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The Peruvian Navy ( Marina de Guerra del Perú, abbreviated MGP) is the branch of the Armed Forces tasked with surveillance, patrol and defense on lakes, rivers and the Pacific Ocean up to from the Peruvian . Additional missions include assistance in safeguarding internal security, conducting disaster relief operations and participating in international operations.

The Marina de Guerra del Perú celebrates the anniversary of its creation in 1821 on October 8 and also commemorates the decisive Battle of Angamos, the final part of the naval campaign of the War of the Pacific between Peru and Chile at the end of 1879.


History

19th century
The Marina de Guerra del Perú was established on 8 October 1821 by the government of general José de San Martín. Its first actions were undertaken during the War of Independence (1821–1824) using captured Spanish . The Peruvian Naval Infantry was also formed during the war with Spain, performing successfully in their first battle where they seized from the Spanish.

Shortly afterwards it was engaged in the war against the Gran Colombia (1828–1829) during which it conducted a against the of and then assisted in the subsequent Peruvian occupation. The Navy saw further action during the war of the Peru-Bolivian Confederacy (1836–1839) and during the Chincha Islands War with Spain (1866).

The breakout of the War of the Pacific (1879–1883) caught the Peruvian Navy unprepared and with inferior forces in comparison to the . Even so, hit-and-run tactics carried out by Peruvian Miguel Grau, commander of the , famously delayed the Chilean advance by six months until his death and defeat at the Battle of Angamos.


20th century
Following the War of the Pacific, the Peruvian Navy had to be completely rebuilt. In 1900 the force consisted of only one of 1,700 tons displacement, a screw-driven , and ten smaller ships – the latter described by a contemporary British publication as "of no real value". (Retrieved via Google Books 3/4/11.) The lengthy process of expansion and rebuilding started in 1907 with the acquisition from the United Kingdom of the and Coronel Bolognesi, followed by the arrival of two submarines, Ferré and Palacios, from France in 1911. During the Presidency of Augusto B. Leguía (1919–1930) a Navy Ministry was established as well as a , both in 1920.

Border conflicts with in 1911 and 1932 and a war with in 1941 saw Peruvian warships involved in some skirmishes in support of the . The attack on Pearl Harbor brought World War II to the Pacific and even though Peru did not declare war on the until 1945, its Navy was involved in patrol missions against possible threats by the Imperial Japanese Navy from early 1942 up to mid-1945.

During the 1970s and the first half of the 1980s the Peruvian Navy carried out a major buildup programme which allowed it to take advantage over its traditional rival, the Chilean Navy. The navy purchased one cruiser the BAP Almirante Grau (CLM-81) from the Netherlands, eight Carvajal-class frigates from Italy – four newly purchased and four ex- Lupo-class frigates – as well as six PR-72P-class from France. The buildup proved to be temporary due to the economic crisis of the second half of the 1980s, forcing the decommissioning of several warships and resulting in a general lack of funds for maintenance.

The economic upturn of the 1990s and into the 2000s would later permit some improvement, although at a reduced force level compared to the early 1980s.


21st century
Into the 21st century, the Peruvian Navy began to modernize their ships. In 2008, the Type 209/1100 submarines were modernized while the Carvajal-class frigates began to be modernized in 2011. The Type 209/1200 submarines began to be modernized in late-2017 beginning with the BAP Chipana (SS-34).

has continued to construct ships for the Navy. In 2013, SIMA partnered with Posco Daewoo Corporation and Daesun Shipbuilding of South Korea to construct two Makassar-class landing platform docks. The , recently launched on 25 April 2017, as well as the BAP Paita which is currently under construction will provide with increased expeditionary warfare capabilities, with the ability to accommodate multiple Landing Craft Vehicle Personnel, newly purchased LAV IIs and helicopters.

In 2018, a modernization program was initiated to upgrade Peru's Type 209/1200 submarines, the BAP Chipana , BAP Angamos, BAP Antofagasta and BAP Pisagua, with a contract with ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems being made for further assistance with SIMA .

