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Ohio () is a state in the Midwestern United States. Of the fifty U.S. states, it is the 34th-largest by area. With a population of nearly 11.8 million, Ohio is the seventh-most populous and tenth-most densely populated state. Its capital and largest city is Columbus, with other large population centers including , , Dayton, Akron, and Toledo. Ohio is bordered by to the north, to the east, to the southeast, to the southwest, to the west, and to the northwest. Ohio is nicknamed the "Buckeye State" after its , and Ohioans are also known as "Buckeyes". Its state flag is the only non-rectangular flag of all U.S. states.

Ohio derives its name from the that forms its southern border, which, in turn, originated from the word ohiːyo', meaning "good river", "great river", or "large creek". The state was home to several ancient indigenous civilizations, with humans being present as early as 10,000 BCE. It arose from the lands west of the Appalachian Mountains that were contested by various native tribes and European colonists from the 17th century through the Northwest Indian Wars of the late 18th century. Ohio was partitioned from the Northwest Territory, which was the first frontier of the new United States, becoming the 17th state admitted to the Union on March 1, 1803, and the first under the Northwest Ordinance.

(2023). 9781423623823, Gibbs Smith. .
Ohio was the first post-colonial free state admitted to the union and became one of the earliest and most influential industrial powerhouses during the 20th century. Although it has transitioned to a more information- and in the 21st century, it remains an industrial state, ranking seventh in GDP , with the third-largest manufacturing sector and second-largest automobile production.

Modeled on its federal counterpart, the government of Ohio is composed of the executive branch, led by the governor; the legislative branch, consisting of the bicameral Ohio General Assembly; and the judicial branch, led by the state Supreme Court. Ohio occupies 15 seats in the United States House of Representatives, the seventh largest delegation. The state is known for its status as both a and a in national elections. Seven presidents of the United States have come from Ohio, earning it the moniker "the Mother of Presidents".


Indigenous settlement
Archeological evidence of spear points of both the Folsom and Clovis types indicate that the Ohio Valley was inhabited by as early as 13,000 BC.Knepper (1989), p. 9. These early nomads disappeared from Ohio by 1,000 BC. Between 1,000 and 800 BC, the sedentary emerged. The Adena were able to establish "semi-permanent" villages because they domesticated plants, including , and "grew squash and possibly "; with hunting and gathering, this cultivation supported more settled, complex villages.Knepper (1989), p. 10. The most notable remnant of the Adena culture is the Great Serpent Mound, located in Adams County, Ohio.

Around 100 BC, the Adena evolved into the Hopewell people who were also mound builders. Their complex, large and technologically sophisticated earthworks can be found in modern-day Marietta, Newark, and Circleville.Knepper (1989), p. 11. They were also a prolific trading society, their trading network spanning a third of the continent.Douglas T. Price; Gary M. Feinman (2008). Images of the Past, 5th edition. New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 274–277. The Hopewell disappeared from the Ohio Valley about 600 AD. The Mississippian culture rose as the Hopewell culture declined. Many Siouan-speaking peoples from the plains and east coast claim them as ancestors and say they lived throughout the Ohio region until approximately the 13th century.Knepper (1989), p. 13.

There were three other cultures contemporaneous with the Mississippians: the people, the Whittlesey Culture and the Monongahela Culture."Monongahela culture-AD 1050–1635". Fort Hill Archeology. Retrieved January 14, 2010. All three cultures disappeared in the 17th century. Their origins are unknown. The Shawnees may have absorbed the Fort Ancient people. It is also possible that the Monongahela held no land in Ohio during the Colonial Era. The Mississippian culture was close to and traded extensively with the Fort Ancient people.

Indians in the Ohio Valley were greatly affected by the aggressive tactics of the Iroquois Confederation, based in central and western New York.Knepper (1989), p. 14. After the in the mid-17th century, the Iroquois claimed much of the Ohio country as hunting and, more importantly, beaver-trapping ground. After the devastation of epidemics and war in the mid-17th century, which largely emptied the Ohio country of Indigenous people by the mid-to-late 17th century, the land gradually became repopulated by the mostly Algonquian. Many of these Ohio-country nations were multi-ethnic (sometimes multi-linguistic) societies born out of the earlier devastation brought about by disease, war, and subsequent social instability. They subsisted on agriculture (, sunflowers, , etc.) supplemented by seasonal hunts. By the 18th century, they were part of a larger global economy brought about by European entry into the .Roseboom (1967), p. 20.

Some of the Indigenous nations which historically inhabited Ohio included the Iroquoian, the Algonquian and the Siouan.louis, franquelin, jean baptiste. "Franquelin's map of Louisiana". Retrieved August 17, 2017.Knepper (1989), pp. 14–17. was also the site of Indian massacres, such as the Yellow Creek massacre and the Gnadenhutten massacre.Knepper (1989), pp. 43–44. After the War of 1812, when Natives suffered serious losses such as at Tippecanoe, most Native tribes either left Ohio or had to live on only limited reservations. By 1842, all remaining Natives were forced out of the state.

Colonial and Revolutionary eras
During the 18th century, the French set up a system of to control the fur trade in the region. Beginning in 1754, the Kingdom of France and Kingdom of Great Britain fought in the French and Indian War, with various Native American tribes on each side. As a result of the Treaty of Paris, the French ceded control of Ohio and the remainder of the to Great Britain in 1763.

Prior to the American Revolution, Britain thinly exercised sovereignty over Ohio Country by lackadaisical garrisoning of the French forts. Just beyond Ohio Country was the great capital of which became the center of British trade and influence in Ohio Country and throughout the future Northwest Territory. By the Royal Proclamation of 1763, British lands west of were forbidden to settlement by colonists. The Treaty of Fort Stanwix in 1768 explicitly reserved lands north and west of the Ohio as Native lands. British military occupation in the region contributed to the outbreak of Pontiac's War in 1763.

(1991). 9780521424608, Cambridge University Press.
Ohio tribes participated in the war until an armed expedition in Ohio led by Colonel brought about a truce. Another colonial military expedition into the Ohio Country in 1774 brought Lord Dunmore's War, kicked off by the Yellow Creek massacre in Ohio, to a conclusion. In 1774, Britain passed the that formally annexed Ohio and other western lands to the Province of Quebec in order to provide a civil government and to centralize British administration of the -based fur trade. The prohibition of settlement west of the Appalachians remained, contributing to the American Revolution.Gordon Wood, The American Revolution (New York: , 2002).

By the start of the American Revolutionary War, the movement of Natives and Americans between the Ohio Country and Thirteen Colonies had resulted in tension. Fort Pitt in Pennsylvania had become the main fort where expeditions into Ohio started. Intrusions into the area included General 's 1778 movement of 500 Pennsylvania militiamen from Fort Pitt towards Mingo towns on the , where the British stored military supplies which they distributed to Indian raiding parties;Downes, Council Fires, 211; Nester, Frontier War, 194; Nelson, Man of Distinction, 101. Colonel 's invasion in 1780 and destruction of the Lenape Indian capital of Coshocton;Downes, Council Fires, 266. a detachment of one hundred of George Rogers Clark's troops that were ambushed near the Ohio River by Indians led by in the same year; a British and Native American attack on the U.S.' ; and the 1782 detainment and murder of 96 pacifists by Pennsylvania militiamen in the Gnadenhutten massacre.Weslager, Delaware Indians, 316.

The western theatre never had a decisive victor. In the Treaty of Paris in 1783, Britain ceded all claims to Ohio Country to the new after its victory in the American Revolutionary War.

(2023). 9781134678693, Francis and Taylor. .

Northwest Territory
The United States created the Northwest Territory under the Northwest Ordinance of 1787.Cayton (2002), p. 3. Slavery was not permitted in the new territory. Settlement began with the founding of Marietta by the Ohio Company of Associates, which had been formed by a group of American Revolutionary War veterans. Following the Ohio Company, the (also referred to as the "") claimed the southwestern section, and the Connecticut Land Company surveyed and settled the Connecticut Western Reserve in present-day . Territorial surveyors from Fort Steuben began surveying an area of eastern Ohio called the at about the same time.

