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Denmark (Danmark, ) is a in . It is the most populous and politically central constituent of the ,Kongeriget Danmark, a constitutionally that includes the autonomous territories of the and in the .*

  • Metropolitan Denmark is the southernmost of the countries, lying south-west of , south of ,The island of is offset to the east of the rest of the country, in the Baltic Sea. and north of .

As of 2013, the , including the and , has a total of 1,419 islands above ; 443 of which have been named and of which 78 are inhabited. About Denmark Spanning a total area of , metropolitan Denmark consists of the northern part of the and an of 406 islands. Of these, the most populated island is , on which the capital is situated, followed by , the North Jutlandic Island, and . Denmark's geography is characterised by flat, , sandy coasts, low elevation, and a temperate climate. As of 2022, it had a population of 5.928 million (1 October 2022), of which 800,000 live in the and largest city, . Denmark exercises influence in the , powers to handle internal affairs. was established in the Faroe Islands in 1948 and in in 1979; the latter obtained further autonomy in 2009.

The unified Kingdom of Denmark emerged in the eighth century as a proficient maritime power amid the struggle for control of the Baltic Sea. In 1397, it joined Norway and Sweden to form the , which persisted until the latter's secession in 1523. The remaining Kingdom of Denmark–Norway endured a in the 17th century that resulted in further to the . Following the , Norway was absorbed into Sweden, leaving Denmark with the Faroe Islands, Greenland, and . A surge of nationalist movements in the 19th century were defeated in the First Schleswig War of 1848, though the Second Schleswig War of 1864 resulted in further territorial losses to . The period saw the adoption of the Constitution of Denmark on 5 June 1849, ending the absolute monarchy that was established in 1660 and introducing the current parliamentary system.

An industrialised exporter of produce in the second half of the 19th century, Denmark introduced social and labour-market reforms in the early 20th century, which formed the basis for the present and advanced . Denmark remained neutral during World War I but regained the northern half of Schleswig in 1920. Danish neutrality was violated in World War II following a swift German invasion in April 1940. During occupation, a resistance movement emerged in 1943 while Iceland declared independence in 1944; Denmark was liberated in May 1945. In 1973, Denmark, together with Greenland but not the , became a member of what is now the , but negotiated certain opt-outs, such as retaining its own currency, the .

Denmark is a highly developed country with a high standard of living: the country performs at or near the top in measures of , health care, civil liberties, and LGBT equality. 2013 Legatum Prosperity Index™: Global prosperity rising while US and UK economies decline. Legatum Institute, 29 October 2013. Denmark is a founding member of , the , the , OSCE, and the ; it is also part of the . Denmark maintains close political, cultural, and linguistic ties with its Scandinavian neighbours, with the being partially mutually intelligible with both Norwegian and .

The etymology of the name "Denmark", the relationship between "Danes" and "Denmark", and the emergence of Denmark as a unified kingdom are topics of continuous scholarly debate.Kristian Andersen Nyrup, Middelalderstudier Bog IX. Kong Gorms Saga Indvandrerne i Danmarks historie, Bent Østergaard, Syddansk Universitetsforlag 2007, , pp. 19–24 This is centred primarily on the prefix "Dan" and whether it refers to the Dani or a historical person Dan and the exact meaning of the - "mark" ending.

Most etymological dictionaries and handbooks derive "Dan" from a word meaning "flat land", related to German Tenne "threshing floor", English den "cave".J. de Vries, Altnordisches etymologisches Wörterbuch, 1962, 73; , Dansk etymologisk ordbog, 1989, 85–96. The element mark is believed to mean or (see marches), with probable references to the border forests in south Schleswig.Navneforskning, Københavns Universitet

The first recorded use of the word Danmark within Denmark itself is found on the two , which are believed to have been erected by Gorm the Old () and (). The larger of the two stones is popularly cited as the "baptismal certificate" (dåbsattest) of Denmark,

(2023). 9780470776834, John Wiley & Sons. .
though both use the word "Denmark", in the tanmaurk () on the large stone, and the "tanmarkar" (pronounced ) on the small stone, while the form tąnmarku (pronounced ) is found on the contemporaneous Skivum stone. The inhabitants of Denmark are there called tani (), or "Danes", in the accusative.


The earliest archaeological finds in Denmark date back to the from 130,000 to 110,000 .Michaelsen (2002), p. 19. Denmark has been inhabited since around 12,500 BC and agriculture has been evident since 3900 BC. The Nordic Bronze Age (1800–600 BC) in Denmark was marked by , which left an abundance of findings including and the Sun Chariot.

During the Pre-Roman Iron Age (500 BC – AD 1), native groups began migrating south, and the first tribal Danes came to the country between the Pre-Roman and the Germanic Iron Age,Busck and Poulsen (ed.) (2002), p. 20. in the Roman Iron Age (AD 1–400). The maintained and relations with native tribes in Denmark, and have been found in Denmark. Evidence of strong cultural influence dates from this period in Denmark and much of North-West Europe and is among other things reflected in the finding of the Gundestrup cauldron.

The tribal Danes came from the east Danish islands () and and spoke an early form of North Germanic. Historians believe that before their arrival, most of and the nearest islands were settled by tribal . The Jutes migrated to eventually, some as mercenaries of Brythonic King , and were granted the south-eastern territories of , the Isle of Wight and other areas, where they settled. They were later absorbed or by the invading and , who formed the . The remaining population in Jutland assimilated in with the settling Danes.

A short note about the Dani in by the historian is believed to be an early mention of the Danes, one of the from whom modern are descended.Busck and Poulsen (ed.) (2002), p. 19. The defence structures were built in phases from the 3rd century forward and the sheer size of the construction efforts in AD 737 are attributed to the emergence of a Danish king.Michaelsen (2002), pp. 122–23. A was first used around the same time and , the oldest town of Denmark, was founded about AD 700.

Viking and Middle Ages
From the 8th to the 10th century the wider Scandinavian region was the source of . They colonised, raided, and traded in all parts of Europe. The Danish Vikings were most active in the eastern and southern and . They settled in parts of (known as the ) under King in 1013, and in where Danes and Norwegians were allowed to settle in what would become in exchange of allegiance to Robert I of France with as first ruler. Some of this period have been found in Denmark.*

Denmark was largely consolidated by the late 8th century and its rulers are consistently referred to in Frankish sources as kings ( reges). Under the reign of in 804 the Danish kingdom may have included all the lands of Jutland, and the Danish islands, excluding Bornholm.

(2007). 9781139468367, Cambridge University Press. .

The extant Danish monarchy traces its roots back to Gorm the Old, who established his reign in the early 10th century. As attested by the , the Danes were around 965 by , the son of Gorm. It is believed that Denmark became Christian for political reasons so as not to get invaded by the Holy Roman Empire. A rising Christian power in Europe, the Holy Roman Empire was an important trading partner for the Danes. As a deterrent against this threat, Harald built six around Denmark called Trelleborg and built a further . In the early 11th century, Canute the Great won and united Denmark, England, and for almost 30 years with a Scandinavian army.