During the 2017–present Peruvian political crisis, the Navy of Peru was involved in political scandals. During the first impeachment process against president Martín Vizcarra, the next in the order of succession to the presidency, President of the Congress , had been in contact with the Commanding General of the Navy saying that he was attempting to remove Vizcarra from office. While the 2021 Peruvian general election was underway, the imprisoned former head of the National Intelligence Service (SIN) Vladimiro Montesinos was able to make phone calls from a telephone at the Centro de Reclusión de Máxima Seguridad (CEREC) at the Callao Naval Base to organize projects and campaign support for in the Vladi-audios scandal.


Organization
The current Commander-in-Chief of the Peruvian Navy is Alberto Alcalá Luna. Naval Forces are subordinated to the Ministry of Defense and ultimately to the President as Chief Supreme of the Peruvian Armed Forces. They are organized as follows:

  • Comandancia General de la Marina (Navy General Command)
    • Estado Mayor General de la Marina ()
    • Inspectoría General de la Marina (Navy General Inspectorate)

Operational units are divided between three commands:

Comandancia General de Operaciones del Pacífico
Pacific Operations General Command, it comprises the following units:
  • Fuerza de Superficie (Surface Force)
  • Fuerza de Submarinos (Submarine Force)
  • Fuerza de Aviación Naval (Naval Aviation Force)
  • Fuerza de Infantería de Marina (Naval Infantry Force)
  • Fuerza de Operaciones Especiales (Special Operations Force)

Comandancia General de Operaciones de la Amazonía
Amazon Operations General Command, tasked with river patrolling in the Peruvian portion of the .

Dirección General de Capitanías y Guardacostas
Directive General of Captains and Coast Guard, oversees Coast Guard operations


Coast Guard
, tasked with law enforcement on Peruvian territorial waters, rivers and lakes. The Peruvian Coast Guard often performs anti-drug trafficking operations within the nation's waters. The Coast Guard has approximately 1,000 personnel.


Naval Aviation
The Naval Aviation Force : (Fuerza de Aviación Naval, AVINAV) is the air branch of the Peruvian Navy, its roles include anti-submarine warfare, anti-surface warfare, maritime surveillance, reconnaissance and transport of marine personnel. It is also responsible for airborne operations of the Peruvian Marines. Naval Aviation has about 800 personnel.


Naval Infantry
Naval Infantry Brigade
  • 1st Naval Infantry – Ancón
  • 2nd Naval Infantry Battalion – Ancón
  • Amphibious Support Group
  • Group
  • Grouping
  • Engineers Unit

Other units
  • 3rd Naval Infantry Battalion – Tumbes
  • 4th Naval Infantry Battalion – Puno
  • 1st Naval Infantry Battalion – Iquitos
  • 2nd Jungle Naval Infantry Battalion –
  • Naval Infantry Detachment Litoral Sur


Bases
  • Ancón – Naval Infantry headquarters and base
  • – Main naval base, dockyard and naval aviation base, Naval Medical Center which contains the US Navy unit Naval Medical Research Unit Six
  • – Minor base and dockyard
  • – On the Amazon river
  • – Minor base
  • Pisco – Minor base
  • – On Lake Titicaca
  • San Juan de Marcona – Naval aviation base

Although most of the fleet is based at Callao, this has not been considered an ideal location since it is also the main outlet for Peruvian trade, causing space and security problems. In the 1980s the building of a new naval base at Chimbote was considered though high costs and a poor economic situation made the project unfeasible."La base de Chimbote", Caretas, 1985.


Personnel
+ Personnel (as of 2001)[1], based on DS No. 69 DE/SG of 2001.
Commissioned Officers2,107
Non-commissioned officers16,863
620
NCO in training1,533
4,855
Civilians5,079
Total25,988 (excl. civilians)


Ranks
  • Ranks of the officers of the Navy[2]
  • Ranks of the sub-officers of the Navy[3]
  • Ranks of the enlisted of the navy[4]


Ships
Ships of the Peruvian Navy are BAP, which stands for Buque Armada Peruana ( Peruvian Navy Ship).