The old Northwest Territory originally included areas previously known as and . As Ohio prepared for statehood, the Indiana Territory was created, reducing the Northwest Territory to approximately the size of present-day Ohio plus the eastern half of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan and the eastern tip of the Upper Peninsula and a sliver of southeastern Indiana called "The Gore".

The coalition of Native American tribes, known as the Western Confederacy, was forced to cede extensive territory, including much of present-day Ohio, in the Treaty of Greenville in 1795.

Under the Northwest Ordinance, areas could be defined and admitted as states once their population reached 60,000. Although Ohio's population was only 45,000 in December 1801, Congress determined that it was growing rapidly enough and accelerated the process via the Enabling Act of 1802. In regards to the natives, Congress decided that 10,000 acres on the in the present state of Ohio would "be set apart and the property thereof be vested in the Moravian Brethren ... or a society of the said Brethren for civilizing the Indians and promoting Christianity".

Rufus Putnam, the "Father of Ohio"
served in important military capacities in both the French and Indian War and the American Revolutionary War. He was one of the most highly respected men in the early years of the United States.Hubbard, Robert Ernest. General Rufus Putnam: George Washington's Chief Military Engineer and the "Father of Ohio," pp. 1–4, McFarland & Company, Inc., Jefferson, North Carolina. .

In 1776, Putnam created a method of building portable fortifications, which enabled the to drive the British from Boston. George Washington was so impressed that he made Putnam his chief engineer. After the war, Putnam and were instrumental in creating the Northwest Ordinance, which opened up the Northwest Territory for settlement. This land was used to serve as compensation for what was owed to Revolutionary War veterans. Putnam organized and led the Ohio Company of Associates, who settled at Marietta, Ohio, where they built a large fort called Campus Martius.Hubbard, Robert Ernest. General Rufus Putnam: George Washington's Chief Military Engineer and the "Father of Ohio," pp. 2–4, 45–8,105–18, McFarland & Company, Inc., Jefferson, North Carolina. .Hildreth, Samuel Prescott. Biographical and Historical Memoirs of the Early Pioneer Settlers of Ohio, pp. 34–7, 63–74, Badgley Publishing Company, 2011. .McCullough, David. The Pioneers: The Heroic Story of the Settlers Who Brought the American Ideal West, pp. 46–7, Simon & Schuster, Inc., New York, New York, 2019. . He set substantial amounts of land aside for schools. In 1798, he created the plan for the construction of the Muskingum Academy (now ). In 1780, the directors of the Ohio Company appointed him superintendent of all its affairs relating to the settlement north of the Ohio River. In 1796, he was commissioned by President George Washington as Surveyor-General of United States Lands. In 1788, he served as a judge in the Northwest Territory's first court. In 1802, he served in the convention to form a constitution for the State of Ohio.Hubbard, Robert Ernest. General Rufus Putnam: George Washington's Chief Military Engineer and the "Father of Ohio," pp. 127–50, McFarland & Company, Inc., Jefferson, North Carolina. .Hildreth, Samuel Prescott. Biographical and Historical Memoirs of the Early Pioneer Settlers of Ohio, pp. 69, 71, 81, 82, Badgley Publishing Company, 2011. .McCullough, David. The Pioneers: The Heroic Story of the Settlers Who Brought the American Ideal West, pp. 143–7, Simon & Schuster, Inc., New York, New York, 2019. .

Statehood and early years
On February 19, 1803, U.S. President signed an act of Congress that approved Ohio's boundaries and constitution.An act to provide for the due execution of the laws of the United States, within the state of Ohio, ch. 7, (February 19, 1803). However, Congress had never passed a formal resolution admitting Ohio as the 17th state. Although no formal resolution of admission was required, when the oversight was discovered in 1953, as Ohio began preparations for celebrating its sesquicentennial, Ohio congressman George H. Bender introduced a bill in Congress to admit Ohio to the Union retroactive to March 1, 1803, the date on which the Ohio General Assembly first convened. At a special session at the old state capital in Chillicothe, the Ohio state legislature approved a new petition for statehood which was delivered to Washington, D.C., on horseback, and approved that August.Joint Resolution for admitting the State of Ohio into the Union, ().

Ohio has had three capital cities: Chillicothe, Zanesville, and Columbus. Chillicothe was the capital from 1803 to 1810. The capital was then moved to Zanesville for two years, as part of a state legislative compromise to get a bill passed. The capital was then moved back to Chillicothe, which was the capital from 1812 to 1816. Finally, the capital was moved to Columbus, to have it near the geographic center of the state.

Although many Native Americans had migrated west to evade American encroachment, others remained settled in the state, sometimes assimilating in part. Starting around 1809, the pressed resistance to encroachment again. Under Chief , Tecumseh's War officially began in Ohio in 1811. When the War of 1812 began, the British decided to attack from into Ohio and merge their forces with the Shawnee. This continued until Tecumseh was killed at the Battle of the Thames in 1813. Most of the Shawnee, excluding the in Southwest Ohio, were forcibly relocated west. Ohio played a key role in the War of 1812, as it was on the front line in the Western theater and the scene of several notable battles both on land and in . On September 10, 1813, the Battle of Lake Erie, one of the major battles, took place near Put-in-Bay, Ohio. The British eventually surrendered to Oliver Hazard Perry.

Ultimately, after the United States government used the Indian Removal Act of 1830 to force countless Native American tribes on the Trail of Tears, where all the southern states except for were successfully emptied of Native peoples, the panicked because a majority of tribes did not want to be forced out of their own lands. Fearing further wars between Native tribes and American settlers, they pushed all remaining Native tribes in the East to migrate west against their own will, including all remaining tribes in Ohio.

In 1835, Ohio fought with the Michigan Territory in the , a mostly bloodless boundary war over the Toledo Strip. Only one person was injured in the conflict. Congress intervened, making 's admittance as a state conditional on ending the conflict. In exchange for giving up its claim to the Toledo Strip, Michigan was given the western two-thirds of the Upper Peninsula, in addition to the eastern third which was already considered part of the territory.

Civil War and industrialization
Ohio's central position and its population gave it an important place during the Civil War. The Ohio River was a vital artery for troop and supply movements, as were Ohio's railroads. The industry of Ohio made the state one of the most important states in the Union during the Civil War. Ohio contributed more soldiers per capita than any other state in the Union. In 1862, the state's morale was badly shaken in the aftermath of the Battle of Shiloh, a costly victory in which Ohio forces suffered 2,000 casualties.Knepper (1989), pp. 233–234. Later that year, when Confederate troops under the leadership of Stonewall Jackson threatened Washington, D.C., Ohio governor still could recruit 5,000 volunteers to provide three months of service.Roseboom and Weisenburger (1967), p. 188. From July 13 to 26, 1863, towns along the Ohio River were attacked and ransacked in Morgan's Raid, starting in Harrison in the west and culminating in the Battle of Salineville near West Point in the far east. While this raid was overall insignificant to the Confederacy, it aroused fear among people in Ohio and as it was the furthest advancement of troops from the South in the war. Almost 35,000 Ohioans died in the conflict, and 30,000 were physically wounded.Cayton (2002), p. 129. By the end of the Civil War, the Union's top three generals – Ulysses S. Grant, William Tecumseh Sherman, and – were all from Ohio.Cayton (2002), pp. 128–129.

Throughout much of the 19th century, industry was rapidly introduced to complement an existing agricultural economy. One of the first iron manufacturing plants opened near Youngstown in 1804, called Hopewell Furnace. By the mid-19th century, 48 blast furnaces were operating in the state, most in the southern portions of the state. Discovery of coal deposits aided the further development of the steel industry in the state, and by 1853 Cleveland was the third largest iron and steel producer in the country. The first Bessemer converter was purchased by the Cleveland Rolling Mill Company, which eventually became part of the U.S. Steel Corporation following the merger of Federal Steel Company and , the first billion-dollar American corporation. The first open-hearth furnace used for steel production was constructed by the Otis Steel Company in Cleveland, and by 1892, Ohio ranked as the second-largest steel-producing state behind Pennsylvania. was founded in Youngstown in 1899 and was at one point the nation's third-largest producer. , now AK Steel, was founded in Middletown also in 1899.