Throughout the High and Late Middle Ages, Denmark also included Skåneland (the areas of Scania, , and in present-day south Sweden) and Danish kings ruled , as well as the of and . Most of the latter two now form the state of Schleswig-Holstein in northern Germany.

In 1397, Denmark entered into a with and Sweden, united under Queen Margaret I. The three countries were to be treated as equals in the union. However, even from the start, Margaret may not have been so idealistic—treating Denmark as the clear "senior" partner of the union.Lauring, Palle (1960) A History of the Kingdom of Denmark, Host & Son Co.: Copenhagen, p. 108. Thus, much of the next 125 years of Scandinavian history revolves around this union, with Sweden breaking off and being re-conquered repeatedly. The issue was for practical purposes resolved on 17 June 1523, as Swedish King Gustav Vasa conquered the city of . The Protestant Reformation spread to Scandinavia in the 1530s, and following the Count's Feud civil war, Denmark converted to in 1536. Later that year, Denmark entered into a union with Norway.

Early modern history (1536–1849)
After Sweden permanently broke away from the personal union, Denmark tried on several occasions to reassert control over its neighbour. King Christian IV attacked Sweden in the 1611–1613 but failed to accomplish his main objective of forcing it to return to the union. The war led to no territorial changes, but Sweden was forced to pay a of 1 million to Denmark, an amount known as the Älvsborg ransom. King Christian used this money to found several towns and fortresses, most notably Glückstadt (founded as a rival to ) and . Inspired by the Dutch East India Company, he founded a similar Danish company and planned to claim as a colony, but the company only managed to acquire on India's . Denmark's large colonial aspirations included a few key in and . While Denmark's trading posts in India were of little note, it played an important role in the highly lucrative Atlantic slave trade, through its trading outposts in in Osu, through which 1.5 million slaves were traded. While the Danish colonial empire was sustained by trade with other major powers, and – ultimately a lack of resources led to its stagnation.
(1991). 9780313262579, Greenwood Publishing Group. .

In the Thirty Years' War, Christian tried to become the leader of the states in Germany but suffered a crushing defeat at the Battle of Lutter.Parker, pp. 69–70. The result was that the Catholic army under Albrecht von Wallenstein was able to invade, occupy, and pillage Jutland, forcing Denmark to withdraw from the war.Parker, p. 70. Denmark managed to avoid territorial concessions, but King Gustavus Adolphus' intervention in Germany was seen as a sign that the military power of Sweden was on the rise while Denmark's influence in the region was declining. Swedish armies in 1643 and claimed Scania in 1644. In the 1645 Treaty of Brømsebro, Denmark surrendered Halland, , the last parts of Danish Estonia, and several provinces in Norway.

Seeing an opportunity to tear up the Treaty of Brømsebro, King Frederick III of Denmark, in 1657, declared war on Sweden, the latter being deeply involved in the Second Northern War (1655–1660), and marched on . This led to a massive Danish defeat as the armies of King Charles X Gustav of Sweden conquered and, following the Swedish March across the frozen , occupied and much of before signing the Peace of Roskilde in February 1658, which gave Sweden control of Scania, , Bohuslän, Trøndelag, and the island of . Charles X Gustav quickly regretted not having ruined Denmark and in August 1658, he launched a second attack on Denmark, conquered most of the Danish islands, and began a two-year-long siege of . King Frederick III actively led the defence of the city, rallying its citizens to take up arms, and repelled the Swedish attacks.Isacson, p. 229; Englund, p. 610 The siege ended following the death of Charles X Gustav in 1660. In the ensuing peace settlement, Denmark managed to maintain its independence and regain control of Trøndelag and Bornholm.Frost, pp. 180-183 Attaining great popularity following the war, Frederick III used this to disband the elective monarchy in favour of absolute monarchy, which lasted until 1848 in Denmark.

Denmark tried but failed to regain control of Scania in the (1675–1679). After the Great Northern War (1700–21), Denmark managed to regain control of the parts of and ruled by the house of in the 1720 Treaty of Frederiksborg and the 1773 Treaty of Tsarskoye Selo, respectively. Denmark prospered greatly in the last decades of the 18th century due to its neutral status allowing it to trade with both sides in the many contemporary wars. In the , Denmark traded with both France and the United Kingdom and joined the League of Armed Neutrality with , Sweden, and Prussia. The British considered this a hostile act and attacked Copenhagen in 1801 and 1807, in one case carrying off the Danish fleet, in the other, burning large parts of the Danish capital. This led to the so-called Danish-British . British control of the waterways between Denmark and Norway proved disastrous to the union's economy and in 1813 Denmark–Norway went .

The union was dissolved by the Treaty of Kiel in 1814; the Danish monarchy "irrevocably and forever" renounced claims to the Kingdom of Norway in favour of the Swedish king. Denmark kept the possessions of (which retained the Danish monarchy until 1944), the and , all of which had been governed by Norway for centuries.

(2023). 9783161483110, Mohr Siebeck.
Apart from the Nordic colonies, Denmark continued to rule over from 1620 to 1869, the Danish Gold Coast (Ghana) from 1658 to 1850, and the Danish West Indies from 1671 to 1917.

Constitutional monarchy (1849–present)

Liberal movement and cession of Schleswig and Holstein
A nascent Danish liberal and national movement gained momentum in the 1830s; after the European Revolutions of 1848, Denmark peacefully became a constitutional monarchy on 5 June 1849. A new constitution established a . Denmark faced war against both and in what became known as the Second Schleswig War, lasting from February to October 1864. Denmark was defeated and obliged to Schleswig and Holstein to . This loss came as the latest in the long series of defeats and territorial losses that had begun in the 17th century. After these events, Denmark pursued a policy of neutrality in Europe.

Industrialisation came to Denmark in the second half of the 19th century.
(2023). 9782760522091, Presses de l'Université du Québec. .
The nation's first railways were constructed in the 1850s, and improved communications and overseas trade allowed industry to develop in spite of Denmark's lack of natural resources. developed, starting in the 1870s. There was a considerable migration of people from the countryside to the cities, and Danish agriculture became centred on the export of dairy and meat products.

Denmark in World War I
Denmark maintained its neutral stance during World War I. After the defeat of Germany, the Versailles powers offered to return the region of Schleswig-Holstein to Denmark. Fearing German , Denmark refused to consider the return of the area without a ; the two Schleswig Plebiscites took place on 10 February and 14 March 1920, respectively. On 10 July 1920, Northern Schleswig was recovered by Denmark, thereby adding some 163,600 inhabitants and . The country's first social democratic government took office in 1924.

German non-aggression pact and invasion
In 1939 Denmark signed a 10-year non-aggression pact with but Germany invaded Denmark on 9 April 1940 and the Danish government quickly surrendered. World War II in Denmark was characterised by economic co-operation with Germany until 1943, when the Danish government refused further co-operation and its navy and sent many of its officers to Sweden, which was neutral. The Danish resistance performed a rescue operation that managed to evacuate several thousand Jews and their families to safety in Sweden before the Germans could send them to death camps. Some Danes supported by joining the Danish Nazi Party or volunteering to fight with Germany as part of the . Iceland severed ties with Denmark and became an independent republic in 1944; Germany surrendered in May 1945. In 1948, the Faroe Islands gained . In 1949, Denmark became a founding member of .

