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to the extreme south, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (14 islands) to the north. Active volcanoes are shown with triangles]] The Mariana Islands (also the Marianas) are a crescent-shaped comprising the summits of fifteen mostly dormant volcanic mountains in the western , between the 12th and 21st parallels north and along the 145th meridian east. They lie south-southeast of Japan, west-southwest of Hawaii, north of New Guinea and east of the Philippines, demarcating the 's eastern limit. They are found in the northern part of the western sub-region of , and are politically divided into two jurisdictions of the : the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands and, at the southern end of the chain, the territory of .

The islands were named after the Spanish queen Mariana of Austria. Spaniards, who in the early 16th century were the first Europeans to arrive, eventually annexed and colonized the archipelago. The indigenous inhabitants are the . Archaeologists in 2013 reported findings which indicated that the people who first settled the Marianas arrived there after making what was at the time the longest uninterrupted ocean voyage in human history. They further reported findings which suggested that is likely to have been the first island in Oceania to have been settled by humans.

in the ocean floor.]]The Mariana Islands are the southern part of a submerged that extends from Guam to near . Geographically, the Marianas are the northernmost islands of a larger island group called , situated between 13° and 21°N latitude and 144° and 146°E longitude.

The Mariana Islands have a total land area of . The CIA World Factbook (2006). They are composed of two administrative units:

  • Guam, a US territory
  • the Northern Mariana Islands (including the islands of , and Rota), which make up a Commonwealth of the United States.

The island chain geographically consists of two subgroups, a northern group of ten volcanic main islands, all are currently uninhabited; and a southern group of five coralline limestone islands (Rota, Guam, , and ), all inhabited except Aguijan. In the northern volcanic group a maximum elevation of about is reached; there are craters showing signs of activity, and earthquakes are not uncommon. Coral reefs fringe the coasts of the southern isles, which are of slight elevation.

The lowest point on the Earth's crust, the , is near the islands and is named after them.

The islands are part of a geologic structure known as the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc system, and range in age from 5 million years old in the north to 30 million years old in the south (Guam). The island chain arises as a result of the western edge of the moving westward and plunging downward below the , a region which is the most volcanically active convergent plate boundary on Earth. This region, just east of the island chain, forms the noted , the deepest part of the Earth's oceans and lowest part of the surface of the Earth's crust. In this region, according to geologic theory, water trapped in the extensive faulting of the Pacific Plate as , is heated by the higher temperatures of depth during its subduction, the pressure from the expanding steam results in the hydrothermal activity in the area and the volcanic activity which formed the Mariana Islands.

All the islands, except Farallon de Medinilla and or Farallon de Pajaros (in the northern group), are more or less densely wooded, and the vegetation is dense, much resembling that of the and also of the Philippines, from where species of plants have been introduced. Owing to the moistness of the soil are numerous, as are also most kinds of grasses. On most of the islands there is a plentiful supply of water.

The fauna of the Marianas, though inferior in number and variety, is similar in character to that of the and certain species are indigenous to both island groups. The climate though damp is healthy, while the heat, being tempered by the , is milder than that of the Philippines; the variations of temperature are not great.

The majority of islands in the Marianas which still retain their indigenous names end in the letters -an; e.g. (the indigenous name of Guam), , , /Aguigan, Pagan, Sarigan, etc.


The islands are part of a structure known as the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc system and range in age from 5 million years old in the north to 30 million years old in the south (Guam). The islands are formed as the highly dense and very old western edge of the Pacific plate plunges downward to form the floor of the Mariana Trench and carries trapped water under the Mariana plate as it does so. This water is super-heated as the plate is carried farther downward and results in the volcanic activity which has formed the arc of Mariana Islands above this region.

Archeological studies of human activity on the islands has revealed potteries with red-slipped, circle- and punctate-stamped designs found in the Mariana Islands dating between 1500 and 1400 BC. These artifacts show similar aesthetic with the potteries found in Northern and Central Philippines, the Nagsabaran (Cagayan valley) pottery, which flourished during the period between 2000 and 1300 BC.