20th century
The state legislature officially adopted the flag of Ohio on May 9, 1902. Dayton natives Orville and Wilbur Wright made four brief flights at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina on December 17, 1903, inventing the first successful airplane. Ohio was hit by its greatest natural disaster in the Great Flood of 1913, resulting in at least 428 fatalities and hundreds of millions of dollars in property damage, particularly around the Great Miami River basin.

The National Football League was originally founded in Canton, Ohio in 1920 as the American Professional Football Conference. It included teams in five Ohio cities (Akron, Canton, Cleveland, Columbus, and Dayton), although none of these teams still exist. The first official game occurred on October 3, 1920, when the beat the Columbus Panhandles 14–0 in Dayton. Canton would later be enshrined as the home of the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1963.

(2023). 9780738540788, Arcadia Publishing. .

During the 1930s, the Great Depression struck the state hard. By 1933, more than 40% of factory workers and 67% of construction workers were unemployed in Ohio. Approximately 50% of industrial workers in Cleveland and 80% in Toledo became unemployed, with the state unemployment rate reaching a high of 37.3%. American Jews watched the rise of with apprehension. Cleveland residents and created the comic character in the spirit of the Jewish . Many of their comics portrayed Superman fighting and defeating the . Approximately 839,000 Ohioans served in the U.S. armed forces during World War II, of which over 23,000 died or were missing in action.

Artists, writers, musicians and actors developed in the state throughout the 20th century and often moved to other cities which were larger centers for their work. They included , , , , , and . , who emerged from the swing dance culture in Cleveland, hosted the first live rock 'n roll concert in Cleveland in 1952. Famous filmmakers include , Chris Columbus and the original , who set up their first movie theatre in Youngstown before that company later relocated to California. The state produced many popular musicians, including , , The O'Jays, , , , and The Isley Brothers.

Two Ohio completed significant milestones in the in the 1960s: becoming the first American to orbit the Earth, and becoming the first human to walk on the Moon. In 1967, was elected mayor of Cleveland and became the first African American mayor of one of the nation's 10 most populous cities.

In 1970, an Ohio Army National Guard unit fired at students during an anti-war protest at Kent State University, killing four and wounding nine. The Guard had been called onto campus after several protests in and around campus had become violent, including a riot in downtown Kent and the burning of an ROTC building. The main cause of the protests was the United States' invasion of Cambodia during the .Hildebrand, Herrington, & Keller; pp. 165–166

Beginning in the 1980s, the state entered into international economic and resource cooperation treaties and organizations with other states, as well as New York, , , and , including the Great Lakes Charter, Great Lakes Compact, and the Council of Great Lakes Governors.

21st century
Ohio's economy has undergone significant change in the 21st century, as the trend of deindustrialization has greatly impacted the American Midwest and the . Manufacturing in the Midwest experienced a stark decline during the early 21st century, a trend which greatly impacted Ohio. From 1990 to 2019, Ohio lost over 300,000 manufacturing jobs, but added over 1,000,000 non-manufacturing jobs during that same time. Coinciding with this decline, Ohio has seen a large decline in union membership: 17.4% of Ohioan workers were union members in 2000, while 12.8% were union members in 2022.

In the wake of these economic changes, Ohio's state government has looked to promoting new industries to offset manufacturing losses, such as the production of and . One major program launched by the state's government was the "Third Frontier" program, created during the governorship of , which aims to increase investment in Ohio, and boost the state's technology sector. As of 2010, the Ohio Department of Development attributes the creation of 9,500 jobs to this program, with an average of salary of $65,000, while having a $6.6 billion economic impact with a return on investment of 9:1. In 2010 the state won the International Economic Development Council's Excellence in Economic Development Award, celebrated as a national model of success.

Many of the state's former industrial centers turned to new industries, including Akron as a center for polymer and biomedical research, as the state's largest mercantile hub, "Atlantic Eye: Brunner is the best for Ohio" , Marc S. Ellenbogen. May 3, 2010. Retrieved May 5, 2010. Columbus as a center for technological research and development, education, and insurance, Cleveland in regenerative medicine research and manufacturing, Dayton as an aerospace and defense hub, and Toledo as a national center for solar technology.

Ohio's economy was also heavily afflicted by the , as the state's rose from 5.6% in the first two months of 2008 up to a peak of 11.1% in December 2009 and January 2010. It took until August 2014 for the unemployment rate to return to 5.6%. From December 2007 to September 2010, Ohio lost 376,500 jobs. In 2009, Ohio had 89,053 foreclosures filings, a then-record for the state. The median household income dropped 7% from 2006–2007 to 2008–2009, and the poverty rate ballooned to 13.5% by 2009.

In 2015, Ohio gross domestic product was $608.1 billion, the seventh-largest economy among the 50 states. Ohio Facts 2016: Ohio's Economy Ranks 7th Largest Among States , Ohio Legislative Service Commission. In 2015, Ohio's total GDP accounted for 3.4% of U.S. GDP and 0.8% of world GDP.

Politically, Ohio has been long regarded as a , however, the success of many Republican Party candidates in Ohio since the late 2000s has led many to question whether Ohio remains an electoral battleground.

On March 9, 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic was confirmed to reach Ohio, with three cases being reported. As of February 2023, over 41,600 Ohioans have died from COVID-19. Ohio's economy was also heavily impacted by the pandemic, as the state saw large job losses in 2020, as well as large amounts of subsequent stimulus spending.

Ohio's geographic location has proven to be an asset for economic growth and expansion. Because Ohio links the Northeast to the Midwest, much cargo and business traffic passes through its borders along its well-developed highways. Ohio has the nation's 10th largest highway network and is within a one-day drive of 50% of North America's population and 70% of North America's manufacturing capacity. To the north, Ohio has of coastline with Lake Erie, which allows for numerous cargo ports such as Cleveland and Toledo. Ohio's southern border is defined by the . Ohio's neighbors are to the east, to the northwest, to the north, to the west, on the south, and on the southeast. Ohio's borders were defined by metes and bounds in the Enabling Act of 1802 as follows:

Ohio is bounded by the Ohio River, but nearly all of the river itself belongs to Kentucky and West Virginia. In 1980, the U.S. Supreme Court held that, based on the wording of the cessation of territory by (which at the time included what is now Kentucky and West Virginia), the boundary between Ohio and Kentucky (and, by implication, West Virginia) is the northern low-water mark of the river as it existed in 1792. Ohio has only that portion of the river between the river's 1792 low-water mark and the present high-water mark.

The border with Michigan has also changed, as a result of the , to angle slightly northeast to the north shore of the mouth of the Maumee River. Much of Ohio features glaciated till plains, with an exceptionally flat area in the northwest being known as the Great Black Swamp. This glaciated region in the northwest and central state is bordered to the east and southeast first by a belt known as the glaciated Allegheny Plateau, and then by another belt known as the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau. Most of Ohio is of low relief, but the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau .

The rugged southeastern quadrant of Ohio, stretching in an outward bow-like arc along the Ohio River from the West Virginia Panhandle to the outskirts of Cincinnati, forms a distinct unit. Geologically similar to parts of West Virginia and southwestern Pennsylvania, this area's coal mining legacy, dependence on small pockets of old manufacturing establishments, and distinctive regional dialect set this section off from the rest of the state. In 1965 the United States Congress passed the Appalachian Regional Development Act, an attempt to "address the persistent poverty and growing economic despair of the Appalachian Region". This act defines 29 Ohio counties as part of Appalachia. "Counties in Appalachia" , Appalachian Regional Commission. Retrieved January 3, 2006. While 1/3 of Ohio's land mass is part of the federally defined Appalachian region, only 12.8% of Ohioans live there (1.476 million people.) Https://" target="_blank" rel="nofollow"> "GCT-T1 Ohio County Population Estimates—2005", The United States Census Bureau, retrieved January 3, 2006. True summation of Ohio Appalachia counties population (1,476,384) obtained by adding the 29 individual county populations together (July 1, 2005, data). Percentage obtained by dividing that number into that table's estimate of Ohio population as of July 1, 2005 (11,464,042)

Significant rivers within the state include the , Great Miami River, , , and . The rivers in the northern part of the state drain into the northern Atlantic Ocean via and the St. Lawrence River, and the rivers in the southern part of the state drain into the Gulf of Mexico via the and then the Mississippi.

