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The Illyrians (Ἰλλυριοί, Illyrioi; Illyrii or Illyri) were a group of Indo-European tribes in antiquity, who inhabited part of the western .: "The Balkan peninsula had three groups of Indo-Europeans prior to 2000 BC. Those on the west were the Illyrians; those on the east were the ; and advancing down the southern part of the Balkans, the Greeks." The territory the Illyrians inhabited came to be known as to and authors, who identified a territory that corresponds to , Bosnia and Herzegovina, , , , part of and most of central and northern , between the in the west, the river in the north, the river in the east and the mouth of the river in the south.; The first account of Illyrian peoples comes from the Periplus of Pseudo-Scylax, an ancient Greek text of the middle of the 4th century BC that describes coastal passages in the Mediterranean..

The name "Illyrians", as applied by the ancient to their northern neighbors, may have referred to a broad, ill-defined group of peoples. The Illyrian tribes never collectively regarded themselves as 'Illyrians', and it is unlikely that they used any collective nomenclature for themselves. In fact, Illyrians seems to be the name of a specific Illyrian tribe that was among the first to come in contact with the ancient Greeks during the ,. with the Greeks later applying pars pro toto the name Illyrians to all people with similar language and customs. At present it is unclear to what extent the Illyrians were linguistically and culturally homogeneous. In fact, Illyric origin was and still is attributed also to a few ancient peoples residing in Italy: the , , and , who are thought to have most likely followed Adriatic shorelines to the Italian peninsula from the geographic "Illyria".

The term "Illyrians" last appears in the historical record in the 7th century, referring to a garrison operating within the former Roman province of Illyricum..


Overview

Etymology
The name of Illyrians as applied by the ancient to their northern neighbours may have referred to a broad, ill-defined group of peoples, and it is today unclear to what extent they were linguistically and culturally homogeneous. The Illyrian tribes never collectively regarded themselves as 'Illyrians', and it is unlikely that they utilized any collective nomenclature for themselves.: "The Illyrians certainly never collectively called themselves Illyrians, and it is unlikely that they had any collective name for themselves."

The term Illyrioi may originally have designated only a single people who came to be widely known to the Greeks due to proximity.. This occurred during the Bronze Age, when Greek tribes were neighboring the southernmost Illyrian tribe of that time in the of . Indeed, such a people known as the Illyrioi have occupied a small and well-defined part of the south Adriatic coast, around astride the modern frontier between and . The name may then have expanded and come to be applied to ethnically different peoples such as the , , , or the . In any case, most modern scholars are certain the Illyrians were not a homogeneous entity.: "Just as ancient writers could discover no satisfactory general explanation for the origin of Illyrians, so most modern scholars, even though now possessed of a mass of archaeological and linguistic evidence, can assert with confidence only that Illyrians were not a homogeneous entity, though even that is today challenged with vigour by historians and archaeologists working within the perspective of modern Albania."

Pliny the Elder referred, in his Natural History, to "Illyrians proper" ( Illyrii proprie dicti) as natives in the south of Roman Dalmatia. 's Illyrian Wars employed the more common broader usage, simply stating that Illyrians lived beyond and , from and to the . Roman History: "The Illyrian Wars", livius.org; accessed April 3, 2014


In Greek mythology
In later ,E.g. in the myth compendium Bibliotheca of PseudoApollodorus III.5.4, which is not earlier than the first century BC. was the son of and Harmonia who eventually ruled Illyria and became the ancestor of the whole Illyrian people.;

had multiple sons (Encheleus, , Dardanus, Maedus, and ) and daughters (Partho, Daortho, Dassaro and others). From these, sprang the , , , , , Dassaretae and the . Autareius had a son Pannonius or Paeon and these had sons and . A later version of this mythic genealogy gives as parents and Galatea, who gave birth to , , and ,. three brothers, progenitors respectively of Celts, Galatians and Illyrians expresses perceived similarities to and on the part of the mythographe.


Origins
Scholars have long recognized a "difficulty in producing a single theory on the ethnogenesis of the Illyrians" given their heterogeneous nature. Modern scholarship is unable to refer to the Illyrians as a unique and compact people and agrees that they were a sum of ill-defined communities without common origins that never merged to a single ethnic entity.

