , stands astride 10th Street, on the north side of its intersection with Arch Street, as a symbol of the sister city relationship. The CDI of Philadelphia has participated in the U.S. Department of State's "Partners for Peace" project with , Iraq, IVC of Philadelphia Partners with Mosul, Iraq in Groundbreaking Program Retrieved January 26, 2011. as well as accepting visiting delegations from dozens of other countries. Inbound delegations visiting Philadelphia Retrieved January 26, 2011.

See also

  • Metropolitan areas in the Americas
  • National Register of Historic Places listings in Philadelphia
  • List of Pennsylvania state historical markers in Philadelphia County


Further reading

External links

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