The worst weather disaster in Ohio history occurred along the Great Miami River in 1913. Known as the Great Dayton Flood, the entire Miami River watershed flooded, including the downtown business district of Dayton. As a result, the Miami Conservancy District was created as the first major floodplain engineering project in Ohio and the United States.

Grand Lake St. Marys in the west-central part of the state was constructed as a supply of water for in the canal-building era of 1820–1850. This body of water, over , was the largest artificial lake in the world when completed in 1845. were not the economic fiasco that similar efforts were in other states. Some cities, such as Dayton, owe their industrial emergence to their location on canals, and as late as 1910 interior canals carried much of the bulk freight of the state.

Ohio also includes and Kelleys Island.

(2015). 9781476604473, McFarland. .

Ohio has wide variety of unique animal species. Rare and endangered species include the , which is found in the Southeastern Appalachian region of Ohio and is classified as state endangered. The Eastern Hellbender is the 3rd largest in the world, and can grow up to 27 inches in length. It is fully aquatic and breathes almost entirely through its skin. Due to this, it is only found in pristine, cool, clear, fast flowing streams and rivers. It is highly threatened by habitat loss, water pollution, and due to logging and other human activities.

The climate of Ohio is a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfa/Dfb) throughout most of the state, except in the extreme southern counties of Ohio's section, which are located on the northern periphery of the humid subtropical climate ( Cfa) and region of the United States. Summers are typically hot and humid throughout the state, while winters generally range from cool to cold. Precipitation in Ohio is moderate year-round. Severe weather is not uncommon in the state, although there are typically fewer reports in Ohio than in states located in what is known as the . Severe lake effect snowstorms are also not uncommon on the southeast shore of , which is located in an area designated as the .

Although predominantly not in a subtropical climate, some warmer-climate flora and fauna do reach well into Ohio. For instance, some trees with more southern ranges, such as the , Quercus marilandica, are found at their northernmost in Ohio just north of the Ohio River. Also evidencing this climatic transition from a subtropical to a continental climate, several plants such as the Southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora), Albizia julibrissin (mimosa), , and even the occasional are hardy landscape materials regularly used as street, yard, and garden plantings in the of Ohio; but these same plants will simply not thrive in much of the rest of the state. This interesting change may be observed while traveling through Ohio on Interstate 75 from to Toledo; the observant traveler of this diverse state may even catch a glimpse of Cincinnati's common wall lizard, one of the few examples of permanent "subtropical" fauna in Ohio.

+Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for selected cities in Ohio

The highest recorded temperature was , near Gallipolis on July 21, 1934. The lowest recorded temperature was , at Milligan on February 10, 1899, during the Great Blizzard of 1899.

Although few have registered as noticeable to the average resident, more than 200 earthquakes with a magnitude of 2.0 or higher have occurred in Ohio since 1776. The Western Ohio Seismic Zone and a portion of the Southern Great Lakes Seismic Zone are located in the state, and numerous faults lie under the surface.

The most substantial known earthquake in Ohio history was the Anna (Shelby County) earthquake, which occurred on March 9, 1937. It was centered in western Ohio, with a magnitude of 5.4, and was of intensity VIII. Historic Earthquakes: Western Ohio , U.S. Geological Survey.

Other significant earthquakes in Ohio include: one of magnitude 4.8 near Lima on September 19, 1884; one of magnitude 4.2 near Portsmouth on May 17, 1901; and one of 5.0 in LeRoy Township in Lake County on January 31, 1986, which continued to trigger 13 aftershocks of magnitude 0.5 to 2.4 for two months.

Notable Ohio earthquakes in the 21st century include one occurring on December 31, 2011, approximately northwest of Youngstown, and one occurring on June 10, 2019, approximately north-northwest of Eastlake under ; both registered a 4.0 magnitude.

There are thirteen metropolitan statistical areas in Ohio, anchored by sixteen cities, as defined by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget. Additionally, 30 Ohio cities function as centers of micropolitan statistical areas, urban clusters smaller than that of metropolitan areas. Ohio's three largest cities are Columbus, , and .

Columbus is the capital of the state, located near its geographic center, and is well known for Ohio State University. In 2019, the city had six corporations named to the U.S. Fortune 500 list: , Nationwide Mutual Insurance Company, American Electric Power, , Huntington Bancshares, and in suburban Dublin. Other major employers include hospitals (among others, Wexner Medical Center and Nationwide Children's Hospital), high tech research and development including the Battelle Memorial Institute, information-based companies such as and Chemical Abstracts Service, manufacturer Worthington Industries, and financial institutions such as and Huntington Bancshares. Fast food chains Wendy's and White Castle are also headquartered in Columbus.

Located in along the Lake Erie shore, Cleveland is characterized by its heritage, ethnic immigrant cultures, and history as a major American manufacturing and healthcare center. It anchors the Cleveland–Akron–Canton Combined Statistical Area, of which the industrial cities of Akron and Canton are constituent parts. Mansfield, Sandusky and Youngstown are also major cities in the region. Northeast Ohio is known for major industrial companies Goodyear Tire and Rubber and , top-ranked colleges Case Western Reserve University, , and Kent State University, the , and cultural attractions including the Cleveland Museum of Art, Big Five member Cleveland Orchestra, Cuyahoga Valley National Park, , the Pro Football Hall of Fame, and the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.

Cincinnati anchors Southwest Ohio and the Cincinnati metropolitan area, which also encompasses counties in the neighboring states of and . The metropolitan area is home to and the University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati Union Terminal, Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra, and various Fortune 500 companies including Procter & Gamble, , Macy's, Inc., and Fifth Third Bank. Dayton and Springfield are located in the Miami Valley, which is home to the University of Dayton, the , and the extensive Wright-Patterson Air Force Base.

Toledo and Lima are the major cities in Northwest Ohio, an area known for its glass-making industry. It is home to and , two Fortune 500 corporations.

Steubenville is the only metropolitan city in , a region known for its mixed mesophytic forests. Other metropolitan areas that contain cities in Ohio, but are primarily in other states include the Huntington, West Virginia and Wheeling, West Virginia areas. Ohio is the US state with the highest number of cities with the same name as UK cities. Map of UK cities which share names with US cities


From just over 45,000 residents in 1800, Ohio's population grew faster than 10% per decade (except for the 1940 census) until the 1970 census, which recorded just over 10.65 million Ohioans. Growth then slowed for the next four decades. The United States Census Bureau counted 11,808,848 in the 2020 census, a 2.4% increase since the 2010 United States census. Ohio's population growth lags that of the entire United States, and are found in a greater density than the U.S. average. , Ohio's center of population is located in Morrow County, in the of Mount Gilead. This is approximately south and west of Ohio's population center in 1990.

[[file:Ohio change in population by county 2010 to 2020.svg|thumb|right|Population growth by county in Ohio between the 2010 and 2020 censuses.

As of 2011, 27.6% of Ohio's children under the age of 1 belonged to minority groups." Americans under age1 now mostly minorities, but not in Ohio: Statistical Snapshot ". The Plain Dealer. June 3, 2012. Approximately 6.2% of Ohio's population was under five years of age, 23.7% under 18 years of age, and 14.1% were 65 or older; females made up an estimated 51.2% of the population.

According to HUD's 2022 Annual Homeless Assessment Report, there were an estimated 10,654 people in Ohio.

Birth data
Note: Births in table do not add up because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.