Older Pan-Illyrian theories are now generally dismissed by scholars, based as they were on racialistic notions of and . The specific theories have found little archaeological corroboration, as no convincing evidence for significant migratory movements from the Luzatian culture into the west Balkans have ever been found. Rather, archaeologists from the former Yugoslavia highlighted the continuity between the Bronze and succeeding Iron Age (especially in regions such as Donja Dolina, central Bosnia-Glasinac, and northern Albania (Mat river basin)), ultimately developing the so-called "autochthonous theory" of Illyrian genesis. The "" model was most elaborated upon by and B. Čović. They argued (following the "Kurgan hypothesis") that the 'proto-Illyrians' had arrived much earlier, during the Bronze Age as nomadic Indo-Europeans from the steppe. From that point, there was a gradual Illyrianization of the western Balkans leading to historic Illyrians, with no early Iron Age migration from northern Europe. He did not deny a minor cultural impact from the northern Urnfield cultures, however "these movements had neither a profound influence on the stability.. of the Balkans, nor did they affect the ethnogenesis of the Illyrian ethnos".

Aleksandar Stipčević raised concerns regarding Benac's all-encompassing scenario of autochthonous ethnogenesis. He points out "can one negate the participation of the bearers of the culture in the ethnogenesis of the Illyrian tribes who lived in present-day Slovenia and Croatia" or "Hellenistic and Mediterranean influences on southern Illyrians and Liburnians?". He concludes that Benac's model is only applicable to the Illyrian groups in Bosnia, western Serbia and a part of Dalmatia, where there had indeed been a settlement continuity and 'native' progression of pottery sequences since the Bronze Age. Following prevailing trends in discourse on identity in Iron Age Europe, current anthropological perspectives reject older theories of a (long term) ethnogenesis of Illyrians, even where 'archaeological continuity' can be demonstrated to Bronze Age times. argues that "cannot fail to impress through their weight of archaeological evidence; but material remains alone can never tell the whole story and can mislead." They rather see the emergence of historic Illyrians tribes as a more recent phenomenon - just prior to their first attestation.

The impetus behind the emergence of larger regional groups, such as "Iapodes", "Liburnians", "Pannonians" etc., is traced to increased contacts with the Mediterranean and La Tène 'global worlds'. This catalyzed "the development of more complex political institutions and the increase in differences between individual communities". Emerging local elites selectively adopted either La Tène or Hellenistic and, later, Roman cultural templates "in order to legitimise and strengthen domination within their communities. They were competing fiercely through either alliance or conflict and resistance to Roman expansion. Thus, they established more complex political alliances, which convinced (Greco-Roman) sources to see them as ‘ethnic’ identities." Contemporary perspectives again highlight that the term "Illyrian" was a 'catch-all' exonym used by the Greeks and Romans to denote diverse communities beyond Epirus and Macedonia. Each was differentially conditioned by specific local cultural, ecological and economic factors; none of which fall into a compact, unitary "Illyrian" narrative.


History

Antiquity
It is generally assumed that the Illyrians originated from an Indo-European group of some time prior to the second millennium BC. Depending on the complexity of the diverse physical geography of the , and rearing had constituted the economic basis of the Illyrians during the .

The structure of during classical antiquity was characterised by a conglomeration of numerous and ruled by warrior , a situation similar like that in most other societies at that time.

9780313309847, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2000.
The Illyrian kingdoms frequently came into conflicts with the neighbouring Ancient Macedonians, and the Illyrian pirates were also seen as significant threat to the neighbouring peoples.

At the , there was a strong influence on the Illyrian tribe of . Their capital was located in Ošanići near in , which became the main center of classical Illyrian culture. Daorson, during the 4th century BC, was surrounded by , 5 meter high stonewalls, composed out of large trapeze stones blocks. Daors also made unique bronze and sculptures. The Illyrians even conquered on the Dalmatian islands. Queen was famous for having waged wars against the .

