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Livonia is a city in the northwest part of Wayne County in the U.S. state of . It is a large suburb of Detroit, with an array of traditional neighborhoods (most of which were built in the 1950s and 1960s) connected to the metropolitan area by freeways. The population was 96,942 at the 2010 census, making it Michigan's ninth largest municipality.

The municipality is a part of , and is located approximately west of downtown , and less than two miles (3 km) from the western city limits of Detroit (Redford Township lies between the two).


History
After most members of the indigenous tribes were pushed out of the area, ethnic European-American pioneers from and New York settled here. The borders of Livonia Township were defined by the of the Territory of Michigan on March 17, 1835.

The settlers named the community "Livonia", after Livonia, New York, a town in the western part of the state from where many had migrated.

(2021). 9780738534251, Arcadia Publishing. .
"The name Livonia was chosen because a number of the earliest settlers had come from western New York, where there was also a town named Livonia."City of Livonia. History. Retrieved on January 11, 2009.
(1986). 081431838X, Wayne State University Press. 081431838X

Livonia Township was split off from Nankin Township, in which a Livonia post office had been established in June 1834. Democratic Free Press (Detroit, Michigan) June 18, 1834, p. 2 During the days of the township, a number of small communities developed. One of these was Elmwood, initially known as McKinley's Station. It was a stop on the Detroit, Lansing and Northern Railroad. It had a separate post office from 1858 until 1906.Walter Romig, Michigan Place Names, p. 182 Another post office in the township was Giltedge, which operated from 1899 until 1902.Romig, Michigan Place Names, p. 224

Livonia was incorporated as a city on May 23, 1950, by vote of the citizens of the . An incentive was that this status would allow the residents to gain tax revenues from the Detroit Race Course (DRC). From 1985 it ran only harness racing for , and the track closed in 1998, when the large property was sold for redevelopment. The last race tracks operating in the state were Hazel Park Raceway, which closed in 2018, and Northville Downs, which closed in 2019.

Among the immigrants attracted to Detroit for its industrial jobs in the 20th century have been Palestinian and Lebanese Christians, as well as Muslims. By 1985, Palestinian Christians had settled in Livonia, as well as the western suburbs of Farmington and Westland. Present Tense, Volumes 13–15. American Jewish Committee, 1985. p. 36 As of 2005, there were a number of Christian Palestinian Americans who had immigrated from . They have developed and operated several small and medium-sized businesses.Hassoun, Rosina J. Arab Americans in Michigan (Discovering the Peoples of Michigan). , October 24, 2005. , 9781609170462. p. PT21 of .

Six U.S. presidents have visited Livonia: , , , George H. W. Bush, and George W. Bush.


Geography
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of , of which is land and is water.


Demographics
According to a 2010 American Community Survey, the median income for a household in the city was $65,391, and the median income for a family was $77,119. Males had a median income of $62,071 versus $42,083 for females. The per capita income for the city was $29,536. About 5.4% of families and 7.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.6% of those under age 18 and 3.8% of those age 65 or over.


2010 census
As of the census of 2010, there were 96,942 people, 38,714 households, and 26,856 families living in the city. The population density was . There were 40,401 housing units at an average density of . The racial makeup of the city was 92.0% White, 3.4% African American, 0.2% Native American, 2.5% Asian, 0.4% from other races, and 1.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 2.5% of the population.

There were 38,714 households, of which 29.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.9% were married couples living together, 9.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.8% had a male householder with no wife present, and 30.6% were non-families. Of all households 26.7% were made up of individuals, and 13.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.01.

The median age in the city was 44.5 years. 20.8% of residents were under the age of 18; 7.6% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 22.2% were from 25 to 44; 31.5% were from 45 to 64; and 17.7% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 48.3% male and 51.7% female.


