is the interpretation of body motion communication such as facial expressions and
, nonverbal behavior related to movement of any part of the body or the body as a whole. The equivalent popular culture term is body language
, a term Ray Birdwhistell
, considered the founder of this area of study,
neither used nor liked (on the grounds that what can be conveyed with the body does not meet the linguist's definition of language).
Kinesics was first used in 1952 by an anthropology
named Ray Birdwhistell
. Birdwhistell wished to study how people communicate through posture, gesture, stance and movement.
[Birdwhistell, R. L. (1952). Introduction to Kinesics: An Annotation System for Analysis of Body Motion and Gesture. Washington, DC: Department of State, Foreign Service Institute.]
His ideas over several decades were synthesized and resulted in the book Kinesics and Context.
[Birdwhistell, R. 1970. Kinesics and Context. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia.]
Interest in kinesics specifically and nonverbal behaviour generally was popularized in the late 1960s and early 1970s by such popular mass-market (nonacademic) publications as How to Read a Person Like a Book
[Nierenberg, G. I., & Calero, H. H. (1971). How to Read a Person Like a Book. New York: Hawthorn Books.]
Part of Birdwhistell's work involved filming people in social situations and analyzing them to show elements of communication that were not seen otherwise. One of his most important projects was The Natural History of an Interview,
a long-term interdisciplinary collaboration including Gregory Bateson
, Frieda Fromm-Reichmann, Norman A. McQuown, Henry W. Brosin and others.
[Jump up ^ Leeds-Hurwitz, W. (1987). The Social History of The Natural History of an Interview: A multidisciplinary investigation of social communication. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 20, 1-51.]
Drawing heavily on descriptive linguistics, Birdwhistell argued that all movements of the body have meaning and that nonverbal behaviour has a grammar that can be analyzed in similar terms to spoken language. Thus, a "kineme" is "similar to a phoneme because it consists of a group of movements which are not identical, but which may be used interchangeably without affecting social meaning."
[Knapp, M. 1972. Nonverbal Communication in Human Interaction. Reinhart and Winston, New York, pp. 94-5.]
Birdwhistell estimated that no more than 30 to 35 percent of the social meaning of a conversation or an interaction is carried by the words.
[McDermott, R. 1980. Profile: Ray L. Birdwhistell. The Kinesis Report, 2, 3: 1-16.] He also concluded that there were no universals in these kinesic displays, a claim that was disputed by Paul Ekman, who was interested in analysis of universals, especially in facial expression.
In a current application, kinesic behavior is sometimes used as signs of deception
by interviewers looking for clusters of movements to determine the veracity of the statement being uttered, although kinesics can be equally applied in any context and type of setting to construe innocuous messages whose carriers are indolent or unable to express verbally.
Emblems - Body movements or gestures that are directly translatable into a word or phrase
Illustrators - Accompany or reinforce verbal messages
Batons - Temporally accent or emphasize words or phrases
Ideogram - Trace the paths of mental journeys
Deitic movements - Point to a present object
Kinetographs - Depict a bodily action
Spatial movements - Depict a spatial relationship
Pictogram - Draw a picture of their referent
Rhythmic movements - Depict the rhythm or pacing of an event
Affect Displays - Show emotion
Regulators - Control the flow and pace of communication
Manipulators - Release physical or emotional tension
Kinesic behaviors are an important part of nonverbal communication. Body movements convey information, but interpretations vary by culture. As many movements are carried out at a subconscious or at least a low-awareness level, kinesic movements carry a significant risk of being misinterpreted in an intercultural communication situation.