Denmark was a founding member of European Free Trade Association (EFTA). During the 1960s, the EFTA countries were often referred to as the , as opposed to the of what was then the European Economic Community (EEC). In 1973, along with Britain and Ireland, Denmark joined the European Economic Community (now the ) after a public referendum. The Maastricht Treaty, which involved further European integration, was rejected by the Danish people in 1992; it was only accepted after a second referendum in 1993, which provided for four opt-outs from policies. The Danes rejected the euro as the national currency in a referendum in 2000. Greenland gained home rule in 1979 and was awarded self-determination in 2009. Neither the Faroe Islands nor Greenland are members of the European Union, the Faroese having declined membership of the EEC in 1973 and Greenland in 1986, in both cases because of fisheries policies.

Constitutional change in 1953 led to a parliament elected by proportional representation, female accession to the Danish throne, and Greenland becoming an integral part of Denmark. The Social Democrats led a string of coalition governments for most of the second half of the 20th century, introducing the . The Liberal Party and the Conservative People's Party have also led governments.

Located in , Denmark consists of the northern part of the and an of 406 islands. Of these, the largest island is , on which the capital is situated, followed by the North Jutlandic Island, , and . "Facts and Figures ", Danish Defence, Defence Command Denmark. Retrieved 11 June 2010. The island of is located east of the rest of the country, in the . Many of the larger islands are connected by bridges; a bridge-tunnel across the Øresund connects Zealand with Sweden; the Great Belt Fixed Link connects Funen with Zealand; and the Little Belt Bridge connects Jutland with Funen. or connect to the smaller islands. The four cities with populations over 100,000 are the capital on Zealand; and in Jutland; and on Funen.

The country occupies a total area of . The area of inland water is , variously stated as from 500 to 700 km2 (193–270 sq mi). Lake Arresø northwest of Copenhagen is the largest lake. The size of the land area cannot be stated exactly since the ocean constantly erodes and adds material to the coastline, and because of human projects (to counter erosion). Post-glacial rebound raises the land by a bit less than per year in the north and east, extending the coast. A circle enclosing the same area as Denmark would be in with a of (land area only: and respectively). It shares a border of with to the south and is otherwise surrounded by of tidal (including small and ). No location in Denmark is farther from the coast than . On the south-west coast of Jutland, the tide is between , and the tideline moves outward and inward on a stretch.Nationalencyklopedin, (1990) Denmark's territorial waters total .

Denmark's northernmost point is point (the north beach of the Skaw) at 57° 45' 7" northern latitude; the southernmost is point (the southern tip of ) at 54° 33' 35" northern latitude; the westernmost point is Blåvandshuk at 8° 4' 22" eastern longitude; and the easternmost point is Østerskær at 15° 11' 55" eastern longitude. This is in the small archipelago north-east of Bornholm. The distance from east to west is , from north to south .

The country is flat with little elevation, having an average height above sea level of . The highest natural point is Møllehøj, at . Although this is by far the lowest high point in the Nordic countries and also less than half of the highest point in Southern Sweden, Denmark's general elevation in its interior is generally at a safe level from rising sea levels. A sizeable portion of Denmark's consists of rolling whilst the coastline is sandy, with large in northern Jutland. Although once extensively forested, today Denmark largely consists of . It is drained by a dozen or so rivers, and the most significant include the Gudenå, , , Suså and Vidå—a river that flows along its southern border with Germany.

The Kingdom of Denmark includes two overseas territories, both well to the west of Denmark: Greenland, the world's largest island, and the Faroe Islands in the North Atlantic Ocean. These territories are self-governing under their own parliaments (the Løgting and ) and form, together with continental Denmark, part of the .

Denmark has a climate, characterised by mild winters, with mean temperatures in January of , and cool summers, with a mean temperature in August of . Figures, labelled in Danish: First plot is the whole country; Nedbør=Precipitation, Nedbørdage=Precipitation days (>1 mm), (Dag/Middel/Nat)temp.=(Daytime/Average/Nighttime) temperature, Solskinstimer=Hours of sunshine. The most extreme temperatures recorded in Denmark, since 1874 when recordings began, was in 1975 and in 1982. Denmark has an average of 179 days per year with precipitation, on average receiving a total of per year; autumn is the wettest season and spring the driest. The position between a continent and an ocean means that the weather is often unstable.

Because of Denmark's northern location, there are large seasonal variations in daylight. There are short days during the winter with sunrise coming around 8:45 am and sunset 3:45 pm (standard time), as well as long summer days with sunrise at 4:30 am and sunset at 10 pm (daylight saving time).

Denmark belongs to the and can be subdivided into two : the Atlantic mixed forests and Baltic mixed forests. Almost all of Denmark's have been destroyed or fragmented, chiefly for agricultural purposes during the last millennia. The deforestation has created large swaths of and devastating sand drifts. In spite of this, there are several larger second growth woodlands in the country and, in total, 12.9% of the land is now forested. is the most widespread tree (2017); an important tree in the Christmas tree production. Denmark holds a Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 0.5/10, ranking it 171st globally out of 172 countries—behind only .

occupy the countryside in growing numbers, and large-antlered can be found in the sparse woodlands of Jutland. Denmark is also home to smaller mammals, such as , and . Approximately 400 bird species inhabit Denmark and about 160 of those breed in the country. Large marine mammals include healthy populations of , growing numbers of and occasional visits of large whales, including and . , and are abundant culinary fish in Danish waters and form the basis for a large fishing industry.

Denmark stopped issuing new licences for oil and gas extraction in December 2020.

Land and water pollution are two of Denmark's most significant environmental issues, although much of the country's household and industrial waste is now increasingly filtered and sometimes recycled. The country has historically taken a progressive stance on environmental preservation; in 1971 Denmark established a Ministry of Environment and was the first country in the world to implement an environmental law in 1973. The law of environmental damage: liability and reparation. Marie-Louise Larsson. To mitigate environmental degradation and the Danish Government has signed the . However, the national ecological footprint is 8.26 global hectares per person, which is very high compared to a world average of 1.7 in 2010. Contributing factors to this value are an exceptional high value for cropland but also a relatively high value for grazing land,WWF (2014): Living Planet Report. which may be explained by the substantially high meat production in Denmark ( meat annually per capita) and the large economic role of the meat and dairy industries.AMI (2012); preliminary data for 2011 In December 2014, the Climate Change Performance Index for 2015 placed Denmark at the top of the table, explaining that although emissions are still quite high, the country was able to implement effective climate protection policies. In 2020, Denmark was placed first in the index again. In 2021 Denmark, with Costa Rica, launched the "Beyond Oil and Gas alliance" for stopping use fossil fuels.

Denmark's territories, Greenland and the Faroe Islands, catch approximately 650 whales per year. Greenland's quotas for the catch of whales are determined according to the advice of the International Whaling Commission (IWC), having quota decision-making powers.