After Philip II of Macedon defeated (358 BC), the under became the strongest state in Illyria. Philip II killed 7,000 Illyrians in a great victory and annexed the territory up to . Next, Philip II reduced the Grabaei, and then went for the , defeated the (339 BC), and fought with (337 BC).

In the of 229 BC, 219 BC and 168 BC, overran the Illyrian settlements and suppressed the that had made the unsafe for Roman commerce.. There were three campaigns, the first against the second against Demetrius of Pharos and the third against .. The initial campaign in 229 BC marks the first time that the crossed the Adriatic Sea to launch an invasion..

The subdued the Illyrians during the 2nd century BC. An was crushed under , resulting in the division of Illyria in the provinces of in the north and in the south.


Roman Empire
Prior to the Roman conquest of , the had started expanding its power and territory across the . The Romans came nevertheless into a series of conflicts with the Illyrians, equally known as the , beginning in 229 BC until 168 BC as the Romans defeated at .Battles of the Greek and Roman Worlds: A Chronological Compendium of 667 Battles to 31Bc, from the Historians of the Ancient World (Greenhill Historic Series) by John Drogo Montagu, , 2000, page 47

The of Illyricum or Illyris Romana or Illyris Barbara or Illyria Barbara replaced most of the region of .. It stretched from the river in modern to () in the west and to the river (between Bosnia and Herzegovina and northern Croatia) in the north. (Solin near modern Split in Croatia) functioned as its capital. The regions which it included changed through the centuries though a great part of ancient remained part of Illyricum as a province while south Illyria became .

After 9 AD, the remnants of Illyrian tribes moved to new coastal cities and larger and more capable .

The prefecture of Illyricum was established in the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire), existing between 376 and the 7th century.


Byzantine Empire
In 395 AD, the was split upon the death of into an Eastern and Western Roman Empire, in part due to the weakening and increasing pressure from threats during the Barbarian Invasions, therefore, remained in the eastern empire which was later referred to as the Byzantine Empire.

The early Byzantine Empire was predominantly ruled by from the with Byzantine emperors of Illyrian origin, amongst them Constantine the Great, Jovian, , Anastasius I Dicorus, and their descendants from the Constantinian dynasty, Valentinian dynasty and Justinian dynasty.

9780520283893, Univ of California Press, 2014.
(2019). 9780415174855, Routledge. .
(2019). 9780520233324, University of California Press. .
(2019). 9780198150015, Oxford University Press. .
(2019). 9781139826877, Cambridge University Press. .

From the 6th century ongoing into the 7th century, the crossed the and started to absorb the indigenous Illyrians alongside the , and into the emerging medieval states of the Slavs such as that of the Croats and Serbs. The term Illyrians last appears in the historical record in the 7th century AD, referring to a garrison operating within the former Roman province of Illyricum.


Society

Warfare
The history of and weaponry spanned from around the 10th century BC up to the 1st century AD in the region defined by the and historians as . It concerns the armed conflicts of the and their kingdoms in the and the Italian Peninsula as well as their activity in the within the Mediterranean Sea.

The Illyrians were a notorious people with a strong reputation for especially common during the regency of king Agron and later queen .The Illyrians (The Peoples of Europe) by John Wilkes, 1996, page 158, "...Illyrian success continued when command passed to Agron's widow Teuta, who granted individual ships a licence to universal plunder. In 231 ac the fleet and army attacked Ells and Messenia..."Møller, Bjørn. "Piracy, Maritime Terrorism and Naval Strategy." Copenhagen: Danish Institute for International Studies, November 16, 2008. 10. They used fast and maneuverable of types known as and which were subsequently used by the Ancient Macedonians and Romans.Dell, Harry J. 1967. The Origin and Nature of Illyrian Piracy. Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte 16, (3) (Jul.): 344-58. 345. described the Illyrians along the Liburnians and Istrians as nations of savages in general noted for their piracy.

appears in Greco-Roman historiography from the 4th century BC. Illyrians were regarded as bloodthirsty, unpredictable, turbulent, and warlike by Greeks and Romans.; ; ; . They were seen as savages on the edge of their world. (3rd century BC) wrote: "the Romans had freed the Greeks from the enemies of all mankind".. According to the Romans, the Illyrians were tall and well-built.. writes that " are tall and strong always ready for a fight and to face danger but slow witted". Illyrian rulers wore bronze around their necks.