Current ships
diesel-electric submarineType 209/1200 ex-BAP Casma.
diesel-electric submarineType 209/1200 Currently being upgraded in since January 2020.
diesel-electric submarineType 209/1200
diesel-electric submarineType 209/1200 ex-BAP Blume. Currently being upgraded in since December 2017.
diesel-electric submarineType 209/1100 Upgraded in 2008
diesel-electric submarineType 209/1100 Upgraded in 2008
guided missile frigate
guided missile frigate Ordered in 1973. Laid down in and commissioned in 1984 as BAP Montero until 2017, when became fleet flagship
guided missile frigate Ordered in 1973. Laid down in and commissioned in 1987.
guided missile frigate ex- Orsa (F-567), overhauled and upgraded in along with BAP Bolognesi. Currently in sea trials.
guided missile frigate ex- Lupo (F-564)
guided missile frigate ex- Perseo (F-566), overhauled and upgraded in with locally-made CMS and ESM systems, a Kronos NV 3D radar, MASS countermeasures system and 4 MM40 Block III Exocet missiles replacing Otomat.
guided missile frigate ex- Sagittario (F-565)
BAP Velarde (CM-21) fast attack craft
BAP Santillana (CM-22) fast attack craft
BAP De los Heros (CM-23) fast attack craft
BAP Herrera (CM-24) fast attack craft
BAP Larrea (CM-25) fast attack craft
BAP Sánchez Carrión (CM-26) fast attack craft
BAP Ferre (CM-27) fast attack craft ex- Gyeonjyu (PCC-758). Built in 1985. Transferred from Republic of Korea Navy in July 2016.
BAP Guise (CM-28) fast attack craft ex- Suncheon (PCC-767). Built in 1987. Transferred from Republic of Korea Navy in July 2021. Commissioned in 2022.
BAP Guardiamarina San Martin (PO-201) ex-. Operated by the Peruvian Coast Guard
BAP Rio Pativilca (PM-204) Offshore Patrol VesselPGCP-50 offshore patrol vessel Ordered in 2013. Derived design of Taegeuk-class patrol vessel from Republic of Korea Navy. Laid down in and commissioned on March 18, 2016. Operated by the Peruvian Coast Guard
BAP Rio Cañete (PM-205) Offshore Patrol VesselPGCP-50 offshore patrol vessel Ordered in 2013. Derived design of Taegeuk-class patrol vessel from Republic of Korea Navy. Laid down in and commissioned on March 18, 2016. Operated by the Peruvian Coast Guard
BAP Rio Piura (PM-206) Offshore Patrol VesselPGCP-50 offshore patrol vessel Laid down in and commissioned on May 3rd, 2017. Operated by the Peruvian Coast Guard
BAP Rio Quilca (PM-207) Offshore Patrol VesselPGCP-50 offshore patrol vessel Laid down in and commissioned on May 3, 2017. Operated by the Peruvian Coast Guard
BAP Rio Tumbes (PM-208) Offshore Patrol VesselPGCP-50 offshore patrol vessel Laid down in and commissioned on March 17, 2021. Operated by the Peruvian Coast Guard
BAP Rio Locumba (PM-209) Offshore Patrol VesselPGCP-50 offshore patrol vessel Laid down in and commissioned on March 17, 2021. Operated by the Peruvian Coast Guard
Landing Platform, Dock Ordered on July 13, 2013; laid down in , launched on April 25, 2017; commissioned on June 21, 2018.
Landing Platform, Dock Ordered on March 15, 2018; laid down in .
Landing Ship, TankTerrebonne Parish class ex-. Sunk as target 30 September 2021
Landing Ship, TankTerrebonne Parish class ex-
Seven in service Landing Craft Air CushionGriffon Hoverwork 2000TD
BAP Loreto (CF-11) Loreto class
BAP Amazonas (CF-12) Loreto class