Government and politics
Politics in Denmark operate under a framework laid out in the Constitution of Denmark. First written in 1849, it establishes a sovereign state in the form of a constitutional monarchy, with a representative parliamentary system. The monarch officially retains executive power and presides over the Council of State ()."The executive power is vested in the King." The Constitution of Denmark – Section 3. "The body of Ministers shall form the Council of State, in which the Successor to the Throne shall have a seat when he is of age. The Council of State shall be presided over by the King..." The Constitution of Denmark – Section 17. In practice, the duties of the monarch are strictly representative and ,The Constitution refers to "the King" (kongen), rather than the gender-neutral term "monarch". In light of the restriction of powers of the monarchy, this is best interpreted as referring to the government Cabinet. The Monarchy todayThe Danish Monarchy ( Access date: 16 June 2012 such as the formal appointment and dismissal of the Prime Minister and other Government ministers. The Monarch is not answerable for his or her actions, and their person is ."The King shall not be answerable for his actions; his person shall be sacrosanct." The Constitution of Denmark – Section 13. Hereditary monarch Queen Margrethe II has been head of state since 14 January 1972.

The Danish parliament is and called the Folketing (Folketinget). It is the of the Kingdom of Denmark, passing acts that apply in Denmark and, variably, Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Folketing is also responsible for adopting the state's budgets, approving the state's accounts, appointing and exercising control of the Government, and taking part in international co-operation. Bills may be initiated by the Government or by members of parliament. All bills passed must be presented before the Council of State to receive within thirty days in order to become law."A Bill passed by the Parliament shall become law if it receives the Royal Assent not later than thirty days after it was finally passed." The Constitution of Denmark – Section 22.

Denmark is a representative democracy with universal suffrage. Membership of the Folketing is based on proportional representation of political parties, with a 2% electoral threshold. Denmark elects 175 members to the Folketing, with Greenland and the Faroe Islands electing an additional two members each—179 members in total. Parliamentary elections are held at least every four years, but it is within the powers of the prime minister to ask the monarch to call for an election before the term has elapsed. On a vote of no confidence, the Folketing may force a single minister or an entire government to resign."A Minister shall not remain in office after the Parliament has passed a vote of no confidence in him." The Constitution of Denmark – Section 15.

The Government of Denmark operates as a cabinet government, where executive authority is exercised—formally, on behalf of the monarch—by the prime minister and other , who head ministries. As the executive branch, the Cabinet is responsible for proposing bills and a budget, executing the laws, and guiding the foreign and internal policies of Denmark. The position of prime minister belongs to the person most likely to command the confidence of a majority in the Folketing; this is often the current leader of the largest or, more effectively, through a coalition of parties. A single party generally does not have sufficient political power in terms of the number of seats to form a cabinet on its own; Denmark has often been ruled by coalition governments, themselves usually minority governments dependent on non-government parties.

Following a general election defeat in June 2015, Helle Thorning-Schmidt, leader of the Social Democrats ( Socialdemokraterne), resigned as prime minister. She was succeeded by Lars Løkke Rasmussen, the leader of the Liberal Party ( Venstre). Rasmussen became the leader of a cabinet that, unusually, consisted entirely of ministers from his own party. In November 2016, Liberal Alliance and the Conservatives joined the government. Liberal Prime Minister, Lars Løkke Rasmussen held the office from 2009 to 2011, and again from 2015 to 2019, with backing from the Danish People's Party (DF). Following the 2019 general election, the Social Democrats, led by leader Mette Frederiksen, formed a single-party government with support from the left-wing coalition. Frederiksen became prime minister on 27 June 2019. In the November 2022 general election, Prime Minister Frederiksen's Social Democrats remained the majority party, adding two more seats to gain its best result in two decades. The second largest was the Venstre, led by Jakob Ellemann-Jensen. The recently formed Moderates party, led by former prime minister Rasmussen, became the third largest party in Denmark. In December 2022, Frederiksen formed a new coalition government with the top three largest political parties. Ellemann-Jensen became deputy prime minister and defence minister, and Rasmussen was appointed foreign minister.

Law and judicial system
Denmark has a civil law system with some references to . Denmark resembles Norway and Sweden in never having developed a like that of and the United States nor comprehensive codes like those of France and Germany. Much of its law is customary.
(2023). 9781584771807, Lawbook Exchange.

The judicial system of Denmark is divided between courts with regular civil and jurisdiction and administrative courts with jurisdiction over litigation between individuals and the public administration. Articles sixty-two and sixty-four of the Constitution ensure judicial independence from government and Parliament by providing that judges shall only be guided by the law, including acts, statutes and practice."The administration of justice shall always remain independent of the executive power. Rules to this effect shall be laid down by Statute ..." The Constitution of Denmark – Sections/Articles 62 and 64. The Kingdom of Denmark does not have a single unified judicial system – Denmark has one system, Greenland another, and the Faroe Islands a third. However, decisions by the highest courts in Greenland and the Faroe Islands may be appealed to the Danish High Courts. The Danish Supreme Court is the highest civil and criminal court responsible for the administration of justice in the Kingdom.

Danish Realm
The Kingdom of Denmark is a that comprises, in addition to metropolitan Denmark, two autonomous territories in the : the and . They have been integrated parts of the Danish Realm since the 18th century; however, due to their separate historical and cultural identities, these parts of the Realm have extensive political powers and have assumed and administrative responsibility in a substantial number of fields. The working autonomies in Europe – Gesellschaft für bedrohte Völker (GFBV). Retrieved 13 March 2012. was granted to the Faroe Islands in 1948 and to Greenland in 1979, each having previously had the status of counties. The unity of the Realm – Statsministeriet – Retrieved 13 March 2012.

The Faroe Islands and Greenland have their own home governments and parliaments and are effectively in regards to domestic affairs apart from the judicial system and monetary policy. High Commissioners ( Rigsombudsmand) act as representatives of the Danish government in the Faroese Løgting and in the Greenlandic Parliament, but they cannot vote. The Faroese home government is defined to be an equal partner with the Danish national government, while the Greenlandic people are defined as a separate people with the right to self-determination. Lov om Grønlands Selvstyre . "I erkendelse af, at det grønlandske folk er et folk i henhold til folkeretten med ret til selvbestemmelse, bygger loven på et ønske om at fremme ligeværdighed og gensidig respekt i partnerskabet mellem Danmark og Grønland."

52,110 LøgtingBárður á Steig Nielsen
56,081 Múte Bourup Egede

Administrative divisions
Denmark, with a total area of , is divided into five administrative regions (regioner). The regions are further subdivided into 98 municipalities ( kommuner). The easternmost land in Denmark, the archipelago, with an area of 39 hectares (0.16 sq mi), is neither part of a municipality nor a region but belongs to the Ministry of Defence. The provinces of Denmark are statistical divisions of Denmark, positioned between the administrative regions and municipalities. They are not administrative divisions, nor subject for any kind of political elections, but are mainly for statistical use.

