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Geolocation
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Geolocation is the identification or estimation of the real-world geographic location of an object, such as a radar source, , or -connected computer terminal. In its simplest form geolocation involves the generation of a set of geographic coordinates and is closely related to the use of positioning systems, but its usefulness is enhanced by the use of these coordinates to determine a meaningful location, such as a .

The word geolocation also refers to the latitude and longitude coordinates of a particular location. The term and definition have been standardized by real-time locating system standard ISO/IEC 19762-5:2008.

In the field of animal and , the word geolocation is also used to refer to the process of inferring the location of a tracked animal based, for instance, on the time history of sunlight brightness or the water temperature and depth measured by an instrument attached to the animal. Such instruments are commonly called archival tags (including microchip implants, Pop-up satellite archival tags, and data storage tags) or .


Techniques
For either geolocating or positioning, the often uses methods, for example Time Difference Of Arrival () for precision. systems often use mapping displays or other geographic information system. When satellite navigation (such as ) signals are unavailable, geolocation applications can use information from to triangulate the approximate position, a method that is not as accurate as GPS but has greatly improved in recent years. This is in contrast to earlier technologies, for example Direction Finding where a to a transmitter is achieved as part of the process.

Internet and computer geolocation can be performed by associating a geographic location with the , , RFID, hardware embedded article/production number, embedded software number (such as UUID, /IPTC/XMP or modern ), invoice, Wi-Fi positioning system, device fingerprint, canvas fingerprinting or device coordinates, or other, perhaps self-disclosed information.

IP address location data can include information such as country, region, city, postal/zip code, , and . Deeper data sets can determine other parameters such as domain name, connection speed, ISP, language, proxies, company name, US DMA/MSA, NAICS codes, and home/business.

At times geolocation can be more deductive, as with efforts to determine the position of videos of training camps, combats, and beheadings in Syria by comparing features detected in the video with publicly available map databases such as , as practiced by sites such as .


Standards
Some standards and name servers include: ISO 3166, FIPS, , , and . For geographic locations in the United States, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Codes are often used. ANSI INCITS 446-2008 is entitled "Identifying Attributes for Named Physical and Cultural Geographic Features (Except Roads and Highways) of the United States, Its Territories, Outlying Areas, and Freely Associated Areas, and the Waters of the Same to the Limit of the Twelve-Mile Statutory Zone". A number of commercial solutions have been proposed:
  • (Where on Earth IDentifier) is a unique 32-bit reference identifier that identifies any feature on Earth.
  • NAC Locator provides a universal geocoding address for all locations on the planet.


See also

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