BAP Marañón (CF-13) Marañón class
BAP Ucayali (CF-14) Marañón class
BAP Clavero (CF-15) Clavero class Laid down in the . Damaged by an uncontrolled fire in her first operational deployment on May 25, 2010; leaving two crewmen badly injured. Returned to service on July 27, 2012, during the BRACOLPER 2012 exercise.
BAP Castilla (CF-16) Clavero class Laid down on April 9, 2010, in the , launched on June 8, 2013, and commissioned on March 14, 2016, second and final ship of its class, has some improvements over its sister ship, mainly in armament
ship laid down on December 8, 2012, in the Callao shipyard, commissioned January 27, 2016, with an estimated cost of US$50 million.
BAP Marte (ALY-313) Sailing yacht assigned to the Peruvian Naval School as a training ship
BAP Unanue (AMB-160) Diving support shipSotoyomo class ex-
BAP San Lorenzo (ART-323) Torpedo recovery vessel
Diving support offshore tugboatMorales class Ordered in 2014, 50 TBP class locally designed tugboat, equipped to support diving, firefighting and rescue operations. Delivered in November 2016
BAP Selendón (ARB-129) Harbour tugboat20 TBP class tug Built in , ordered in 2011. Delivered in the first quarter of 2012.
BAP Medina (ARB-130) Harbour tugboat20 TBP class tug Built in , ordered in 2011. Delivered in late 2012.
BAP Caloyeras (ACA-111) Water bargeYW-83 class ex-US YW-128
BAP Noguera (ACP-118) Fuel bargeYO type ex-US YO-221
BAP Gauden (ACP-119) Fuel bargeYO type ex-US YO-171
Amsterdam class ex-
Built in 1995, acquired in July 2014 from the Royal Netherlands Navy, commissioned on December 4, 2014, at the Den Helder naval base, Netherlands.
BAP Rio Yavarí River hospital shipYavarí PIAS class Built by , commissioned in 2021.
BAP Rio Putumayo II River hospital shipNapo PIAS class Built in , commissioned in 2016.
BAP Rio Putumayo I River hospital shipNapo PIAS class Built in , commissioned in 2015.
BAP Morona River hospital shipNapo PIAS class Built in , commissioned in 2015.
BAP Rio Napo River hospital shipNapo PIAS class Built in , commissioned in 2013.
BAP Rio Yahuas (ABH-302) River hospital shipMorona class Ex BAP Morona (ABH-302)
BAP Corrientes (ABH-303) Small river hospital craft
BAP Curaray (ABH-304) Small river hospital craft
BAP Pastaza (ABH-305) Small river hospital craft
BAP Lago Titicaca I Lake hospital shipLago Titicaca PIAS class Built by , commissioned in 2017.
Lake hospital shipYaravi class ex- Yapura
operated by the Peruvian Coast Guard
Oceanographic research shipNC-704 class 95-m long steel-hulled vessel designed to operate in the Antarctic region as well as in Peruvian waters. Construction contract signed in December 2014 with Freire Shipyard. Keel-laying scheduled for June 22, 2015, to be delivered July 2016. Commissioned in May 2017.
BAP Stiglich (AH-172) Hydrographic survey shipMorona class
BAP Zimic (COMBSH-173) Hydrographic survey ship ex-HNLMS Abcoude minesweeper. ex-BAP Carrasco, repowered in 2006 with 2 Volvo Penta engines at SIMA Callao, in 2015 received a high power multibeam echosounder.
BAP La Macha (AEH-174) Hydrographic survey ship
BAP Carrillo (AH-175) Hydrographic survey ship ex-HNLMS van Hamel minesweeper
BAP Melo (AH-176) Hydrographic survey ship ex-HNLMS van der Wel minesweeper. Repowered in 2006 with 2 Volvo Penta engines at SIMA Callao.