2000 census
As of the census of 2000, there were 100,545 people, 38,089 households, and 28,071 families living in the city. The population density was 2,815.0 per square mile (1,086.8/km2). There were 38,658 housing units at an average density of 1,082.3 per square mile (417.9/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 95.45% White, 0.95% African American, 0.22% Native American, 1.94% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.32% from other races, and 1.11% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 1.72% of the population. 16.3% were of , 15.9% , 11.2% , 8.6% and 8.5% ancestry according to Census 2000. Livonia has a substantial Middle Eastern population mostly and trace their ancestry to the region, mainly from , , Palestine, and , and are of the Christian faith. The Arab-American community has few churches in the city, Mainly Saint Mary's Antiochian Orthodox Christian Church. The community settled in Livonia in the late 1960s and has since continued a steady growth.

There were 38,089 households, out of which 32.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.8% were married couples living together, 8.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 26.3% were non-families. Of all households 22.9% were made up of individuals, and 11.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.07.

In the city, the population was spread out, with 23.8% under the age of 18, 6.3% was from 18 to 24, 28.7% was from 25 to 44, 24.3% was from 45 to 64, and 16.9% were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.8 males.

As of 2000, Livonia was the city in the United States with over 100,000 people that had the highest percentage of non-Hispanic white people." Race and Ethnicity in the Tri-County Area: Selected Communities and School Districts." ( Archive) From a Child's Perspective: Detroit Metropolitan Census 2000 Fact Sheets Series. Wayne State University. June 2002. Volume 2, Issue 2. p. 1. Retrieved on November 10, 2013.


Economy
In addition to its schools, colleges, churches, parks, recreation center, libraries and the St. Mary Mercy Hospital, Livonia also has commercial and industrial sectors, and . Laurel Park Place, an upscale fashion mall with 74 stores, was built in 1989 at 6 Mile Road and Newburgh Road. Carson's and department stores serve as anchors.

The city previously featured two other malls which have since been dismantled. Wonderland Mall was the first, opening in 1959 and closing in 2003; it was replaced with a development called Wonderland Village, anchored by and Target. Livonia Mall was built to the north in 1964. It also closed in 2008 and was redeveloped as Livonia Marketplace, featuring a second Walmart, along with and Kohl's. Other are located near Laurel Park Place.

Livonia is home to the Livonia Hockey Association, the largest amateur hockey association in Michigan, as well as two-time state champions the Livonia Knights. The city also boasts the Livonia City Soccer Club, one of the largest soccer programs in the state, with 1,300 participants.


Leading employers
  1. Ford Motor Company
  2. Trinity Health
  3. Livonia Public Schools
  4. St. Mary Mercy Hospital
  5. NYX, Inc
  6. ZF Automotive
  7. Schoolcraft College
  8. Roush Performance
  9. United Parcel Service
  10. Mastronardi Produce


Arts and culture
The Livonia Public Library includes the Civic Center Library, the Alfred Noble Library, the Carl Sandburg Library, and the Vest Pocket Library." Hours and Locations ." Livonia Public Library. Retrieved on March 29, 2010.


Government
Livonia's mayor is Maureen Miller Brosnan. The city is located in Michigan's 11th congressional district. Livonia is in Michigan's 7th State Senate District, and is represented by (Democrat).

Most of Livonia makes up Michigan's 19th State House District which elected (Democrat) in 2018. A part of southeast Livonia is in the 11th district which is represented by, (Democrat).


Education

Colleges and universities
Various private and public colleges and universities are located in Livonia, including Madonna University, Schoolcraft College, and a small University of Phoenix campus. The most recent university to open in Livonia is a Davenport University campus, which opened in 2008.


Primary and secondary schools

Public schools
Most of Livonia is served by the Livonia Public Schools district, consisting of two early childhood centers, thirteen elementary schools, four upper elementary Schools, three middle schools and three high schools. The district also serves students in portions of Westland. A portion of northeast Livonia is served by the Clarenceville School District.

There are currently five high schools in Livonia, four of which are public: Franklin, Churchill and Stevenson high schools in the Livonia Public Schools district; Clarenceville High School in the Clarenceville Public School District; and Ladywood High School, a Catholic all-girls private school run by the . Bentley High School, the first one built in the district, closed in 1985.

Each high school in the Livonia Public School District offers a different educational program. Stevenson High School is the home of the school of Global Education, an alternative education model which combines students' English and social studies classes with a focus on the student's role in the world. Churchill houses the MSC (Math/Science/Computer) and CAPA (Creative and Performing Arts) programs. Franklin currently offers an International Baccalaureate program for select students.