+ Live births by single race/ethnicity of mother
109,749 (79.0%)110,003 (78.9%)109,566 (78.7%)..................
> non-Hispanic White104,059 (74.9%)104,102 (74.6%)103,586 (74.4%)100,225 (72.6%)98,762 (72.1%)97,423 (72.1%)95,621 (71.1%)92,033 (71.2%)92,761 (71.5%)
Black24,952 (18.0%)24,931 (17.9%)25,078 (18.0%)22,337 (16.2%)22,431 (16.4%)22,201 (16.4%)22,555 (16.8%)21,447 (16.6%)20,748 (16.0%)
3,915 (2.8%)4,232 (3.0%)4,367 (3.1%)4,311 (3.1%)4,380 (3.2%)4,285 (3.2%)4,374 (3.3%)3,995 (3.1%)3,862 (3.0%)
American Indian320 (0.2%)301 (0.2%)253 (0.2%)128 (0.1%)177 (0.1%)169 (0.1%)204 (0.2%)102 (>0.1%)107 (>0.1%)
Hispanic (of any race)6,504 (4.7%)6,884 (4.9%)6,974 (5.0%)7,420 (5.4%)7,468 (5.5%)7,432 (5.5%)7,725 (5.7%)7,669 (5.9%)8,228 (6.3%)
Total Ohio138,936 (100%)139,467 (100%)139,264 (100%)138,085 (100%)136,832 (100%)135,134 (100%)134,461 (100%)129,191 (100%)129,791 (100%)

  • Since 2016, data for births of White Hispanic origin are not collected, but included in one Hispanic group; persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

Ethnic composition as of the 2020 census
White (non-Hispanic)
African American (non-Hispanic)
Hispanic or Latino
Native American
Pacific Islander

+ Ohio historic racial breakdown of population

In 2010, there were 469,700 foreign-born residents in Ohio, corresponding to 4.1% of the total population. Of these, 229,049 (2.0%) were naturalized U.S. citizens and 240,699 (2.1%) were not. The largest groups were: Mexico (54,166), India (50,256), China (34,901), Germany (19,219), Philippines (16,410), United Kingdom (15,917), Canada (14,223), Russia (11,763), South Korea (11,307), and Ukraine (10,681). Though predominantly white, Ohio has large black populations in all major metropolitan areas throughout the state, Ohio has a significant Hispanic population made up of Mexicans in Toledo and Columbus, and Puerto Ricans in Cleveland and Columbus, and also has a significant and diverse Asian population in Columbus.

Ancestry groups (which the census defines as not including racial terms) in the state were: 26.5% , 14.1% , 9.0% , 6.4% , 3.8% , 2.5% , 1.9% Scottish, 1.7% Hungarian, 1.6% , 1.5% , 1.2% , 1.1% , and 1.1% Scotch-Irish. Ancestries claimed by less than 1% of the population include Sub-Saharan African, Puerto Rican, , , , , Norwegian, Romanian, Austrian, Lithuanian, , West Indian, Portuguese and .

About 6.7% of the population age 5 years and older reported speaking a language other than English, with 2.2% of the population speaking Spanish, 2.6% speaking other Indo-European languages, 1.1% speaking Asian and Austronesian languages, and 0.8% speaking other languages. Numerically: 10,100,586 spoke , 239,229 Spanish, 55,970 German, 38,990 Chinese, 33,125 , and 32,019 French. In addition, 59,881 spoke a and 42,673 spoke another West Germanic language according to the 2010 census. Ohio also had the nation's largest population of , second largest of , second largest of Pennsylvania Dutch (German) speakers, and the third largest of .

According to Public Religion Research Institute's 2021 American Values Survey, 64% of Ohioans identified as . Specifically, 19% of Ohio's population identified as Mainline Protestant, 17% as , 7% as , and 18% as . Roughly 30% of the population were unaffiliated with any religious body. Small minorities of (2%), (1%), Jehovah's Witnesses (<1%), (<1%), (<1%), (<1%), and other faiths exist according to this study. Altogether, those identifying with a religion or spiritual tradition were 70% of the state's population.

Per the Association of Religion Data Archives's (ARDA) 2020 study, Christianity remained the predominant religion. Non-denominational Christianity, numbering 1,411,863, were the largest Protestant cohort, although Catholicism remained the single-largest denomination with 1,820,233 adherents. According to the ARDA, in 2010 the largest Christian denominations by adherents were the with 1,992,567; the United Methodist Church with 496,232; the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America with 223,253, the Southern Baptist Convention with 171,000, the Christian Churches and Churches of Christ with 141,311, the United Church of Christ with 118,000, and the Presbyterian Church (USA) with 110,000. With about 80,000 adherents in 2020, Ohio had the second largest Amish population of all U.S. states, only behind neighboring .

According to a poll in 2014, a majority of Ohioans, 56%, felt religion was "very important", 25% that it was "somewhat important", and 19% that religion was "not too important/not important at all". Among them, 38% of Ohioans indicate that they attend religious services at least once weekly, 32% occasionally, and 30% seldom or never.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the total number of people employed in 2016 was 4,790,178. The total number of unique employer establishments was 252,201, while the total number of non-employer establishments was 785,833. In 2010, Ohio was ranked second in the country for best business climate by Site Selection magazine, based on a business-activity database. The state has also won three consecutive Governor's Cup awards from the magazine, based on business growth and developments. "Columbus Chamber Announces Ohio Ranked on 'Top 10 Business Climates' List for 2009" , Earth Times. Retrieved November 19, 2009. , Ohio's gross domestic product (GDP) was $626 billion. This ranks Ohio's economy as the seventh-largest among all 50 states and Washington, D.C.

The Small Business & Entrepreneurship Council ranked the state No. 10 for best business-friendly tax systems in their Business Tax Index 2009, including a top corporate tax and capital gains rate that were both ranked No. 6 at 1.9%. "Business Tax Index 2009" , SMALL BUSINESS & ENTREPRENEURSHIP COUNCIL. Retrieved December 2, 2009. Ohio was ranked No. 11 by the council for best friendly-policy states according to their Small Business Survival Index 2009. "SMALL BUSINESS SURVIVAL INDEX 2009" , SMALL BUSINESS & ENTREPRENEURSHIP COUNCIL. Retrieved December 2, 2009. The Directorship's Boardroom Guide ranked the state No. 13 overall for best business climate, including No. 7 for best litigation climate. "The Best States for Business" , Directorship. Retrieved December 2, 2009. Forbes ranked the state No. 8 for best regulatory environment in 2009. "The Best States For Business" , Forbes. Retrieved December 2, 2009. Ohio has five of the top 115 colleges in the nation, according to U.S. News & World Reports 2010 rankings, "Best Colleges 2010" , U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved December 2, 2009. and was ranked No. 8 by the same magazine in 2008 for best high schools. "Best High Schools: State by State Statistics" , U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved December 2, 2009.

Ohio's unemployment rate stands at 4.5% as of February 2018, Ohio unemployment rate 4.5% in February; state gained 13,400 jobs Retrieved March 24, 2018 down from 10.7% in May 2010. ; Local Area Unemployment Statistics "Jobless rates fall again in southeastern Ohio" , Zanesville Times-Recorder. June 23, 2010. Retrieved June 25, 2010. The state still lacks 45,000 jobs compared to the pre-recession numbers of 2007.Olivera Perkins (May 22, 2015) Ohio's unemployment rate up to 5.2 percent: 5 things you need to know The labor force participation as of April 2015 is 63%, slightly above the national average. Ohio's per capita income stands at $34,874. "Strickland: Mature leader needed, rival Kasich is too radical" , Dayton Daily News. June 22, 2010. Retrieved June 25, 2010. , Ohio's median household income is $58,642, Ohio Household Income Accessed June 8, 2021 and 13.1% of the population is below the poverty line. Poverty Rate in Ohio Statista.

The and financial activities sectors each compose 18.3% of Ohio's GDP, making them Ohio's largest industries by percentage of GDP. Ohio has the third largest manufacturing workforce behind California and Texas. Manufacturing a High-Wage Ohio Accessed March 24, 2018 Ohio Remains Among The Top Three States for Manufacturing Employment and Wages Retrieved March 24, 2018 Ohio has the largest bioscience sector in the Midwest, and is a national leader in the "green" economy. Ohio is the largest producer in the country of plastics, rubber, fabricated metals, electrical equipment, and appliances. "Economic Overview" , Ohio Department of Development, p. 1. Retrieved November 19, 2009. 5,212,000 Ohioans are currently employed by wage or salary.