Museum Ships
América class restored at SIMA Iquitos shipyard, on display in Clavero naval station.
Sierra-type submarine Historic Naval Ships Association BAP ABTAO (SS-42) 2 de Mayo class1998become a museum ship in 2004
Yavarí Lake Yavarí class1976restored and become a museum ship in 2015 and is the oldest iron lake steamer sailing.


Recently Decommissioned Ships
BAP Bayovar (ATP-154) Grigoriy Nesterenko type2017ex- Petr Schmidt, auctioned on March 21, 2018
BAP Zorritos (ATP-155) Grigoriy Nesterenko type2017ex- Grigoriy Nesterenko, auctioned on March 21, 2018
Guided missile cruiser 26 September 2017ex-
BAP Guardian Rios (ARA-123) Offshore tugboatCherokee class2015ex-, inactive since 2014, to be scrapped
BAP Dueñas (ARB-126) Harbour tugboatPC-461-class2015ex-USS PC-1138, decommissioned in 1956 and sold, then first converted into icebreaker and finally into a tugboat (hull shortened), acquired by the Peruvian Navy in 1984. Inactive since 2014, to be scrapped
BAP Unión (ABE-161) Ilo classDecember 2014ex-BAP Mollendo (ATC-131). Decommissioned in late 2014, towed to be scrapped in Ecuador.
Guided missile frigate 26 December 2013Transferred to the Coast Guard under the name after being stripped down of its missile weaponry and main radar, reclassified as Patrullera Oceánica (Offshore patrol vessel).
Tank landing shipTerrebonne Parish classSeptember 2012ex-, sunk as a target during the exercise Independencia
Landing Ship, TankTerrebonne Parish class2012ex-, scrapped that year after sold.
Guided missile destroyer 13 July 2007 . July 13, 2007.ex-
BAP Talara (ATP-152) Replenishment tankerTalara class12 August 2008 . August 23, 2009.capable of underway replenishment at sea from the stern
BAP Lobitos (ATP-153) Sealift Pacific class20 July 2008 . August 23, 2009.ex-USNS Sealift Caribbean (T-AOT-174)


Equipment
on December 8, 2008, an updated Otomat missile was successfully launched from BAP Aguirre, hit a target at a range in excess of .
four fire control systems and sixteen missiles ordered on December 15, 2010. Scheduled to be installed in the 4 Aguirre class frigates.
Land-based. Currently not embarked in any surface unit of the Peruvian Navy
used in MGP-86 mount for close air defence
to be replaced with the FN-6 missile system
a small batch acquired in July 2009 for US$1.1 million


Peacekeeping operations
The Peruvian Navy has been actively involved in several . As of June 2006 Naval Infantry and Special Operations troops have been deployed to United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP) (embedded in the Argentine forces ) and United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH). Peruvian naval officers have also been deployed to United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC), , United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) as . By 2012 the Peruvian Navy sent its first officer to serve in .

==Gallery==


See also
  • Battle of Angamos
  • Battle of Iquique
  • Battle of Pacocha
  • Ironclad Huáscar
  • Miguel Grau
  • War of the Pacific
  • List of Peruvian steam frigates


Notes

Sources
  • Baker III, Arthur D., The Naval Institute Guide to Combat Fleets of the World 2002–2003. Naval Institute Press, 2002.
  • Basadre, Jorge, Historia de la República del Perú. Editorial Universitaria, 1983.
  • "La base de Chimbote", Caretas, 855: 31 (June 17, 1985).
  • Ortiz Sotelo, Jorge, Apuntes para la historia de los submarinos peruanos. Biblioteca Nacional, 2001.
  • Rial, Juan, Los militares tras el fin del régimen de Fujimori-Montesinos.
  • "Los Programas de Renovacion y Modernizacion de la Marina de Guerra del Peru", Alejo Marchessini – Revista Fuerzas de Defensa y Seguridad (FDS) N° 430. Paginas 32 a 35.
  • "Entrevista al Almirante Carlos Tejada Mera, Comandante General de la MArina de Guerra del Peru", Alejo Marchessini – Revista Fuerzas de Defensa y Seguridad (FDS) N° 430. Paginas 36 a 43.


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