Spanish exploration and control
The first to see the island group was the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan who on March 6, 1521, observed a string of islands and sailed between two of them during a Spanish expedition of world circumnavigation. Historically, the southern village of Umatac, Guam has been credited as the site of Magellan's landing, however, scholarly study of the navigator's diary, now kept in preservation in the , revealed a drawing of the islands with a tiny island to the south of a much larger island above it. The described placement of the islands made it much more likely that Magellan had actually sailed between Guam and Cocos Island, and not Guam and Rota, as originally thought. This discovery meant that Magellan could not have landed in Umatac, but more likely in a northern location like Tanguisson or .

Regardless of where he landed, Magellan's ships arrived in Guam and was unable to get fresh food as the inhabitants, , "entered the ships and stole whatever they could lay their hands on", including "the small boat that was fastened to the poop of the flagship."Nowell, C.E., 1962, Magellan's Voyage Around the World, Antonio Pigafetta's account, Evanston: NorthwesternUniversity Press The Spanish crew, however, considered this theft and in retaliation attacked the Chamorros and dubbed the islands Islas de los Ladrones (Islands of the Thieves). "Those people are poor, but ingenious and very thievish, on account of which we called those three islands the islands of Ladrones." Pigafetta writes,

And the captain-general wished to approach the largest of these three islands to replenish his provisions. But it was not possible, for the people of those islands entered the ships and robbed us so that we could not protect ourselves from them. And when we wished to strike and take in the sails so as to land, they stole very quickly the small boat called a skiff which was fastened to the poop of the captain's ship. At which he, being very angry, went ashore with forty armed men. And burning some forty or fifty houses with several boats and killing seven men of the said island, they recovered their skiff.

The islands are still occasionally called the Ladrones, usually ironically by natives, or disparagingly by non-natives. Pigafetta also described the boats the inhabitants used, the sail shaped like a "lateen sail", hence the name Islas de las Velas Latinas (Islands of the ), he name used first as Magellan claimed them for the Spanish crown. San Lazarus archipelago, Jardines ('gardens') and Prazeres are among the names applied to them by later navigators.

In 1667, formally claimed them, established a regular there and gave the islands the official title of Las Marianas, in honor of Spanish Queen Mariana of Austria, widow of Philip IV of Spain. They then had a population of more than 50,000 inhabitants. With the arrival of passengers and settlers aboard the from the Americas, new diseases were introduced in the islands, which caused many deaths in the native population.

(2018). 9781851099511, ABC-CLIO. .
The native population, who referred to themselves as Taotao Tano (people of the land)Warheit, Vanessa "The Insular Empire: America in the Mariana Islands." PBS (documentary). Accessed June 2012. but were known to the early Spanish colonists as Hachamori has died out as a distinct people, though their descendants intermarried. At the Spanish occupation in 1668, the Chamorros were estimated at 50,000, but a century later only 1,800 natives remained, as the majority of the population was of mixed Spanish-Chamorro blood or . They were characteristic Micronesians, with a considerable civilization. In the island of are some remarkable remains attributed to them, consisting of two rows of massive square stone columns, about broad and high, with heavy-round capitals called . According to early Spanish accounts were found embedded in the capitals.

When Spanish settlement started on 14 June 1668, they were subordinate to the Mexican coloy (soon viceroyalty) of , until 1817, when they became subordinated to the , like the bulk of the Spanish East Indies.

Research in the archipelago was carried out by Commodore Anson, who in August 1742 landed upon the island of Tinian. The Ladrones were visited by in 1765, in 1767 and in 1772.

The Marianas and specifically the island of Guam were a stopover for Spanish galleons en route from , to , Philippines in a convoy known as the . Following the 1872 Cavite mutiny, several were exiled to Guam, including the father of , Maximo Paterno, Dr. Antonio M. Regidor y Jurado and Jose Maria Basa.Foreman, J., 1906, The Philippine Islands, A Political, Geographical, Ethnographical, Social, and Commercial History of the Philippine Archipelago, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons

Loss from Spain and split in governance
The Marianas remained a Spanish under the general government of the Philippines until 1898, when, as a result of its loss in the Spanish–American War, ceded to the . Guam has retained a different political character from the Northern Marianas since this time. Following the Philippine–American War, Apolinario Mabini and other leaders were exiled to Guam in 1901.Mabini, A., 1969, The Philippine Revolution, Republic of the Philippines, Dept. of Education, National Historical Commission

Weakened from its defeat in the Spanish–American War, could no longer effectively control and protect the nearly 6,000 islands it retained throughout , including the Northern Marianas, and . Therefore, Spain entered into the German-Spanish Treaty of February 12, 1899 to sell the Northern Marianas and its other remaining islands to for 837,500 German gold marks (about $4,100,000 at the time). The Northern Marianas and other island groups were incorporated by Germany as a small part of the larger German Protectorate of New Guinea. The total population in the Northern Marianas portion of these islands was only 2,646 inhabitants around this time, with the ten most northerly islands being actively volcanic and thus mostly uninhabited.

