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   » » Wiki: It (pronoun)
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In , it is a singular, neuter, third-person .


Morphology
In Modern English, it has only three shapes representing five word forms: Historically, though, the morphology is more complex.


History
had a single third-person pronoun – from the Proto-Germanic base * khi-, from PIE * ko- "this" – which had a plural and three genders in the singular. The modern pronoun it developed out of the neuter, singular. The older pronoun had the following forms:
+Old English, third-person pronoun ! ! colspan="3"Singular ! rowspan="2"Plural
In the 12th century, it started to separate and appear without an h. Around the same time, one case was lost, and distinct pronouns started to develop, so that by the 15th century and , the forms of it were as follows:

  • Nominative: ( h) it
  • Accusative: ( h) it / him
  • Genitive: his
  • Reflexive:( h) it self. Also -selfe, -selve( n) , -silf, -sijlfe, sometimes without a space.

The hit form continued well into the 16th century but had disappeared before the 17th in formal written English. Genitive its appeared in the later 16th century and had taken over by the middle of the 17th, by which time it had its modern form.


Gender
It is considered to be neuter or impersonal / non-personal in gender. In Old English, ( h) it was the neuter nominative and accusative form of . But by the 17th century, the old gender system, which marked gender on common nouns and , as well as pronouns, had disappeared, leaving only pronoun marking. At the same time, a new pronoun system was developing that eventually split between relative who and impersonal relative which. As a result some scholars consider it to belong to the impersonal gender, along with relative which and interrogative what.


Syntax

Functions
It can appear as a subject, object, or a predicative complement. The reflexive form also appears as an adjunct. It very seldom appears as a modifier.

  • Subject: It' s there; it being there; its being there; it allows for itself to be there.
  • Object: I saw it; I pointed her to it; It connects to itself.
  • Predicative complement: In our attempt to fight evil, we have become it; It took more than ten years it, to fully become itself.
  • Determiner: I touched its top.
  • Adjunct: It did it itself.
  • Modifier: They were the it crowd.


Dummy it
A is one that appears only for syntactic reasons and has no semantic value. One use of it is as a dummy pronoun (see also there) as in it's raining or it's clear that you understand.

In Old English, a subject was not required in the way it is today. As the subject requirement developed, there was a need for something to fill it with verbs taking zero arguments. Weather verbs such as rain or thunder were of this type, and, as the following example shows, dummy it often took on this role.

Gif on sæternesdæg geðunrað, þaet tacnað demena and gerefena cwealm

If on saturn's-day thunders, that portends judges' and sheriffs' death

If it thunders on Saturday, that portends the deaths of judges and sheriffs

But these were not the only such verbs. Most of the verbs used without a subject or with the dummy it belong to one of the following semantic groups:
  1. (a)  Events or happenings ( chance, happen, befall, etc.)
  2. (b)  Seeming or appearance ( seem, think, become, etc.)
  3. (c)  Sufficiency or lack ( lack, need, suffice, etc.)
  4. (d)  Mental processes or states ( like, list, grieve, please, repent, rue, etc.)
And examples still remain, such as the expression suffice it to say.

We see the same use of dummy it in , such as it's obvious that you were there.


Dependents
Pronouns rarely take dependents, but it is possible for he to have many of the same kind of dependents as other .

  • modifier: That's not the it that I meant; *That's not it that I meant.
  • Determiner: That's not the it that I meant; *That's not the it.
  • modifier: the it crowd
  • external modifier: not even itself


Semantics
It's are typically impersonal physical objects, but also include abstract concepts, situations, actions, characteristics, and almost any other concept or being, including, occasionally, humans, as in the following example from :
The baby grunted again, and Alice looked very anxiously into its face to see what was the matter with it.
It is usually and specific, but it can also have no referent at all (See Dummy it).

Samuel Taylor Coleridge proposed using it in a wider sense in all the situations where a gender-neutral pronoun might be desired:

The children's author E. Nesbit consistently wrote in this manner, often of mixed groups of children: "Everyone got its legs kicked or its feet trodden on in the scramble to get out of the carriage." Five Children and It, p. 1. This usage (in , as if an acronym) also occurs in District of Columbia police reports.

While some genderqueer people use it as a gender-neutral pronoun, it is generally considered a against transgender people and should not be used unless requested by a specific person.


Pronunciation
According to the , the following pronunciations are used:
+ !Form !IPA !Recording
it/ɪt/
its/ɪts/
itself()/ɪtˈsɛlf/ ()/ᵻtˈsɛlf/


Popular culture
  • 's book It is about a shape shifting, malevolent entity that often manifests as a .
  • In games of tag, the person trying to tag others is known as it.


See also
  • Generic antecedents
  • Gender-specific pronoun
  • English personal pronouns


External links

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