By employment, Ohio's largest sector is trade/transportation/utilities, which employs 1,010,000 Ohioans, or 19.4% of Ohio's workforce, while the health care and education sector employs 825,000 Ohioans (15.8%). Government employs 787,000 Ohioans (15.1%), manufacturing employs 669,000 Ohioans (12.9%), and professional and technical services employs 638,000 Ohioans (12.2%). Ohio's manufacturing sector is the third-largest of all fifty United States states in terms of gross domestic product. Fifty-nine of the United States' top 1,000 publicly traded companies (by revenue in 2008) are headquartered in Ohio, including Procter & Gamble, Goodyear Tire & Rubber, , , Abercrombie & Fitch, and Wendy's.

Ohio is also one of 41 states with its own lottery, the . , the Ohio Lottery has contributed more than $26 billion to education beginning in 1974. Local Circleville Lottery Winner Name Released The Scioto Press. September 25, 2020.


Many major east–west transportation corridors go through Ohio. One of those pioneer routes, known in the early 20th century as "Main Market Route 3", was chosen in 1913 to become part of the historic which was the first road across America, connecting New York City to San Francisco. In Ohio, the Lincoln Highway linked many towns and cities together, including Canton, Mansfield, Wooster, Lima, and Van Wert. The arrival of the Lincoln Highway to Ohio was a major influence on the development of the state. Upon the advent of the federal numbered highway system in 1926, the Lincoln Highway through Ohio became U.S. Route 30.

Ohio is home to of the historic , now U.S. Route 40.

Ohio has a highly developed network of roads and interstate highways. Major east-west through routes include the (I-80/I-90) in the north, I-76 through Akron to , I-70 through Columbus and Dayton, and the Appalachian Highway (State Route 32) running from to . Major north–south routes include I-75 in the west through Toledo, Dayton, and Cincinnati, I-71 through the middle of the state from through Columbus and Cincinnati into , and I-77 in the eastern part of the state from Cleveland through Akron, Canton, New Philadelphia and Marietta south into West Virginia. Interstate 75 between Cincinnati and Dayton is one of the heaviest traveled sections of interstate in Ohio.

Ohio also has a highly developed network of signed state bicycle routes. Many of them follow , with conversion ongoing. The Ohio to Erie Trail (route 1) connects Cincinnati, Columbus, and Cleveland. U.S. Bicycle Route 50 traverses Ohio from Steubenville to the Indiana state line outside Richmond.

Ohio has several long-distance hiking trails, the most prominent of which is the which extends in a loop around the state of Ohio. Part of it is on roads and part is on wooded trail. Additionally, the North Country Trail (the longest of the eleven National Scenic Trails authorized by Congress) and the American Discovery Trail (a system of recreational trails and roads that collectively form a coast-to-coast route across the mid-tier of the ) pass through Ohio. Much of these two trails coincide with the Buckeye Trail.

Ohio has an extensive rail network, though today most lines carry only freight traffic. Three Class I freight railroads operate in Ohio: CSX Transportation, Norfolk Southern Railway, and Canadian National Railway. Many local freight carriers also exist in the state.

, the national passenger railroad, operates three long-distance rail routes through Ohio. The Lake Shore Limited serves , , , , and . The stops in those cities as well as in . The Cardinal serves Cincinnati Union Terminal. From Ohio, passengers can ride directly to , , , , , , , and dozens of destinations in-between.

Columbus is the largest city in the United States without any form of passenger rail. Its Union Station was last served in 1979 by the National Limited.

Ohio is home to several and museums, including the Cuyahoga Valley Scenic Railroad through Cuyahoga Valley National Park, the Age of Steam Roundhouse museum, and the Hocking Valley Scenic Railway near Hocking Hills State Park.

Mass transit exists in many forms in Ohio cities, primarily through bus systems. The Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority (GCRTA) operates the RTA Rapid Transit system, which consists of one heavy rail line, three light rail lines, and three bus rapid transit lines. Cincinnati is served by the Southwest Ohio Regional Transit Authority (SORTA) bus network as well as a line, the Cincinnati Bell Connector. Other major transit agencies in Ohio include the Central Ohio Transit Authority (COTA) serving Columbus and the Greater Dayton Regional Transit Authority (GDRTA) serving Dayton.

Air travel
Ohio has four international airports, four commercial, and two military. The four international include Cleveland Hopkins International Airport, John Glenn Columbus International Airport, Dayton International Airport, and Rickenbacker International Airport (one of two military airfields). The other military airfield is Wright Patterson Air Force Base which is one of the largest Air Force bases in the United States. Other major airports are located in Toledo and Akron. Cincinnati's primary airport, Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport, is in Hebron, Kentucky, and therefore is not included in Ohio airport lists.


Law and government
The state government of Ohio consists of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches.

Executive branch
The executive branch is headed by the governor of Ohio. The current governor is since 2019, a member of the Republican Party. A lieutenant governor succeeds the governor in the event of any removal from office, and performs any duties assigned by the governor. The current lieutenant governor is . The other elected constitutional offices in the executive branch are the secretary of state (), auditor (), treasurer (), and attorney general (). There are 21 state administrative departments in the executive branch.
(1994). 9780873385091, Kent State University Press.
Ohio Revised Code § 121.01 et seq. Ohio Revised Code § 5703.01 et seq. Ohio Revised Code § 3301.13.

Legislative branch
The Ohio General Assembly is a legislature consisting of the and House of Representatives. The Senate is composed of 33 districts, each of which is represented by one senator. Each senator represents approximately 330,000 constituents. The House of Representatives is composed of 99 members. The Republican Party is the controlling party in both houses as of the 2020 election cycle.

In order to be enacted into law, a bill must be adopted by both houses of the General Assembly and signed by the Governor. If the Governor vetoes a bill, the General Assembly can override the veto with a three-fifths supermajority of both houses. A bill will also become a law if the Governor fails to sign or veto it within 10 days of its being presented. The are published in the official Law of Ohio. These in turn have been codified in the Ohio Revised Code.

The General Assembly, with the approval of the Governor, draws the U.S. congressional district lines for Ohio's 16 seats in the United States House of Representatives. The Ohio Apportionment Board draws state legislative district lines in Ohio.

Judicial branch
There are three levels of the Ohio state . The lowest level is the court of common pleas: each county maintains its own constitutionally mandated court of common pleas, which maintain jurisdiction over "all justiciable matters". The intermediate-level court system is the district court system. Twelve courts of appeals exist, each retaining jurisdiction over appeals from common pleas, municipal, and county courts in a set geographical area. A case heard in this system is decided by a three-judge panel, and each judge is elected.

The state's highest-ranking court is the Ohio Supreme Court. A seven-justice panel composes the court, which, by its own discretion, hears appeals from the courts of appeals, and retains original jurisdiction over limited matters.

Local government
There are also several levels of local government in Ohio: counties, municipalities (cities and villages), townships, special districts, and school districts.

Ohio is divided into 88 counties. Ohio law defines a structure for county government, although they may adopt charters for home rule. Summit County and Cuyahoga County have chosen an alternate form of government. The other counties have a government with a three-member board of county commissioners,Ohio Revised Code § 305.01 et seq. a sheriff,Ohio Revised Code § 311.01 coroner,Ohio Revised Code § 313.01 auditor,Ohio Revised Code § 319.01 treasurer,Ohio Revised Code § 321.01 clerk of the court of common pleasOhio Revised Code § 2303.01 prosecutor,Ohio Revised Code § 309.01 engineer,Ohio Revised Code § 315.01 and recorder.Ohio Revised Code § 317.01

There are two kinds of incorporated municipalities, 251 cities and 681 villages. If a municipality has five thousand or more residents as of the last United States Census it is a city, otherwise it is a village. Municipalities have full home rule powers, may adopt a charter, ordinances and resolutions for self-government. Each municipality chooses its own form of government, but most have elected mayors and city councils or city commissions. City governments provide much more extensive services than county governments, such as police forces and paid (as opposed to volunteer) fire departments.

The entire area of the state is encompassed by townships. When the boundaries of a township are coterminous with the boundaries of a city or village, the township ceases to exist as a separate government (called a ). Townships are governed by a three-member board of township trustees. Townships may have limited home rule powers.

