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Fujimorism (Fujimorismo, フジモリ主義, Hepburn: ) is the policies and the political ideology of former President of as well as the built around him, his policies and his family, especially . The ideology is defined by , its support for neoliberal economics, opposition to , and socially and culturally stances such as opposition to LGBT rights and school curriculums including or .

(2021). 9786123260842, Institute of Peruvian Studies. .
Opponents of Fujimorism are known as .

Since Alberto Fujimori's election, Fujimorism has continued to maintain influence throughout Peru's institutions with the assistance of the 1993 constitution, its neoliberal policies and the support of . Political involvement was largely deactivated until 2011 when it was brought back to the forefront by his children, and , with Keiko's party controlling much of the Congress of the Republic of Peru from 2016 until 2020 through a system that was constitutionally drafted by her father. Since then, Fujimorism has obtained control of the majority of Peru's governing bodies.


History

1990s
The lack of a stable political-party system in as well as in other countries of has led many times to the emergence in the political arena of strong personalities without overt ideological affiliations.Mainwaring (2006). In Peru, the "surprise" 1990 election of Fujimori to the office of the President. Fujimori led the 1992 Peruvian self-coup, ostensibly directed against domestic . Following the 1992 crisis, Fujimori would broaden the definition of terrorism in an effort to criminalize as many actions possible to persecute left-wing political opponents. Using the , a tactic that was used to accuse opponents of terrorism, Fujimori established a cult of personality by portraying himself as a hero and made left-wing ideologies an eternal enemy in Peru. Political scientist Daniel Encinas stated that the terruqueo would evolve into conservative politicians using the attack to target those opposed to Fujimori's neoliberal economic policies and that the right-wing used the tactic as a "strategy of manipulating the legacy of political violence".

In 1993, the Constitution of Peru was rewritten by Fujimori and his supporters and is currently used today. This constitution would later come to benefit Alberto Fujimori's children.


2000s
Fujimori took refuge in Japan when faced with charges of corruption in 2000. On arriving in Japan, he attempted to resign his presidency via , but his resignation was rejected by the Congress of the Republic, which preferred to remove him from office by the process of . Fujimori maintained a self-imposed exile until he was arrested while visiting in November 2005. Conditional release for Fujimori, BBC News, 18 May 2006. Retrieved 26 September 2006. He was extradited to face criminal charges in Peru in September 2007. Extradited Fujimori back in Peru 22 September 2007. In December 2007, Fujimori was convicted of ordering an illegal search and seizure, and was sentenced to six years in prison. Fujimori jailed for abusing power, BBC News, 12 December 2007. Retrieved 12 December 2007.Corte Suprema de la República. 10 December 2008. Resolution 17-2008 . Peru's Ex-President Gets 6 Years for Illicit Search, New York Times, 12 December 2007. Retrieved 12 December 2007. The Supreme Court upheld the decision upon his appeal. In April 2009, Fujimori was convicted of human rights violations and sentenced to 25 years in prison for his role in killings and kidnappings by the during his government's battle against leftist guerrillas in the 1990s.


2010s
Following Fujimori's fall from power, his self-exile to , his back to Peru and his subsequent trial and imprisonment, there emerged political parties that continued to proclaim to follow the legacy of Alberto Fujimori. The most prominent of these groups that formed in the aftermath of Alberto's downfall is ( Fuerza Popular), a political party that was created and is led by the former president's daughter , a presidential candidate in 2011 and again in 2016.In March 2017, Popular Force blocked an investigation into alleged sexual abuse within the Catholic church using the justification that it was only intended as an attack on religion.

As a result of the 2016 Peruvian general election, Keiko Fujimori lost the presidential race, though her Popular Force party gained control of Peru's congress while economist Pedro Pablo Kuczynski won the presidency. Shortly after the election, Fujimorist congress immediately began to politically attack President Kuczynski, beginning two impeachment proceedings against the president; a failed attempt in 2017 and another attempt in 2018.

Shortly after the first impeachment vote failed, President Kuczynski pardoned Alberto Fujimori, with Kuczynski, citing Fujimori's health and age as the main reason for his pardoning. Days before the second vote was to occur, Kenji Fujimori – who was then still part of his sister's party Popular Force – was involved in the Kenjivideos scandal where he was seen attempting to in favor of President Kuczynski to avoid the president's impeachment. As a result of the scandal, President Kuczynski resigned the presidency.

Following this series of events, First Vice President Martín Vizcarra was sworn into the presidency by the Fujimorist-led congress. During this ceremony, some Peruvians took to the streets to protest against the government, calling for the removal of all politicians. Others have stated that the attacks against President Kuczynski was a conspiracy of the Fujimorists to gain control of Peru's political system once more. Soon after taking office, President Vizcarra made attempts to remove corruption within Peru, proposing a national referendum effort surrounding the country's legislative branch and election funding 28 July 2018. On 3 October 2018, Alberto Fujimori's pardon was overturned by a Peruvian court and a week later on 10 October 2018, Keiko Fujimori was detained by police as part of an investigation surrounding the Odebrecht scandal and money laundering allegations that involved her 2011 presidential campaign. On 23 January 2019, Alberto Fujimori was sent back to prison to complete his sentence with his pardon formally being annulled three weeks later on 13 February 2019.

During their majority in congress, Fujimorists "earned a reputation as hardline obstructionists for blocking initiatives popular with Peruvians aimed at curbing the nation’s rampant corruption" according to the .


2020s
During the 2021 Peruvian general election, the right-wing elite, business groups and the majority of media organizations in Peru collaborated with the campaign of Keiko Fujimori by appealing to fear when discussing political opponents. Media organizations in Peru would use the terruqueo along with in an effort to support Fujimori. wrote that El Comercio, one of the largest media organizations in South America, "generally backed Fujimori". After was elected to the presidency, Fujimorists began to manipulate laws to prevent the dissolution of Congress and to solidify governing power within the legislature in which they succeeded in 2023, while Castillo himself was removed from Presidency in December 2022 after his self-coup attempt.


Characteristics

Ideology
Fujimorism is characterized by its social conservatism and has been described as having traits of and . It is also known for strong opposition to left-wing and far-left groups. Fujimorists have signed the , an anti-leftist manifesto promoted by the right-wing Spanish party Vox. The principal foundations of the regime were staunch , forceful anti-terrorist actions, pro- policies and disregard for political institutions.Lawson (2010), pp. 185–190. In terms of the decision-making process, a logic of closed and isolated decision-making at the top became the major characteristic of Fujimori governance.Lawson (2010), p. 186. Fujimorism is considered as it minimized the role of the state functions through privatizations of public companies and by signing contracts with transnational companies to support foreign investment in large sectors.
(2024). 9789972890086, Congreso del Perú.


Parties and alliances
Self-proclaimed Fujimorist parties and electoral coalitions include Cambio 90, New Majority, Sí Cumple, Peru 2000, Alliance for the Future (2006–2010), (since 2010), and Peru Secure Homeland (since 2013). Beginning in the late 2010s, the far-right group La Resistencia Dios, Patria y Familia, with links to , participated in protests to support Fujimorist causes.

Keiko Fujimori's Popular Force has also allied with the conservative parties of Hernando de Soto and of Rafael López Aliaga, with the parties signing the of Spanish political part Vox, an anti-leftist manifesto. Fujimorists have also allied themselves with leftist parties such as , with the latter approaching Popular Force due to its power within governing institutions.


See also
  • Fujimorist propaganda
  • National Intelligence Service (Peru)
  • Vladimiro Montesinos


Notes

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