The regions were created on 1 January 2007 to replace the 16 former counties. At the same time, smaller municipalities were merged into larger units, reducing the number from 270. Most municipalities have a population of at least 20,000 to give them financial and professional sustainability, although a few exceptions were made to this rule. Denmark: Regions, Municipalities, Cities & Major Urban Areas – Statistics and Maps on City Population. The administrative divisions are led by directly elected councils, elected proportionally every four years; the most recent Danish local elections were held on 16 November 2021. Other regional structures use the municipal boundaries as a layout, including the police districts, the court districts and the electoral wards.

The governing bodies of the regions are the , each with forty-one councillors elected for four-year terms. The councils are headed by regional district chairmen ( regionsrådsformand), who are elected by the council.
(2023). 9788777234712, Danske Regioner.
The areas of responsibility for the regional councils are the national health service, and regional development. Unlike the counties they replaced, the regions are not allowed to levy taxes and the health service is partly financed by a national health care contribution until 2018 ( sundhedsbidrag), partly by funds from both government and municipalities. From 1 January 2019 this contribution will be abolished, as it is being replaced by higher income tax instead.

The and populations of the regions vary widely; for example, the Capital Region, which encompasses the Copenhagen metropolitan area with the exception of the subtracted province East Zealand but includes the island of , has a population three times larger than that of North Denmark Region, which covers the more sparsely populated area of northern Jutland. Under the county system certain densely populated municipalities, such as Copenhagen Municipality and Frederiksberg, had been given a status equivalent to that of counties, making them first-level administrative divisions. These municipalities were incorporated into the new regions under the 2007 reforms.

Source: Regional and municipal key figures

Foreign relations
Denmark wields considerable influence in Northern Europe and is a in international affairs. In recent years, Greenland and the Faroe Islands have been guaranteed a say in foreign policy issues such as fishing, , and geopolitical concerns. The foreign policy of Denmark is substantially influenced by its membership of the (EU); Denmark including Greenland joined the European Economic Community (EEC), the EU's predecessor, in 1973.The Faroese declined membership in 1973; Greenland chose to leave the EEC in 1985, following a referendum. Denmark held the Presidency of the Council of the European Union on seven occasions, most recently from January to June 2012. Following World War II, Denmark ended its two-hundred-year-long policy of neutrality. It has been a founding member of the (NATO) since 1949, and membership remains highly popular.

As a member of Development Assistance Committee (DAC), Denmark has for a long time been among the countries of the world contributing the largest percentage of gross national income to . In 2015, Denmark contributed 0.85% of its gross national income (GNI) to and was one of only six countries meeting the longstanding UN target of 0.7% of GNI.As measured in official development assistance (ODA). Denmark, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and the United Kingdom exceeded the United Nations' ODA target of 0.7% of GNI. The country participates in both bilateral and multilateral aid, with the aid usually administered by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The organisational name of Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA) is often used, in particular when operating bilateral aid.

Denmark's are known as the (Forsvaret). The Minister of Defence is commander-in-chief of the Danish Defence, and serves as chief official abroad. During peacetime, the Ministry of Defence employs around 33,000 in total. The main military branches employ almost 27,000: 15,460 in the Royal Danish Army, 5,300 in the Royal Danish Navy and 6,050 in the Royal Danish Air Force (all including conscripts). The Danish Emergency Management Agency employs 2,000 (including conscripts), and about 4,000 are in non-branch-specific services like the Danish Defence Command and the Danish Defence Intelligence Service. Furthermore, around 44,500 serve as volunteers in the Danish Home Guard.

Denmark is a long-time supporter of international , but since the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia in 1999 and the War in Afghanistan in 2001, Denmark has also found a new role as a warring nation, participating actively in several wars and invasions. This relatively new situation has stirred some internal critique, but the Danish population has generally been very supportive, in particular of the War in Afghanistan. The Danish Defence has around 1,400 staff in international missions, not including standing contributions to NATO SNMCMG1. Danish forces were heavily engaged in the former Yugoslavia in the UN Protection Force (), with , and now . Between 2003 and 2007, there were approximately 450 Danish soldiers in . Denmark also strongly supported American operations in and has contributed both monetarily and materially to the ISAF. These initiatives are often described by the authorities as part of a new "active foreign policy" of Denmark.

Denmark has a developed that is classed as a high-income economy by the . Country and Lending Groups. World Bank. Accessed on 14 March 2016. In 2017, it ranked 16th in the world in terms of gross national income (PPP) per capita and 10th in nominal GNI per capita. Denmark's economy stands out as one of the most free in the Index of Economic Freedom and the Economic Freedom of the World. "Country Ratings" , 2012 Index of Economic Freedom. Retrieved 12 January 2012. It is the 10th most competitive economy in the world, and 6th in Europe, according to the World Economic Forum in its Global Competitiveness Report 2018.

Denmark has the fourth highest ratio of tertiary degree holders in the world. UNESCO 2009 Global Education Digest , Shared fourth with Finland at a 30.3% ratio. Graph on p28, table on p194. The country ranks highest in the world for .Kevin Short (28 May 2014). The Worst Places On The Planet To Be A Worker . The Huffington Post. Retrieved 28 May 2014. GDP per hour worked was the 13th highest in 2009. The country has a market income inequality close to the average, but after taxes and public cash transfers the income inequality is considerably lower. According to , Denmark's for disposable income was the 7th-lowest among EU countries in 2017. According to the International Monetary Fund, Denmark has the world's highest minimum wage. As Denmark has no minimum wage legislation, the high wage floor has been attributed to the power of . For example, as the result of a collective bargaining agreement between the 3F trade union and the employers group , workers at McDonald's and other fast food chains make the equivalent of US$20 an hour, which is more than double what their counterparts earn in the United States, and have access to five weeks' paid vacation, and a pension plan.Liz Alderman and Steven Greenhouse (27 October 2014). Living Wages, Rarity for U.S. Fast-Food Workers, Served Up in Denmark . The New York Times. Retrieved 28 October 2014. Union density in 2015 was 68%.On Sweden and Denmark, see Anders Kjellberg and Christian Lyhne Ibsen "Attacks on union organizing: Reversible and irreversible changes to the Ghent-systems in Sweden and Denmark" in Trine Pernille Larsen and Anna Ilsøe (eds.)(2016) Den Danske Model set udefra (The Danish Model Inside Out) – komparative perspektiver på dansk arbejdsmarkedsregulering, Copenhagen: Jurist- og Økonomforbundets Forlag (pp.292)

Once a predominantly country on account of its landscape, since 1945 Denmark has greatly expanded its and . By 2017 services contributed circa 75% of GDP, manufacturing about 15% and agriculture less than 2%. Major industries include , pharmaceuticals, medical equipment, and transportation equipment, , and . Circa 60% of the total export value is due to export of goods, and the remaining 40% is from service exports, mainly sea transport. The country's main export goods are: wind turbines, pharmaceuticals, machinery and instruments, meat and meat products, dairy products, fish, furniture and design. Denmark is a net exporter of food and energy and has for a number of years had a balance of payments surplus which has transformed the country from a net debitor to a net creditor country. By 1 July 2018, the net international investment position (or net foreign assets) of Denmark was equal to 64.6% of GDP.