There are more than 600 city, local, and exempted village school districts providing K-12 education in Ohio, as well as about four dozen joint vocation school districts, which are separate from the K-12 districts. Each city school district, local school district, or exempted village school district is governed by an elected board of education. A school district previously under state supervision (municipal school district) may be governed by a board whose members either are elected or appointed by the mayor of the municipality containing the greatest portion of the district's area.


"Mother of presidents"
Six U.S. presidents hailed from Ohio at the time of their elections, giving rise to its nickname "mother of presidents", a sobriquet it shares with . It is also termed "modern mother of presidents", in contrast to Virginia's status as the origin of presidents earlier in American history. Seven presidents were born in Ohio, making it second to Virginia's eight. Virginia-born William Henry Harrison lived most of his life in Ohio and is also buried there. Harrison conducted his political career while living on the family compound, founded by his father-in-law, John Cleves Symmes, in North Bend, Ohio. The seven presidents born in Ohio were Ulysses S. Grant (elected from ), Rutherford B. Hayes, James A. Garfield, Benjamin Harrison (grandson of William Henry Harrison & elected from ), , William Howard Taft and Warren G. Harding.
(2003). 9780756503161, Capstone. .
All seven were Republicans.

Electoral history
Ohio has been considered a , being won by either the Democratic or Republican candidates reasonably each election. As such, Ohio is usually targeted by both major-party campaigns, especially in competitive elections. Pivotal in the election of 1888, Ohio has been a regular swing state since 1980 and has been considered a . Trolling the Campuses for Swing-State Votes , Julie Salamon, "The New York Times", October 2, 2004 Game Theory for Swingers , Jordan Ellenberg, "", October 25, 2004 This status, however, was called into question after incumbent Republican won the state by a comfortable eight-point margin in the 2020 presidential election despite losing nationally to Democratic challenger . 'Ohio has taken a different turn' - Why Ohio no longer appears to be a swing state. , November 12, 2020

Historian R. Douglas Hurt asserts that not since Virginia "had a state made such a mark on national political affairs".Holli (1999), p. 162. notes that "This slice of the mid-west contains a bit of everything American—part north-eastern and part southern, part urban and part rural, part hardscrabble poverty and part booming suburb". " A grain of sand for your thoughts" , The Economist, December 20, 2005. Retrieved December 23, 2005. Since 1896, Ohio has had only three misses in the general election (Thomas E. Dewey in 1944, Richard Nixon in 1960, and Donald Trump in 2020) and had the longest perfect streak of any state, voting for the winning presidential candidate in each election from 1964 to 2016, and in 33 of the 38 held since the Civil War. No Republican has ever won the presidency without winning Ohio.

As of 2019, there are more than 7.8 million registered Ohioan voters, with 1.3 million Democrats and 1.9 million Republicans. They are disproportionate in age, with a million more over 65 than there are 18- to 24-year-olds. Since the 2010 midterm elections, Ohio's voter demographic has leaned towards the Republican Party. The governor, , is Republican, as are all other non-judicial statewide elected officials, including Lieutenant Governor Jon A. Husted, Attorney General , State Auditor , Secretary of State and State Treasurer . In the Ohio State Senate the Republicans are the majority, 25–8, and in the Ohio House of Representatives the Republicans control the delegation 64–35.

Losing one seat in the U.S. House of Representatives following the 2020 census, Ohio has 15 seats for the two presidential elections of the decade in 2024 and 2028. As of the 2022 cycle, ten federal representatives are Republicans while five are Democrats. (D-09) is the most senior member of the Ohio delegation to the U.S. House of Representatives. The senior U.S. senator, , is a Democrat, while the junior, J. D. Vance, is a Republican.

Allegations of voter suppression
Since 1994, the state has had a policy of purging infrequent voters from its rolls. In April 2016, a lawsuit was filed, challenging this policy on the grounds that it violated the National Voter Registration Act (NVRA) of 1993 and the Help America Vote Act of 2002. In June, the federal district court ruled for the plaintiffs and entered a preliminary injunction applicable only to the November 2016 election. The preliminary injunction was upheld in September by the Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit. Had it not been upheld, thousands of voters would have been purged from the rolls just a few weeks before the election.

It was estimated in 2017 that the state has removed up to two million voters since 2011.Clinton, Hillary Rodham, What Happened (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2017), p. 419

In a 2020 study, Ohio was ranked as the 17th hardest state for citizens to vote in.

Ohio's system of is outlined in Article VI of the state constitution, and in Title XXXIII of the Ohio Revised Code. , the first university in the Northwest Territory, was also the first public institution in Ohio. Substantively, Ohio's system is similar to those found in other states. At the State level, the Ohio Department of Education, which is overseen by the Ohio State Board of Education, governs primary and secondary educational institutions. At the municipal level, there are approximately 700 school districts statewide. The Ohio Board of Regents coordinates and assists with Ohio's institutions of higher education which have recently been reorganized into the University System of Ohio under Governor Strickland. The system averages an annual enrollment of more than 400,000 students, making it one of the five largest state university systems in the U.S.

Colleges and universities
Ohio schools consistently ranking in the top 50 nationally of the U.S. News & World Report of liberal arts colleges are Ohio Big Three; Denison University, , and . Ranking in the top 100 of national research universities typically includes Case Western Reserve University, Ohio State University and .

  • 13 state universities
    • Bowling Green State University (Bowling Green)
    • Central State University (Wilberforce)
    • Cleveland State University ()
    • Kent State University (Kent)
    • (Oxford)
    • Ohio State University, (Columbus)
    • (Athens)
    • Shawnee State University (Portsmouth)
    • University of Akron (Akron)
    • University of Cincinnati ()
    • University of Toledo (Toledo)
    • Wright State University ()
    • Youngstown State University (Youngstown)
  • 24 state university branch and regional campuses
  • 46 private colleges and universities
  • 6 free-standing state-assisted
    • Boonshoft School of Medicine, Wright State University
    • Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine, Ohio University
    • Northeast Ohio Medical University
    • The Ohio State University College of Medicine and Public Health
    • University of Cincinnati College of Medicine
    • University of Toledo College of Medicine (formerly Medical University of Ohio)
  • 15 community colleges
  • 8 technical colleges
  • 24 independent non-profit colleges

Ohio is home to some of the nation's highest-ranked public libraries. The 2008 study by Thomas J. Hennen Jr. ranked Ohio as number one in a state-by-state comparison. For 2008, 31 of Ohio's library systems were all ranked in the top ten for American cities of their population category.
  • 500,000 books or more
    • Columbus Metropolitan Library (First)
    • Cuyahoga County Public Library (Second)
    • Public Library of Cincinnati and Hamilton County (Tenth)

The Ohio Public Library Information Network (OPLIN) is an organization that provides Ohio residents with internet access to their 251 public libraries. OPLIN also provides Ohioans with free home access to high-quality, subscription research databases.

Ohio also offers the program, allowing Ohio's libraries (particularly those from colleges and universities) access to materials for the other libraries. The program is largely successful in allowing researchers for access to books and other media that might not be otherwise available.



The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and the Rhythm and Blues Music Hall of Fame are both located in . Cleveland is credited with coining the term and promoting rock and roll in the early 1950s. is home to the American Classical Music Hall of Fame and Museum.

Popular musicians from Ohio include , , , and of Twenty One Pilots, , , the McGuire Sisters, the Isley Brothers, , , , , , , Nine Inch Nails, , and of the Black Keys, , , , of , of , William "Bootsy" Collins, Stephanie Eulinberg of 's Twisted Brown Trucker Band, and . Five Ohio musicians are Rock and Roll Hall of Fame members.

Performing arts
in downtown is the second-largest performing arts center in the United States, home to ten theaters. The Cleveland Orchestra is one of the historic Big Five orchestras in the U.S., and is considered among the best worldwide.

