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   » » Wiki: It (pronoun)
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In , it is a singular, neuter, third-person .


Morphology
In Modern English, it has only three shapes representing five word forms: Historically, though, the morphology is more complex.


History

Old English
had a single third-person pronoun – from the Proto-Germanic base * khi-, from PIE * ko- "this" – which had a plural and three genders in the singular. The modern pronoun it developed out of the neuter, singular. The older pronoun had the following forms:
+Old English, third-person pronoun ! ! colspan="3"Singular ! rowspan="2"Plural

This neuter pronoun, like the masculine and feminine ones, was used for both people and objects (inanimate or abstract). in Anglo-saxon had grammatical genders, which were not necessarily the same as the gender of the person(s) referred to (though they tended to accord with the endings of the words). For instance, Old-english (the ancestor of "child", pronounced "chilled") is neuter, as are both and , literally "male-child" and "female-child" (grammatical gender survives here; some 21st-century English speakers still use "it" with "child", see below).

The word , (which meant "female", ancestor of "wife" as in "fishwife"), is also neuter. ("Man") was grammatically male, but meant "a person", and could, like , be qualified with a gender. (variant , ancestor of "woman") meant "female person" and was grammatically masculine, like its last element, , and like (variant , "male person"). (weak source, but supports only the spelling variants given for clarity) Archbishop Ælfric's Latin vocabulary gives three Anglo-saxon words for an person, (dialectical "skratt", grammatically masculine), (grammatically feminine, like its last element, ), and (grammatically masculine).

Similarly, because is feminine, so are (inhabitants of a region), (inhabitants of heaven), and (inhabitants of hell). is neuter, feminine, and both mean "the , the English people". Nouns for inanimate objects and abstract concepts also had (grammatical) genders. Mark Twain parodied this grammatical structure (which still exists in ) by rendering it literally into modern English:Deutscher 2005 pp. 41–42

About half of the world's languages have gender, and there is a continuum between those with more grammatical gender (based on word form, or quite arbitrary), and those with more (based on word meaning). The concept of natural gender was beginning to develop in Old English, occasionally conflicting with the established grammatical gender. This development was, however, mostly to take place later, in Middle English.


Middle English (1066-1400s)
In the 12th century, it started to separate and appear without an h. Around the same time, one case was lost, and distinct pronouns started to develop, so that by the 15th century (late ), the forms of it were as follows:

  • Nominative: ( h) it
  • Accusative: ( h) it / him
  • Genitive: his
  • Reflexive:( h) it self. Also -selfe, -selve( n) , -silf, -sijlfe, sometimes without a space.

During the Middle English period, grammatical gender was gradually replaced with in English.


Modern English (a bit before 1550-present)
Middle English gradually gave way to in the early 16th century. The hit form continued well into the 16th century but had disappeared before the 17th in formal written English. Genitive its appeared in the later 16th century and had taken over by the middle of the 17th, by which time it had its modern form. "Hit" remains in some dialects in stressed positions only; some dialects also use "it", not "its", as a possessive.


Gender
It is considered to be neuter or impersonal / non-personal in gender. In Old English, ( h) it was the neuter nominative and accusative form of . But by the 17th century, the old gender system, which marked gender on common nouns and , as well as pronouns, had disappeared, leaving only pronoun marking. At the same time, a new pronoun system was developing that eventually split between relative who and impersonal relative which. As a result some scholars consider it to belong to the impersonal gender, along with relative which and interrogative what.


Syntax

Functions
It can appear as a subject, object, or a predicative complement. The reflexive form also appears as an adjunct. It very seldom appears as a modifier.

  • Subject: It' s there; it being there; its being there; it allows for itself to be there.
  • Object: I saw it; I pointed her to it; It connects to itself.
  • Predicative complement: In our attempt to fight evil, we have become it; It took more than ten years it, to fully become itself.
  • Determiner: I touched its top.
  • Adjunct: It did it itself.
  • Modifier: They were the it crowd.


Dummy it
A is one that appears only for syntactic reasons and has no semantic value. One use of it is as a dummy pronoun (see also there) as in it's raining or it's clear that you understand.

In Old English, a subject was not required in the way it is today. As the subject requirement developed, there was a need for something to fill it with verbs taking zero arguments. Weather verbs such as rain or thunder were of this type, and, as the following example shows, dummy it often took on this role.

Gif on sæternesdæg geðunrað, þaet tacnað demena and gerefena cwealm

If on saturn's-day thunders, that portends judges' and sheriffs' death

If it thunders on Saturday, that portends the deaths of judges and sheriffs

But these were not the only such verbs. Most of the verbs used without a subject or with the dummy it belong to one of the following semantic groups:
  1. (a)  Events or happenings ( chance, happen, befall, etc.)
  2. (b)  Seeming or appearance ( seem, think, become, etc.)
  3. (c)  Sufficiency or lack ( lack, need, suffice, etc.)
  4. (d)  Mental processes or states ( like, list, grieve, please, repent, rue, etc.)
And examples still remain, such as the expression suffice it to say.

We see the same use of dummy it in , such as it's obvious that you were there.


Dependents
Pronouns rarely take dependents, but it is possible for it to have many of the same kind of dependents as other .

  • modifier: That's not the it that I meant; *That's not it that I meant.
  • Determiner: That's not the it that I meant; *That's not the it.
  • external modifier: not even itself


Semantics
It's are often impersonal physical objects, but also include abstract concepts, situations, actions, characteristics, and almost any other concept or being, including, occasionally, humans.

It is usually and specific, but it can also have no referent at all (See Dummy it). It can be debatable whether a particular use is a dummy it or not (for instance: "Who is it?" —"It's me!").

Samuel Taylor Coleridge proposed using it in a wider sense in all the situations where a gender-neutral pronoun might be desired:

The children's author E. Nesbit consistently wrote in this manner, often of mixed groups of children: "Everyone got its legs kicked or its feet trodden on in the scramble to get out of the carriage." Five Children and It, p. 1. This usage (but in , as if an acronym) also occurs in District of Columbia police reports.

While some genderqueer people use it as a gender-neutral pronoun, generally, as a pronoun, "it" should not be used unless requested by a specific person.


Pronunciation
According to the , the following pronunciations are used:
+ !Form !IPA !Recording
it/ɪt/
its/ɪts/
itself()/ɪtˈsɛlf/ ()/ᵻtˈsɛlf/


Popular culture
  • 's 1986 book It is about a shape shifting, malevolent entity that often manifests as a .
  • In games of tag, the person trying to tag others is known as it.


See also
  • Generic antecedents
  • Gender-specific pronoun
  • English personal pronouns


External links

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