Apart from conflicts between Illyrians and neighbouring nations and tribes, numerous wars were recorded among Illyrian tribes also. File:GlasinacShipDesign.jpg|Illyrian ship dating from the 8th–7th century BC File:SicaAncient.jpg|The File:Illyrian-Greek_helmet_from_Montenegro_-_Budva_-4th_cBC.png|Illyrian type helmet


Language
The languages spoken by the are nowadays an extinct and poorly attested Indo-European languages and though it is not clear whether the languages belonged to the or the group. The Illyrians were subject to varying degrees of , , Romanization and later which possibly lead to the extinction of their languages.; .; .

The vast majority of knowledge of Illyrian is based on the Messapian language if the latter is considered an Illyrian . The non-Messapian testimonies of Illyrian are too fragmentary to allow any conclusions whether Messapian should be considered part of Illyrian proper, although it has been widely thought that Messapian was related to Illyrian. An Indo-European language, Messapian was once spoken in in the southeastern Italian Peninsula. It was spoken by the three of the region, the , the and the .

The Illyrian languages were once thought to be connected to the in the Italian Peninsula but this view was abandoned.. Other scholars have linked them with the adjacent Thracian language supposing an intermediate or dialect continuum, but this view is also not generally supported. All these languages were likely extinct by the 5th century AD although traditionally, the Albanian language is identified as the descendant of Illyrian dialects that survived in remote areas of the Balkans during the but evidence "is too meager and contradictory for us to know whether the term Illyrian even referred to a single language". Eastern Michigan University Linguist List: The Illyrian Language, linguistlist.org; accessed April 3, 2014: "Traditionally, Albanian is identified as the descendant of Illyrian, but Hamp (1994a) argues that the evidence is too meager and contradictory for us to know whether the term Illyrian even referred to a single language."

The ancestor dialects of the Albanian language would have survived somewhere along the boundary of Latin and Ancient Greek linguistic influence, the Jireček Line. There are various modern historians and linguists who believe that the modern Albanian language might have descended from a southern Illyrian dialect whereas an alternative hypothesis holds that Albanian was descended from the Thracian language.

  • Thunmann, Johannes E. "Untersuchungen uber die Geschichte der Oslichen Europaischen Volger". Teil, Leipzig, 1774.
  • see Malcolm, Noel. Origins: Serbs, Vlachs, and Albanians. Malcolm is of the opinion that the Albanian language was an Illyrian dialect preserved in Dardania and then it (re-?)conquered the Albanian lowlands
  • Indo-European language and culture: an introduction By Benjamin W. Fortson Edition: 5, illustrated Published by Wiley-Blackwell, 2004 ,
  • Stipčević, Alexander. Iliri (2nd edition). Zagreb, 1989 (also published in Italian as "Gli Illiri")
  • NGL Hammond The Relations of Illyrian Albania with the Greeks and the Romans. In Perspectives on Albania, edited by Tom Winnifrith, St. Martin’s Press, New York 1992
  • Encyclopedia of Indo-European culture By J. P. Mallory, Douglas Q. Adams Edition: illustrated Published by Taylor & Francis, 1997 , Not enough is known of the ancient language to completely prove or disprove either hypothesis, see Origin of the Albanians.;


Religion
The Illyrians, as most ancient civilizations, were and worshipped many and developed of the powers of nature. The mythology and religion of the Illyrians is only known through mention of Illyrian deities on period monuments, some with interpretatio Romana.: "...Illyrian deities are named on monuments of the Roman era, some in equation with gods of the classical pantheon (see figure 34)." There appears to be no single most prominent Illyrian god and there would have been much variation between individual . According to John Wilkes, the Illyrians did not develop a uniform cosmology on which to center their religious practices.: "Unlike Celts, Dacians, Thracians or Scythians, there is no indication that Illyrians developed a uniform cosmology on which their religious practice was centred. An etymology of the Illyrian name linked with serpent would, if it is true, fit with the many representations of..." The Illyrian town of (present-day ) had its own protector called Medauras depicted as carrying a and riding on horseback..

