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G (named gee ) The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. 1976. is the 7th letter in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

The letter 'G' was introduced in the Old Latin period as a variant of 'C' to distinguish voiced from voiceless . The recorded originator of 'G' is freedman Spurius Carvilius Ruga, the first Roman to open a fee-paying school, who taught around 230 . At this time, 'K' had fallen out of favor, and 'C', which had formerly represented both and before open vowels, had come to express in all environments.

Ruga's positioning of 'G' shows that related to the letters' values as was a concern even in the 3rd century BC. According to some records, the original seventh letter, 'Z', had been purged from the Latin alphabet somewhat earlier in the 3rd century BC by the Appius Claudius, who found it distasteful and foreign. Encyclopaedia Romana Sampson (1985) suggests that: "Evidently the order of the alphabet was felt to be such a concrete thing that a new letter could be added in the middle only if a 'space' was created by the dropping of an old letter." The 3rd-century-BC addition of the letter G to the Roman alphabet is credited to Spurius Carvilius Ruga.

(2011). 9781444359855, John Wiley & Sons. .

George Hempl proposed in 1899 that there never was such a "space" in the alphabet and that in fact 'G' was a direct descendant of . Zeta took shapes like ⊏ in some of the Old Italic scripts; the development of the monumental form 'G' from this shape would be exactly parallel to the development of 'C' from . He suggests that the pronunciation > was due to contamination from the also similar-looking 'K'.

Eventually, both and developed palatalized before front vowels; consequently in today's Romance languages, and have different sound values depending on context (known as hard and soft C and hard and soft G). Because of French influence, English orthography shares this feature.

Typographic variants
The modern 'g' has two typographic variants: the single-storey (sometimes opentail) and the double-storey (sometimes looptail ) . The single-storey form derives from the majuscule (uppercase) form by raising the that distinguishes it from 'c' to the top of the loop, thus closing the loop, and extending the vertical stroke downward and to the left. The double-storey form (g) had developed similarly, except that some ornate forms then extended the tail back to the right, and to the left again, forming a closed bowl or loop. The initial extension to the left was absorbed into the upper closed bowl. The double-storey version became popular when printing switched to "" because the tail was effectively shorter, making it possible to put more lines on a page. In the double-storey version, a small top stroke in the upper-right, often terminating in an orb shape, is called an "ear".

Generally, the two forms are complementary, but occasionally the difference has been exploited to provide contrast. In the International Phonetic Alphabet, opentail has always represented a voiced velar plosive, while was distinguished from and represented a voiced velar fricative from 1895 to 1900. In 1948, the Council of the International Phonetic Association recognized and as typographic equivalents, and this decision was reaffirmed in 1993. While the 1949 Principles of the International Phonetic Association recommended the use of for a velar plosive and for an advanced one for languages where it is preferable to distinguish the two, such as Russian, this practice never caught on. The 1999 Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, the successor to the Principles, abandoned the recommendation and acknowledged both shapes as acceptable variants.

(1999). 9780521637510, Cambridge University Press.

Wong et al. (2018) found that native English speakers have little conscious awareness of the looptail 'g' (). They write: "Despite being questioned repeatedly, and despite being informed directly that G has two lowercase print forms, nearly half of the participants failed to reveal any knowledge of the looptail 'g', and only 1 of the 38 participants was able to write looptail 'g' correctly."

Use in writing systems

In English, the letter appears either alone or in some digraphs. Alone, it represents
  • a voiced velar plosive ( or "hard" ), as in goose, gargoyle and game;
  • a voiced palato-alveolar affricate ( or "soft" ), generally before or , as in giant, ginger and geology; or
  • a voiced palato-alveolar sibilant () in some words of French origin, such as rouge, beige and genre.

In words of Romance origin, is mainly soft before (including the digraphs and ), , or , and hard otherwise. Soft is also used in many words that came into English through medieval or modern Romance languages from languages without soft (like Ancient Latin and Greek) (e.g. or ). There are many English words of non-Romance origin where is hard though followed by or (e.g. get, gift), and a few in which is soft though followed by such as or .

The double consonant has the value (hard ) as in nugget, with very few exceptions: in suggest and in exaggerate and veggies.

The digraph has the value (soft ), as in badger. Non-digraph can also occur, in compounds like floodgate and headgear.

The digraph may represent

  • a () as in length, singer
  • the latter followed by hard () as in jungle, finger, longest
Non-digraph also occurs, with possible values
  • as in engulf, ungainly
  • as in sponge, angel
  • as in melange

The digraph (in many cases a replacement for the obsolete letter , which took various values including , , and ) may represent

  • as in ghost, aghast, burgher, spaghetti
  • as in cough, laugh, roughage
  • Ø (no sound) as in through, neighbor, night
  • in hiccough
  • in ugh
Non-digraph also occurs, in compounds like foghorn, pigheaded

The digraph may represent

  • as in gnostic, deign, foreigner, signage
  • in loanwords like champignon, lasagna
Non-digraph also occurs, as in signature, agnostic

The trigraph has the value as in gingham or dinghy. Non-trigraph also occurs, in compounds like stronghold and dunghill.

Other languages
Most Romance languages and some Nordic languages also have two main pronunciations for , hard and soft. While the soft value of varies in different Romance languages ( in French and Portuguese, in , in Italian and Romanian, and in most dialects of Spanish), in all except Romanian and Italian, soft has the same pronunciation as the .

In Italian and Romanian, is used to represent before front vowels where would otherwise represent a soft value. In Italian and French, is used to represent the , a sound somewhat similar to the in English canyon. In Italian, the trigraph , when appearing before a vowel or as the article and pronoun , represents the palatal lateral approximant .

Other languages typically use to represent regardless of position.

Amongst European languages , , and are an exception as they do not have in their native words. In represents a voiced velar fricative instead, a sound that does not occur in modern English, but there is a dialectal variation: many Netherlandic dialects use a voiceless fricative ( or ) instead, and in southern dialects it may be palatal . Nevertheless, word-finally it is always voiceless in all dialects, including the standard Dutch of Belgium and the Netherlands. On the other hand, some dialects (like Amelands), may have a phonemic .

uses to represent , in addition to , and also uses it to indicate a .

In Maori (), is used in the digraph which represents the and is pronounced like the in singer.

In older and orthographies, was used to represent , while was written as ( with ).

Related characters

Ancestors, descendants and siblings
  • 𐤂 : Semitic letter , from which the following symbols originally derive
  • C c : Latin letter C, from which G derives
  • Γ γ : letter , from which C derives in turn
  • ɡ : Latin letter script small G
  • ᶢ : Modifier letter small script g is used for phonetic transcription
  • ᵷ :
  • Г г : letter Ge
  • Ȝ ȝ : Latin letter Yogh
  • Ɣ ɣ : Latin letter Gamma
  • Ᵹ ᵹ :
  • Ꝿ ꝿ : Turned insular g
  • ɢ : Latin letter small capital G, used in the International Phonetic Alphabet to represent a voiced uvular stop
  • ʛ : Latin letter small capital G with hook, used in the International Phonetic Alphabet to represent a voiced uvular implosive
  • ᴳ ᵍ : Modifier letters are used in the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet
  • ꬶ : Used for the phonetic transcription system
  • G with : Ǵ ǵ Ǥ ǥ Ĝ ĝ Ǧ ǧ Ğ ğ Ɠ ɠ Ġ ġ Ḡ ḡ Ꞡ ꞡ ᶃ

Ligatures and abbreviations
  • ₲ : Paraguayan guaraní

Computing codes

Other representations

See also

External links

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