A liberalisation of import tariffs in 1797 marked the end of and further liberalisation in the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century established the Danish liberal tradition in international trade that was only to be broken by the 1930s.Mathias, Peter and Polard, Sidney (eds.) (1989) The Cambridge Economic History of Europe. Cambridge University Press. p. 22. Even when other countries, such as Germany and France, raised protection for their agricultural sector because of increased American competition resulting in much lower agricultural prices after 1870, Denmark retained its free trade policies, as the country profited from the cheap imports of cereals (used as for their and ) and could increase their exports of and meat of which the prices were more stable.

(2023). 9781107507180, Cambridge University Press.
Today, Denmark is part of the 's , which represents more than 508 million consumers. Several domestic commercial policies are determined by agreements among European Union (EU) members and by EU legislation. Support for is high among the Danish public; in a 2016 poll 57% responded saw globalisation as an opportunity whereas 18% viewed it as a threat. Danskerne og LO elsker globalisering. Newspaper article 17 November 2016 on Retrieved 6 December 2018. 70% of trade flows are inside the European Union. , Denmark's largest export partners are Germany, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States.

Denmark's currency, the (DKK), is pegged at approximately 7.46 kroner per euro through the ERM II. Although a September 2000 referendum rejected adopting the , the country follows the policies set forth in the Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union (EMU) and meets the economic convergence criteria needed to adopt the euro. The majority of the political parties in the Folketing support joining the EMU, but since 2010 opinion polls have consistently shown a clear majority against adopting the euro. In May 2018, 29% of respondents from Denmark in a opinion poll stated that they were in favour of the EMU and the euro, whereas 65% were against it.

Ranked by turnover in Denmark, the largest Danish companies are: A.P. Møller-Mærsk (international shipping), (pharmaceuticals), ISS A/S (facility services), (), (dairy), DSV (transport), (beer), (retail), Ørsted A/S (power), .

Public policy
Danes enjoy a high standard of living and the Danish economy is characterised by extensive government . Denmark has a rate of 22% and a special time-limited tax regime for expatriates. Business Environment , Invest in Denmark The Danish taxation system is broad based, with a 25% , in addition to excise taxes, income taxes and other fees. The overall level of taxation (sum of all taxes, as a percentage of GDP) was 46% in 2017. The tax structure of Denmark (the relative weight of different taxes) differs from the OECD average, as the Danish tax system in 2015 was characterised by substantially higher revenues from taxes on personal income and a lower proportion of revenues from taxes on corporate income and gains and property taxes than in OECD generally, whereas no revenues at all derive from social security contributions. The proportion deriving from payroll taxes, VAT, and other taxes on goods and services correspond to the OECD average

, 6% of the population was reported to live below the , when adjusted for taxes and transfers. Denmark has the 2nd lowest relative poverty rate in the , below the 11.3% OECD average. The share of the population reporting that they feel that they cannot afford to buy sufficient food in Denmark is less than half of the OECD average.

Labour market
Like other Nordic countries, Denmark has adopted the , which combines capitalism with a comprehensive and strong worker protection. As a result of its acclaimed "flexicurity" model, Denmark has the freest in Europe, according to the World Bank. Employers can hire and fire whenever they want (flexibility), and between jobs, compensation is relatively high (security). According to OECD, initial as well as long-term net replacement rates for unemployed persons were 65% of previous net income in 2016, against an OECD average of 53%. Establishing a business can be done in a matter of hours and at very low costs. No restrictions apply regarding overtime work, which allows companies to operate 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. With an employment rate in 2017 of 74.2% for people aged 15–64-years, Denmark ranks 9th highest among the OECD countries, and above the OECD average of 67.8%. The unemployment rate was 5.7% in 2017, which is considered close to or below its structural level.

The level of unemployment benefits is dependent on former employment and normally on membership of an unemployment fund, which is usually closely connected to a trade union, and previous payment of contributions. Circa 65% of the financing comes from earmarked member contributions, whereas the remaining third originates from the central government and hence ultimately from general taxation.

Science and technology
Denmark has a long tradition of scientific and technological invention and engagement, and has been involved internationally from the very start of the scientific revolution. In current times, Denmark is participating in many high-profile international science and technology projects, including , , , ISS and . Denmark was ranked 10th in the Global Innovation Index in 2022, down from 6th in 2020 and from 7th in 2019.
(2023). 9789280534320, World Intellectual Property Organization. .

In the 20th century, Danes have also been innovative in several fields of the technology sector. Danish companies have been influential in the shipping industry with the design of the largest and most energy efficient container ships in the world, the Maersk Triple E class, and Danish engineers have contributed to the design of engines. In the software and electronic field, Denmark contributed to design and manufacturing of Nordic Mobile Telephones, and the now-defunct Danish company was among the first to develop mobile phones.

is a key sector with extensive research and development activities. Danish engineers are world-leading in providing care equipment and medication products from Novo Nordisk and, since 2000, the Danish company , the world market leader in enzymes for first generation starch-based , has pioneered development of enzymes for converting waste to cellulosic ethanol. , spanning the Øresund Region between Zealand and Sweden, is one of Europe's largest life science , containing a large number of life science companies and research institutions located within a very small geographical area.

Danish-born computer scientists and software engineers have taken leading roles in some of the world's programming languages: (, Delphi, C#); (); Bjarne Stroustrup (C++); David Heinemeier Hansson (Ruby on Rails); Lars Bak, a pioneer in virtual machines (V8, Java VM, Dart). Physicist Lene Vestergaard Hau is the first person to stop light, leading to advances in quantum computing, nanoscale engineering, and .

Denmark has considerably large deposits of oil and natural gas in the and ranks as number 32 in the world among net exporters of and was producing 259,980 barrels of crude oil a day in 2009. Denmark Crude Oil Production and Consumption by Year (Thousand Barrels per Day) – indexmundi. Denmark is a long-time leader in : In 2015 provided 42.1% of the total electricity consumption. Wind energy in Denmark breaking world records The Copenhagen Post, Retrieved 17. January 2016. Denmark derived 3.1% of its gross domestic product from renewable (clean) energy technology and energy efficiency, or around €6.5 billion ($9.4 billion). Denmark Invests the Most in Clean Energy per GDP – Retrieved 3 January 2012 Denmark is connected by electric transmission lines to other European countries.

Denmark's electricity sector has integrated energy sources such as wind power into the national grid. Denmark now aims to focus on intelligent battery systems () and in the transport sector. The country is a member nation of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA).

Denmark exported roughly 460 million of energy in 2018.

Significant investment has been made in building road and rail links between regions in Denmark, most notably the Great Belt Fixed Link, which connects and . It is now possible to drive from in northern to on eastern Zealand without leaving the motorway. The main railway operator is DSB for passenger services and for freight trains. The railway tracks are maintained by . The North Sea and the Baltic Sea are intertwined by various, international ferry links. Construction of the Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link, connecting Denmark and Germany with a second link, Started in 2021. Copenhagen has a system, the , and an extensive electrified suburban railway network, the . In the four largest cities – , , , systems are planned to be in operation around 2020.