Human sacrifice also played a role in the lives of the Illyrians.. records the chieftain Cleitus the Illyrian as sacrificing three boys, three girls and three rams just before his battle with Alexander the Great. The most common type of burial among the Illyrians was or mound burial. The kin of the first tumuli was buried around that, and the higher the status of those in these burials the higher the mound. has found many artifacts placed within these tumuli such as weapons, ornaments, garments and clay vessels. Illyrians believed these items were necessary for a dead person's journey into the afterlife.

For the Illyrians, En was worshipped as the god of .

(2019). 9780203643518, Routledge, Taylor & Francis.


Archaeology
There are few remains to connect with the Bronze Age with the later Illyrians in the . Moreover, with the notable exception of Pod near in the upper valley of the , nothing is known of their settlements. Some hill settlements have been identified in western Serbia, but the main evidence comes from cemeteries, consisting usually of a small number of burial mounds (). In the cemeteries of Belotić and Bela Crkva, the rites of exhumation and are attested, with skeletons in stone and cremations in . Metal implements appear here side-by-side with stone implements. Most of the remains belong to the fully developed Middle Bronze Age.

During the 7th century BC, the beginning of the Iron Age, the Illyrians emerge as an ethnic group with a distinct culture and art form. Various Illyrian tribes appeared, under the influence of the Halstatt cultures from the north, and they organized their regional centers. The cult of the dead played an important role in the lives of the Illyrians, which is seen in their carefully made burials and burial ceremonies, as well as the richness of the burial sites. In the northern parts of the Balkans, there existed a long tradition of and burial in shallow graves, while in the southern parts, the dead were buried in large stone, or earth (natively called gromile) that in were reaching monumental sizes, more than 50 meters wide and 5 meters high. The Japodian tribe (found from in to Bihać in Bosnia) have had an affinity for decoration with heavy, oversized necklaces out of yellow, blue or white glass paste, and large bronze fibulas, as well as spiral bracelets, diadems and helmets out of bronze. Small sculptures out of jade in form of archaic Ionian plastic are also characteristically Japodian. Numerous monumental sculptures are preserved, as well as walls of Nezakcij near , one of numerous Istrian cities from . Illyrian chiefs wore bronze torques around their necks much like the did.. The Illyrians were influenced by the Celts in many cultural and material aspects and some of them were , especially the tribes in ; and the . In Slovenia, the Vače situla was discovered in 1882 and attributed to Illyrians. Prehistoric remains indicate no more than average height, male , female .


Middle Ages
The Illyrians were mentioned for the last time in the Miracula Sancti Demetrii during the 7th century.: "Since the Illyrians are referred to for the last time as an ethnic group in Miracula Sancti Demetri (7th century AD), some scholars maintain that after the arrival of the Slavs the Illyrians were extinct." With the disintegration of the Roman Empire, and tribes raided the Balkan peninsula, forcing many Illyrians to seek refuge in the highlands.

During the late and the , the term "Illyrian" was used to describe Slavs living within the territories of Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, , Austria, Hungary and Serbia (and in other countries abroad). The term was revived again during the Habsburg Monarchy, but it was designated towards .


Nationalism

South Slavs
When conquered part of the South Slavic lands in the beginning of the 19th century, these areas were named after ancient Illyrian provinces. Under the influence of Romantic nationalism, a self-identified "Illyrian movement" in the form of a Croatian national revival, opened a literary and journalistic campaign initiated by a group of young Croatian intellectuals during the years of 1835–49. This movement, under the banner of Illlyrism, aimed to create a Croatian national establishment under Austro-Hungarian rule but was repressed by the Habsburg authorities after the failed Revolutions of 1848.


Albanians
The possible continuity between the Illyrian populations of the Western Balkans in antiquity and the has played a significant role in Albanian nationalism from the 19th century until the present day. For example, , the first President of Kosovo introduced the "Flag of Dardania" on October 29, 2000, being the name for a Thraco-Illyrian region including parts of eastern Kosovo, the Republic of North Macedonia and Southern Serbia.


See also

Notes

Sources


External links

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