Many other Ohio cities are home to their own orchestras, including Akron, Blue Ash, Canton, Cincinnati, Columbus, Dayton, Toledo, and Youngstown. Cincinnati is home to its own ballet, symphony orchestra, pops orchestra, and , all housed at the Cincinnati Music Hall. Dayton is also home to a ballet, orchestra, and opera, collectively known as the Dayton Performing Arts Alliance.

The Columbus Association for the Performing Arts manages seven historic Columbus area theaters.

Within the marching arts, Winter Guard International has hosted national championships in performing arts at the University of Dayton 18 times between 1983 and 2003, and has permanently since 2005. The Bluecoats Drum and Bugle Corps are Ohio's highest fielding drum corps, competing in the Drum Corps International World Class circuit out of Canton.

Visual arts
Ohio is home to 30 art institutions, including the Columbus Museum of Art, Cincinnati Art Museum, Cleveland Museum of Art, and other entities. The full list includes:

  • Akron Art Museum,
  • Allen Memorial Art Museum,
  • Billy Ireland Cartoon Library & Museum, Ohio State University
  • Burchfield Homestead, Salem
  • Butler Institute of American Art, Youngstown
  • Canton Museum of Art, Canton
  • Cincinnati Art Museum,
  • Cleveland Museum of Art,
  • Columbus Museum of Art, Columbus
  • Contemporary Arts Center,
  • Dayton Art Institute, Dayton
  • Frank Museum of Art, Otterbein University
  • National Imperial Glass Museum, Bellaire
  • Kennedy Museum of Art,
  • Temple Museum of Religious Art, Case Western Reserve University
  • Mansfield Art Center, Mansfield
  • McDonough Museum of Art, Youngstown State University
  • Miami University Art Museum,
  • Museum of Ceramics, East Liverpool
  • Museum of Contemporary Art Cleveland,
  • Ohio Glass Museum, Lancaster
  • Richard Ross Museum of Art, Ohio Wesleyan University
  • Springfield Center for the Arts at Wittenberg University, Wittenberg University
  • Taft Museum of Art,
  • Toledo Museum of Art, Toledo
  • Toy and Plastic Brick Museum, Bellaire
  • University of Findlay's Mazza Museum, University of Findlay
  • Wexner Center for the Arts, Ohio State University
  • , Sidney

The Cincinnati Art Museum holds over 100,000 works spanning 6,000 years of human history, being among the most comprehensive collections in the . Among its notable collections are works by Master of San Baudelio, Jorge Ingles, Sandro Botticelli ( Judith with Head of Holofernes), Matteo di Giovanni, Domenico Tintoretto ( Portrait of Venetian dux Marino Grimani), , , , Bartolomé Esteban Murillo ( St. Thomas of Villanueva), Peter Paul Rubens ( Samson and Delilah) and Aert van der Neer. The collection also includes works by Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, , ( Rocks At Belle Isle), and . The museum also has a large collection of paintings by American painter ( Elizabeth B. Duveneck).

The Cleveland Museum of Art is internationally renowned for its substantial holdings of and Egyptian art, and has a permanent collection of more than 61,000 works from around the world. It is the fourth-wealthiest art museum in the .

The Columbus Museum of Art holds nineteenth and early twentieth-century American and European art, including early paintings by and , works by François Boucher, Paul Cézanne, , Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, , , , , and , and installations by , , , and . Also in Columbus, the Billy Ireland Cartoon Library & Museum collection includes 450,000 original cartoons, 36,000 books, 51,000 serial titles, and of manuscript materials, plus 2.5 million comic strip clippings and tear sheets, making it the largest research library for cartoon art.

Youngstown's Butler Institute of American Art was the first museum to be dedicated exclusively to American art.


Professional sports teams
Ohio is home to eight professional sports teams across the five different major leagues in the United States. Current teams include the and Cleveland Guardians of Major League Baseball, the Columbus Crew SC and of Major League Soccer, the Cleveland Cavaliers of the National Basketball Association, the Cincinnati Bengals and of the National Football League, and the Columbus Blue Jackets of the National Hockey League.

Ohio has brought home seven titles (Reds 1919, 1940, 1975, 1976, 1990; Indians 1920, 1948), two (Crew 2008, 2020), one (Cavaliers 2016), and nine NFL Championships (Pros 1920; Bulldogs 1922, 1923, 1924; Rams 1945; Browns 1950, 1954, 1955, 1964). Despite this success in the in the first half of the 20th century, no Ohio team has won the since its inception in 1967. No Ohio team has made an appearance in the Stanley Cup Finals.

Ohio played a central role in the development of both Major League Baseball and the National Football League. Baseball's first fully professional team, the Cincinnati Red Stockings of 1869, were organized in Ohio. An informal early-20th-century American football association, the , was the direct predecessor of the modern NFL, although neither of Ohio's modern NFL franchises trace their roots to an Ohio League club. The NFL itself was founded in Canton, Ohio in 1920 as the American Professional Football Conference. The first official game occurred on October 3, 1920, when the beat the Columbus Panhandles 14–0 in Dayton. Canton would later be enshrined as the home of the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1963.

On a smaller scale, Ohio hosts minor league baseball, , indoor football, mid-level hockey, and lower division soccer.

Individual sports
The Mid-Ohio Sports Car Course has hosted several auto racing championships, including CART World Series, , Nationwide Series, , Formula 5000, IMSA GT Championship, American Le Mans Series and Rolex Sports Car Series. The Grand Prix of Cleveland also hosted CART races from 1982 to 2007. The is a major dirt oval that hosts NASCAR Camping World Truck Series, World of Outlaws Sprint Cars and USAC Silver Crown Series races.

Ohio hosts two events, the WGC-Bridgestone Invitational and Memorial Tournament. The Cincinnati Masters is an ATP World Tour Masters 1000 and WTA Premier 5 tennis tournament.

College sports
Ohio has eight NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision college football teams, divided among three different conferences. It has also experienced considerable success in the secondary and tertiary tiers of college football divisions.

There are two programs in the Power Five conferences; the Ohio State Buckeyes of the Big Ten Conference and the Cincinnati Bearcats of the Big 12 Conference. The Ohio State Buckeyes football team is second in all-time winning percentage, with a 931–327–53 overall record and a 25–26 as of 2020. The program has produced seven winners, forty conference titles, and eight undisputed national championships. The men's basketball program has appeared in the NCAA Division I men's basketball tournament 27 times.

The Cincinnati Bearcats men's basketball team has over 1,800 wins and 33 March Madness appearances, whilst the Bearcats football team became the first so-called "Group of Five" team to qualify to the College Football Playoff in 2022.

In the Group of Five conferences, six teams are represented in the Mid-American Conference: the , Bowling Green Falcons, Kent State Golden Flashes, , and the . The MAC headquarters are in Cleveland. The Cincinnati–Miami rivalry game has been played in southwest Ohio every year since 1888 and is the oldest current non-conference rivalry.

Other Division I schools, either part of the NCAA Division I Football Championship Subdivision or not fielding in football include the Cleveland State Vikings, Xavier Musketeers, Wright State Raiders, and Youngstown State Penguins. Xavier's men's basketball has performed particularly well, with 27 March Madness appearances. Youngstown State's football has the third most NCAA Division I Football Championship wins, with 3.

There are 12 NCAA Division II universities and 22 NCAA Division III universities in Ohio.

See also
  • Index of Ohio-related articles
  • Outline of Ohio


  • Profiles of Ohio: history, statistics, demographics for all 1,339 populated places in Ohio, with detailed state and government histories, plus comparative statistics & rankings. (6th ed. Grey House Publishing, 2021). 828pp ; covers 88 counties, 248 cities and 689 villages.
  • Cayton, Andrew R. L. (2002). Ohio: The History of a People. Columbus, OH: The Ohio State University Press.
  • Kern, Kevin F., and Gregory S. Wilson. (2013) Ohio: A History of the Buckeye State (Wiley-Blackwell, 2013), 544pp
  • Knepper, George W. (1989). Ohio and Its People. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press.
  • Holli, Melvin G. (1999). The American Mayor. State College, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.
  • Roseboom, Eugene H.; Weisenburger, Francis P. (1967). A History of Ohio. Columbus: The Ohio Historical Society.
  • (1997). 9781575880877, William S Hein & Co.

External links

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