Cycling in Denmark is a very common form of transport, particularly for the young and for city dwellers. With a network of bicycle routes extending more than 12,000 km and an estimated 7,000 km of segregated dedicated bicycle paths and lanes, Denmark has a solid bicycle infrastructure.

Private vehicles are increasingly used as a means of transport. Because of the (150%), (25%), and one of the world's highest income tax rates, new cars are very expensive. The purpose of the tax is to discourage car ownership. In 2007, an attempt was made by the government to favour environmentally friendly cars by slightly reducing taxes on high mileage vehicles. However, this has had little effect, and in 2008 Denmark experienced an increase in the import of fuel inefficient old cars, as the cost for older cars—including taxes—keeps them within the budget of many Danes. , the average car age is 9.2 years.

With Norway and Sweden, Denmark is part of the Scandinavian Airlines . Copenhagen Airport is Scandinavia's busiest passenger airport, handling over 25 million passengers in 2014. Other notable airports are , , and .


The population of Denmark, as registered by Statistics Denmark, was 5.825 million in April 2020. Denmark has one of the oldest populations in the world, with the average age of 41.9 years, with 0.97 males per female. Despite a low birth rate, the population is growing at an average annual rate of 0.59% because of net immigration and increasing longevity. The World Happiness Report frequently ranks Denmark's population as the happiest in the world.Helliwell, John; Layard, Richard; Sachs, Jeffrey World Happiness Report . The Earth Institute at Columbia University, p. 8. See also: World Happiness Report 2013 , p. 23.; Denmark Is Considered The Happiest Country. You'll Never Guess Why. . 22 October 2013.Stokes, Buce (8 June 2011). The Happiest Countries in the World . . Retrieved 20 September 2013 This has been attributed to the country's highly regarded education and health care systems, and its low level of income inequality.

Denmark is a historically homogeneous nation.

(2023). 9781442264656, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. .
However, as with its Scandinavian neighbours, Denmark has recently transformed from a nation of , up until World War II, to a nation of net immigration. Today, are issued mostly to immigrants from other EU countries (54% of all non-Scandinavian immigrants in 2017). Another 31% of residence permits were study- or work-related, 4% were issued to and 10% to persons who arrive as family dependants. Overall, the net migration rate in 2017 was 2.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population, somewhat lower than the United Kingdom and the other Nordic countries.For comparisons and developments see: Statistics on migration only includes people changing citizenship and does not always provide a realistic picture of migration pressure. In Denmark, 5% of the population were non-citizens in 2005, which is a relatively high figure. See for example.

There are no official statistics on , but according to 2020 figures from Statistics Denmark, 86.11% of the population in Denmark was of descent (including and Greenlandic), defined as having at least one parent who was born in the Kingdom of Denmark and holds Danish Nationality.This data is for Denmark only. For data relevant to and the see their respective articles. The remaining 13.89% were of foreign background, defined as immigrants or descendants of recent immigrants. With the same definition, the most common countries of origin were Turkey, , , , , , , , Bosnia and Herzegovina, and .

The Inuit are indigenous to Greenland in the Kingdom and have traditionally inhabited Greenland and the northern parts of Canada and Alaska in the . From the 18th century up to the 1970s, the Danish government (Dano-Norwegian until 1814) have through time tried to assimilate the Greenlandic Inuit, encouraging them to adopt the majority language, culture and religion. Because of this "Danization process", several persons of Inuit ancestry now identify their mother tongue as Danish.

is the de facto national language of Denmark. and Greenlandic are the official languages of the Faroe Islands and Greenland respectively.
(2023). 9781556712166, SIL International.. .
is a recognised minority language in the area of the former South Jutland County (now part of the Region of Southern Denmark), which was part of the German Empire prior to the Treaty of Versailles. Danish and Faroese belong to the North Germanic (Nordic) branch of the Indo-European languages, along with Icelandic, Norwegian, and . There is a limited degree of mutual intelligibility between Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish. Danish is more distantly related to German, which is a West Germanic language. Greenlandic or "Kalaallisut" is an , and is entirely unrelated to Danish.

A large majority (86%) of Danes speak as a second language, generally with a high level of proficiency. German is the second-most spoken foreign language, with 47% reporting a conversational level of proficiency. Denmark had 25,900 of German in 2007 (mostly in the South Jutland area).

Christianity is the dominant religion in Denmark. In January 2020, 74.3% of the population of Denmark were members of the Church of Denmark (Den Danske Folkekirke), the church, which is in classification and in orientation. Denmark – Constitution – Part I – Section 4 State: "The Evangelical Lutheran Church shall be the Established Church of Denmark, and, as such, it shall be supported by the State."The Church of Denmark is the established church (or state religion) in Denmark and Greenland; the Church of the Faroe Islands became an independent body in 2007. The membership percentage have been in steadily decline since the 1970s, mainly as fewer newborns are being into it. Only 3% of the population regularly attend Sunday services and only 19% of Danes consider religion to be an important part of their life.

The Constitution states that the sovereign must have the Lutheran faith, though the rest of the population is free to adhere to other faiths. Denmark – Constitution – Part II – Section 6 . Denmark – Constitution – Part VII – Section 70: "No person shall for reasons of his creed or descent be deprived of access to complete enjoyment of his civic and political rights, nor shall he for such reasons evade compliance with any common civic duty." Freedom of religion and religious communities in Denmark – The Ministry of Ecclesiastical Affairs – May 2006 In 1682 the state granted limited recognition to three religious groups dissenting from the Established Church: Roman Catholicism, the Reformed Church and Judaism, although conversion to these groups from the Church of Denmark remained illegal initially. Until the 1970s, the state formally recognised "religious societies" by . Today, religious groups do not need official government recognition, they can be granted the right to perform weddings and other ceremonies without this recognition. Denmark's Muslims make up approximately 4.4% of the population and form the country's second largest religious community and largest minority religion. The Danish Foreign Ministry estimates that other religious groups comprise less than 1% of the population individually and approximately 2% when taken all together. – From the Danish Foreign Ministry. Archive retrieved on 3 January 2012.

According to a 2010 Poll, 28% of Danish nationals polled responded that they "believe there is a God", 47% responded that they "believe there is some sort of spirit or life force" and 24% responded that they "do not believe there is any sort of spirit, God or life force". Another poll, carried out in 2009, found that 25% of Danes believe is the son of God, and 18% believe he is the saviour of the world.Poll performed in December 2009 among 1114 Danes between ages 18 and 74, Hver fjerde dansker tror på Jesus (One in four Danes believe in Jesus), Kristeligt Dagblad, 23 December 2009

All educational programmes in Denmark are regulated by the Ministry of Education and administered by local municipalities. Folkeskole covers the entire period of compulsory education, encompassing and lower . Most children attend folkeskole for 10 years, from the ages of 6 to 16. There are no final examinations, but pupils can choose to sit an exam when finishing (14–15 years old). The test is obligatory if further education is to be attended. Alternatively pupils can attend an independent school (friskole), or a private school (privatskole), such as or Waldorf schools.

