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Tag Wiki 'Monogram'.

A monogram is a motif made by overlapping or combining two or more letters or other to form one . Monograms are often made by combining the initials of an individual or a company, used as recognizable symbols or . A series of uncombined initials is properly referred to as a cypher (e.g. a ) and is not a monogram.The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (Fifth edition; 2002) defines it as a "device composed of two or more letters... interwoven together." Volume 1, p. 1820.

Monograms first appeared on coins, as early as 350 BC. The earliest known examples are of the names of Greek cities which issued the coins, often the first two letters of the city's name. For example, the monogram of Achaea consisted of the letters (Α) and chi (Χ) joined together.Henry Noel Humphreys, The Coin Collector's Manual, Or Guide to Numismatic Student in the Formation of a Cabinet of Coins (Bibliolife, 2008), 226.

Monograms have been used as signatures by artists and on paintings, sculptures and pieces of furniture, especially when enforced measures against unauthorized participation in the trade. A famous example of a monogram serving as an artist's signature is the "AD" used by Albrecht Dürer.

Over the centuries, monograms of the name of Jesus Christ have been used as Christian symbols. The consists of the initial Greek letters of the name "Jesus Christ," "I" for Ιησούς, ( in Greek) and "X" for Χριστος (Christ in Greek). The "IHS" Christogram, denoting the first three letters of the Greek name of Jesus, is usually written as a cypher, but sometimes as a monogram.

Perhaps the most significant is the , formed from the first two letters of Χριστος. The symbol was used by the Roman emperor Constantine I (r. 306–337) as part of a military standard.

Royal monograms
(sometimes also known as Chrismon) refers to the medieval practice, current from the Merovingian period until the 14th century in the and its successors, of signing a document or charter with a special type of monogram or royal cypher.

Monograms of the names of are used as part of the insignia of public organizations in kingdoms, such as on police badges. This indicates a connection to the ruler. However, the , so familiar on , is not technically a monogram, since the letters are not combined.

Royal monograms often appear on coins, frequently surmounted by a crown. Countries that have employed this device in the past include , , , and many German states. Today, several carry the monogram of Margrethe II, while the current Norwegian 1 has the "H5" monogram of Harald V on the obverse. Coins , at the website. The only countries using the to have a royal monogram as their national identifying mark are Belgium and Monaco.A commemorative €2 coin from Luxembourg carried the monogram of Grand Duke Henri. In Thailand, royal monograms appear on the individual flag for each major royal family member.

Individual monograms
An individual's monogram may appear in stylized form on stationery, luggage, clothing, or other personalized items. These monograms may have two or three letters.

A basic 3-letter monogram has the initial of the individual's last name (surname) set larger, or with some special treatment in the center, while the first name initial appears to the left of it and the middle name initial appears to the right of it. There is a difference in how this is written for men and women. For example, if the individual's name is Mary Ann Jones, and Jones is the surname, then the arrangement of letters would be thus: MJA, with the surname initial set larger in the center, the M for Mary to the left and the A for Ann to the right.Jeanine Twigg, Embroidery Machine Essentials: How to Stabilize, Hoop and Stitch Decorative Designs, KP Craft, 2001, , p. 43. Traditionally, individual monograms for men are based on the order of the name. The name Kyle George Martin would be written ( KGM).

Married or engaged couples may use two-letter monograms of their entwined initials, for example on wedding invitations. Married couples may also create three-letter monograms incorporating the initial of their shared surname. For example, the monogram MJA might be used for Michael and Alice Jones. However, monogramming etiquette for the married couple varies according to the item being monogrammed. Linens, for example, typically list the woman's given initial first, followed by the couple's shared surname initial and then the man's given initial ( AJM). Monograms can often be found on custom dress shirts where they can be located in a number of different positions.

Some personal monograms have become famous symbols in their own right and instantly recognizable to many, such as J.R.R. Tolkien's monogram.

Other monograms
Some companies and organizations adopt a monogram for a logo, usually with the letters of their . For example, as well as having an official seal, and the logo, the University of Texas at Austin uses a "UT" monogram (in the same color as the Longhorns logo, ). The New York Yankees baseball team also uses a monogram on their insignia. The Consolidated Edison logo, with a rounded "E" nested inside a "C", has been described as a "classic emblem."BusinessWeek online, Con Ed: The Power of a Logo, 11 August 2005.

Many fashion companies have a monogram for a logo, including and . The connected "CC" company logo, created by , is one of the most recognizable monograms internationally.

The victor is a monogram of the Latin victor or Spanish vítor painted on Spanish and Hispanic universities to celebrate a student receiving a .

Athletes have also been known to brand merchandise with their monogram logo; notably and .

Resistance symbols in wartime
A notable example of a royal monogram is the H7 monogram of King Haakon VII of Norway. While in exile during World War II, Haakon VII spearheaded the Norwegian resistance to the German occupation, and H7 became a symbol used by the Norwegian populace to mark solidarity and loyalty to the King, and adherence to the Norwegian resistance movement. The act of drawing or creating a H7 symbol in German-occupied Norway was punishable by imprisonment.

Similarly, in Poland during the war, the "PW" monogram was used as a resistance symbol, known as 'The Anchor' (links=no), due to its characteristic shape. Its meaning varied, as the initials were useful for many different slogans, such as 'Poland Fights', 'Warsaw Uprising', 'Polish Army', and others. Like the Norwegian example above, its use was punished by the Nazi occupation authorities.

example is the monogram of La Liga Filipina. The monogram sees the letters L and F as well as two (from what I can describe of the monogram) prisms. The organization was disbanded 3 days after. (7/6/1892)

In the , certain student societies ( Studentenverbindung) use monograms known as Zirkel ("circle", as in "circle of friends"), consisting of the initial letter of the organization's name and/or the letters v,c,f or e,f,v, together with an exclamation mark if the society is still active.

A Japanese rebus monogram is a monogram in a particular style, which spells a name via a , as a form of Japanese wordplay or . Today they are most often seen in corporate logos or product logos.

File:Monogram NS.jpg|Monogram made of a ceramic tile, in Paris File:Chanel logo interlocking cs.svg|'s logo File:Christian VII AR Speciedaler 79001450.jpg|Speciedaler of , bearing the double C7 monogram of Christian VII File:IMG 4341 - Milano - Galleria Vittorio Emanuele - Le 4 capitali Roma - Foto Giovanni Dall'Orto 20-jan 2007.jpg| cypher, detail from the mosaic floor in the Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II File:Kronene i Håvet.JPG| royal monograms carved in a mountainside to mark royal visits to since 1623 File:Louis Vuitton Bucket GM Large Shoulder Bag – Preowned4u.jpg| monogram patterned on a shoulder bag File:Mark Twain-The American Claimant-1896-Logo on Cover.jpg|Logo on cover of 1896 edition of by File:Mongr Serv 01.jpg| with embroidered monogram File:Royal Monogram of King Boris III of Bulgaria.svg|Royal Monogram of Bulgarian king Boris III File:Royal_Monogram_of_King_Rama_X.svg|Royal monogram of King Maha Vajiralongkorn of Thailand File:Somerville_and_Ross_monograms.png|Paired monograms of the authors and Martin Ross File:Royal Monogram of Princess Margarita Of Romania.svg|Cypher of Margareta of Romania.

See also

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