A gateway is a piece of networking hardware used in telecommunications for telecommunications networks that allows data to flow from one discrete network to another. Gateways are distinct from routers or network switch in that they communicate using more than one protocol and can operate at any of the 7 layers of the OSI model.
In the network for an enterprise, a computer server acting as a gateway node is often also acting as a proxy server and a firewall server. A gateway is often associated with both; a router, which knows where to direct a given packet of data that arrives at the gateway, and a switch, which furnishes the actual path in and out of the gateway for a given packet.
A gateway is an essential feature of most routers, although other devices (such as any PC or server) can function as a gateway.
Most computer operating systems make use of the terms described above. Microsoft Windows, however, describes this standard networking feature as Internet Connection Sharing, which acts as a gateway, offering a connection between the Internet and an internal network.
Project HERMES is the first project to have brought this kind of machine into operation. The HERMES-A/MINOTAUR Space Flight Control Center became operative on June 6, 2009, and was operated by representatives of 34 countries on the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA) Symposium of Small Satellites for Sustainable Developmenthttp://www.unoosa.org/pdf/sap/2009/graz/Programme_3September.pdf in Graz, Austria on September 10, 2009. Project HERMES is an initiative of the Ecuadorian Civilian Space Agency and has a maximum coverage of 22,000 km. HERMES-A is supposed to be the first gateway of a network of five covering all of South America. HERMES-A/MINOTAUR can transmit voice as well as data.
The Global Educational Network for Satellite Operations (GENSO), another I2O, is an initiative from NASA and ESA.
To achieve sustainable interoperability in the Internet of Things ecosystem today" Internet of Things Global Standards Initiative". ITU. Retrieved 13 Nov.2015.Arshdeep Bahga, Vijay Madisetti. "Internet of Things (A Hands-on-Approach)". VPT; 1 edition (August 9, 2014), there are two dominant architectures for data exchange protocols: bus-based (DDS, REST, XMPP) and broker based (AMPQ, CoAP, MQTT, JMI). The protocols that support the information exchange between interoperability domains can also be classified as message-centric (AMQP, MQTT, JMS, REST) or data-centric (DDS, CoAP, XMPP).Stan Schneider. " What's the Difference between Message Centric and Data-Centric Middleware?". Electronic Design. Jul 6, 2012Bryon Moyer. " All About Messaging Protocols What Are the Differences?". EE JOURNAL. April 20, 2015 To use the full potential of IoT, the interconnected devices communicate by using lightweight protocols that don’t require extensive CPU resources. C, Java, Python and some scripting languages are the preferred choices used by IoT applications. To handle any needed protocol conversion, database storage or decision making (e.g. collision handling), IoT nodes use separate IoT gateways in order to supplement the low-intelligence within the IoT node and nodes.
A large number of manufacturers are involved in the IoT Gateways design and production as can be seen, for example, at the relevant Intel IoT Solutions Alliance site. Such companies include CISCO, Harman International Industries,, Advantech, ADLINK, Supermicro, NXP, and others.