Frost Middle School houses the Middle School Alternative Classrooms for the Academically Talented (MACAT) program. The public K-6 Webster Elementary School is home to the Alternative Classrooms for the Academically Talented (ACAT) program, as well as many after-school programs. Webster also has classes for disabled children. In 2008, the original Webster school was burned down by an arsonist, and Webster was moved to a closed-down school, Tyler Elementary.


Alternative schools
  • CAPA, a performance art program at Churchill high school
  • MSC (Math, Science, Computers) a program for the academically gifted housed at Churchill High School.


Private schools
  • Ladywood High School, a private, Roman Catholic, all-girls high school in Livonia
  • St. Edith and St. Michael Catholic grade schools
    • St. Michael the Archangel School - The school began on September 21, 1942, and the building used for the school had a second story installed after the archdiocese granted permission for this on November 9, 1943. The addition was installed from January to May 1944. There were 345 students for the 1944–1945 school year. On September 24, 1997 construction began for a new addition with a cost of $3.4 million. Costruction finished before September 8, 1998, with dedication on October 11 of that year. The addition included a cafeteria, a library, a gymnasium, a computer lab, and six classrooms.
  • Peace Lutheran School (Pre-K-8) and St. Paul's Lutheran School (Pre-K-8) are affiliated with the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod.

St. Genevieve Catholic School closed in 2016.


Media
The Metro Detroit–area newspapers are the Detroit Free Press and The Detroit News. The Livonia Observer is printed twice a week, on Thursdays and Sundays.

The newspaper Between the Lines and the website are headquartered in Livonia." About Us ". . Retrieved on April 14, 2014. "Mailing address Pride Source Media Group Between The Lines Newspaper 20222 Farmington Road Livonia, Michigan 48152"


Infrastructure

Transportation
Livonia has limited access to public bus service through the Detroit Department of Transportation.

In 2012, the National Motorists Association released the results of a public poll on the "Worst Speed Trap Cities" in North America. Livonia was listed at #2.


Notable people
  • Janet M. Anderson, commercial artist who depicted Detroit
  • , musician, drummer for 1987–1989
  • , former NFL player for the Philadelphia Eagles and the Carolina Panthers
  • , Major League Baseball from 1969 to 1980 (Franklin High School Class of 1965)
  • Charlie Collins, member of the Arkansas House of Representatives from Fayetteville
  • , professional hockey player for the Washington Capitals
  • Mike Cox, former Attorney General of Michigan
  • Nancy Jane Dean, teacher and Presbyterian missionary in Persia
  • , musician and producer
  • , professional hockey player for five NHL teams
  • , actress
  • , pitcher for three Major League Baseball teams
  • , professional hockey player for four NHL teams
  • , NHL Players from Livonia, Michigan | QuantHockey.com Last retrieved on March 19, 2011 professional hockey player for the
  • , professional hockey player for the New Jersey Devils
  • , professional hockey player, inducted into Hockey Hall of Fame
  • David Moss, hockey player for the
  • Cecilia Muñoz, director of the White House Domestic Policy Council
  • , professional hockey player for the Brynäs IF
  • , Major League Baseball player 1995–2001
  • , painter
  • Tim Shaw, professional football player for four NFL teams
  • , professional hockey player for four NHL teams
  • , athlete, 1996 Summer Olympics swimming gold medalist in ; four-time Olympian (1996, 2000, 2004, and 2008 Summer Olympics); first woman to qualify in three different sports events (freestyle swimming, and modern pentathlon)
  • , disc sport () pioneer, athlete
  • Jonathan B. Wright, stage and film actor

==Images==

in Livonia, Michigan – architectural sculpture by ]]


See also


Further reading
  • (2021). 9780472030927, University of Michigan Press. .
  • (2021). 9781891143243, Grass Lake, MI: Eyry of the Eagle Publishing.
  • (2021). 9781891143250, Grass Lake, MI: Eyry of the Eagle Publishing.


External links

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