, allied with the during World War I, seized all of Germany's colonial possessions in East Asia and Micronesia, including the Northern Mariana Islands, and held them through the end of the War. Under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919, Germany was stripped of all her colonies worldwide, including the Palau, Caroline, Northern Mariana and Marshall Islands. By international agreement, these were all placed into trusteeship under the management of League of Nations which assigned them to Japan as the Class C South Pacific Mandate or Nanyo. During this time, Japan used some of the islands for production, modestly increasing the population of a few of the islands.

World War II
The island chain saw significant fighting during World War II. , a possession of the since 1898, was captured by Japan in an attack based from the Northern Mariana Islands that began on the day of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor (December 8, 1941, the same time as the Pearl Harbor attack across the international dateline). In 1944, the United States captured the Mariana Islands chain from Japan: the Northern Mariana Islands were desired by the U.S. as bombing bases to reach the , with the invasion of Saipan being launched for that reason in June before the U.S. even moved to recapture Guam; a month later the U.S. recaptured Guam and captured Tinian. Once captured, the islands of and were used extensively by the United States military as they finally put mainland Japan within round-trip range of American B-29 bombers. In response, Japanese forces attacked the bases on Saipan and Tinian from November 1944 to January 1945. At the same time and afterwards, the United States Army Air Forces based out of these islands conducted an intense strategic bombing campaign against the Japanese cities of military and industrial importance, including Tokyo, Nagoya, Osaka, Kobe and others. Both the and the (which dropped atomic bombs on and , respectively) flew their missions from Tinian's North Field.

According to Werner Gruhl: "Mariana Island historians estimate that 10 percent of Guam's some 20,000 population were killed by violence, most by the Japanese Imperial Army and Navy."Werner Gruhl, Imperial Japan's World War Two, 1931–1945, Transaction Publishers, 2007

Post World War II
The direct result of World War II on the Mariana Islands was that, after the war, the Northern Mariana Islands came under control of the in the same way they had earlier come under the control of Japan after World War I. However, this time they became part of the U.S.-administered Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (TTPI) established pursuant to Security Council Resolution 21. The Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands later became a U.S. territory following its exit from the TTPI pursuant to Security Council Resolution 683. Although now both under U.S. control, the Northern Mariana Islands have not reunited with the territory of , in part due to residual post-war tensions resulting from the very different histories of Guam (occupied by Japan for only 31 months, in wartime) and the Northern Mariana Islands (more peacefully occupied by Japan, for about 30 years). See the main articles above for discussion of present-day politics in these territorial areas.

List of islands
Farallon de Pajaros0Northern Islands
0Northern Islands
0Northern Islands
0Northern Islands
Pagan0Northern Islands
0Northern Islands
0Northern Islands
0Northern Islands
0Northern Islands
0Northern Islands
Farallon de Medinilla0Northern Islands

Tourism in the Northern Marianas is split mainly between Filipino, Japanese, , Taiwanese and tourists. There are several large tour operators in Saipan that cater to Asian tourists coming into the island. By far, the majority of tourism in the Northern Marianas is in Saipan. Several flights a day land in Saipan, mostly in the early hours between 1:00 AM and 3:30 AM. With the close of the garment industries in the Northern Marianas, tourism has grown slowly and is now a major part of the of the CNMI.eye-witness

Common dishes in the Mariana Islands include red rice, meat or poultry on the grill or in coconut milk, chicken , apigigi (young with paste wrapped in banana leaf), "Apigigi’ or Sweet Tamales" (Aug. 10, 2013) Annie's Chamorro Kitchen and tropical fruits.

See also
  • Apostolic Prefecture of Mariana Islands
  • Lists of islands

Sources and references

Additional sources

External links

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