Following graduation from compulsory education, there are several continuing educational opportunities; the Gymnasium (STX) attaches importance in teaching a mix of humanities and science, Higher Technical Examination Programme (HTX) focuses on scientific subjects and the Higher Commercial Examination Programme emphasises on subjects in economics. Higher Preparatory Examination (HF) is similar to Gymnasium (STX), but is one year shorter. For specific professions, there is vocational education, training young people for work in specific trades by a combination of teaching and .

The government records upper secondary school completion rates of 95% and tertiary enrollment and completion rates of 60%. All and college (tertiary) education in Denmark is free of charges; there are no tuition fees to enrol in courses. Students aged 18 or above may apply for state educational support grants, known as Statens Uddannelsesstøtte (SU), which provides fixed financial support, disbursed monthly.Rick Noack (4 February 2015). Why Danish students are paid to go to college . The Washington Post. Retrieved 5 February 2015. Danish universities offer international students a range of opportunities for obtaining an internationally recognised qualification in Denmark. Many programmes may be taught in the , the academic , in bachelor's degrees, master's degrees, and student exchange programmes.

, Denmark has a of 80.6 years at birth (78.6 for men, 82.5 for women), up from 76.9 years in 2000. This ranks it 27th among 193 nations, behind the other . The National Institute of Public Health of the University of Southern Denmark has calculated 19 major risk factors among Danes that contribute to a lowering of the life expectancy; this includes smoking, alcohol, and physical inactivity.
(2023). 9788778991232, National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark. .
Although the obesity rate is lower than in North America and most other European countries, the large number of Danes becoming is an increasing problem and results in an annual additional consumption in the health care system of 1,625 million. In a 2012 study, Denmark had the highest cancer rate of all countries listed by the World Cancer Research Fund International; researchers suggest the reasons are better reporting, but also lifestyle factors like heavy alcohol consumption, smoking and physical inactivity.

Denmark has a universal health care system, characterised by being publicly financed through taxes and, for most of the services, run directly by the regional authorities. One of the sources of income is a national health care contribution ( sundhedsbidrag) (2007–11:8%; '12:7%; '13:6%; '14:5%; '15:4%; '16:3%; '17:2%; '18:1%; '19:0%) but it is being phased out and will be gone from January 2019, with the income taxes in the lower brackets being raised gradually each year instead. Another source comes from the municipalities that had their income taxes raised by 3 percentage points from 1 January 2007, a contribution confiscated from the former county tax to be used from 1 January 2007 for health purposes by the municipalities instead. This means that most health care provision is free at the point of delivery for all residents. Additionally, roughly two in five have complementary to cover services not fully covered by the state, such as . , Denmark spends 11.2% of its GDP on health care; this is up from 9.8% in 2007 (US$3,512 per capita). This places Denmark above the average and above the other Nordic countries.

Denmark is the only country to have officially used the word 'ghetto' in the 21st century to denote certain residential areas. From 2010 to 2021, the Danish Ministry of Transport, Building and Housing published ghettolisten (List of ghettos) which in 2018 consisted of 25 areas. As a result, the term is widely used in the media and common parlance. The legal designation is applied to areas based on the residents' income levels, employment status, education levels, criminal convictions and non-Western ethnic background. In 2017, 8.7% of Denmark's population consisted of non-Western immigrants or their descendants. The population proportion of 'ghetto residents' with non-Western background was 66.5%.

In 2018, the government has proposed measures to solve the issue of integration and to rid the country of and ghettos by 2030. The measures focus on physical redevelopment, control over who is allowed to live in these areas, crime abatement and education. These policies have been criticised for undercutting 'equality before law' and for portraying immigrants, especially Muslim immigrants, in a bad light. While some proposals like restricting 'ghetto children' to their homes after 8 p.m. have been rejected for being too radical, most of the 22 proposals have been agreed upon by a parliamentary majority.

In 2021, the term ghetto was dropped and replaced by parallel society and vulnerable region.

Denmark shares strong cultural and historic ties with its neighbours and . It has historically been one of the most socially progressive cultures in the world. In 1969, Denmark was the first country to legalise , and in 2012, Denmark replaced its "registered partnership" laws, which it had been the first country to introduce in 1989,Sheila Rule: "Rights for Gay Couples in Denmark"The New York Times. Published: 2 October 1989. Retrieved 7 June 2012 with gender-neutral marriage, and allowed same-sex marriages to be performed in the Church of Denmark. Modesty and are important parts of Danish culture. Denmark – Language, Culture, Customs and Etiquette. From Kwintessential . Retrieved 4 December 2008. In a 2016 study comparing empathy scores of 63 countries, Denmark ranked 4th world-wide having the highest empathy among surveyed European countries. The astronomical discoveries of (1546–1601), Ludwig A. Colding's (1815–1888) neglected articulation of the principle of conservation of energy, and the contributions to atomic physics of (1885–1962) indicate the range of Danish scientific achievement. The fairy tales of Hans Christian Andersen (1805–1875), the philosophical essays of Søren Kierkegaard (1813–1855), the short stories of (penname ), (1885–1962), the plays of (1684–1754), and the dense, aphoristic poetry of Piet Hein (1905–1996), have earned international recognition, as have the symphonies of (1865–1931). From the mid-1990s, Danish films have attracted international attention, especially those associated with Dogme 95 like those of Lars von Trier.

A major feature of Danish culture is Jul (Danish ). The holiday is celebrated throughout December, starting either at the beginning of Advent or on 1 December with a variety of traditions, culminating with the Christmas Eve meal.

There are seven heritage sites inscribed on the World Heritage list in Northern Europe: , a Moravian Church Settlement, the , , Roskilde Cathedral, and The par force hunting landscape in North Zealand and 3 in the World Heritage list in North America: Ilulissat Icefjord, Aasivissuit — , within the Kingdom of Denmark.

Human rights
Denmark has been considered a progressive country, which has adopted legislation and policies to support women's rights, minority rights, and LGBT rights. Human rights in Denmark are protected by the state's Constitution of the Realm (Danmarks Riges Grundlov); applying equally in Denmark proper, and the , and through the of international human rights treaties. Denmark has held a significant role in the adoption of both the European Convention on Human Rights and in the establishment of the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR). In 1987, the ( Folketinget) established a national human rights institution, the Danish Centre of Human Rights, now the Danish Institute for Human Rights.

In 2009, a referendum on changing the Danish Act of Succession were held to grant absolute primogeniture to the Danish throne, meaning that the eldest child, regardless of gender, takes precedence in the line of succession. As it was not retroactive, the current successor to the throne is the eldest son of the King, rather than his eldest child. The Danish constitution Article 2 states that "The monarchy is inherited by men and women".

The Inuit have for decades been the subject of discrimination and abuse by the dominant colonisers from Europe, those countries claiming possession of Inuit lands. The Inuit have never been a single community in a single region of . From the 18th century up to the 1970s, the Danish government (Dano-Norwegian until 1814) have through time tried to assimilate the indigenous people of Greenland, the Greenlandic Inuit, encouraging them to adopt the majority language, culture and religion. Denmark has been greatly criticised by the Greenlandic community for the politics of Danization (50's and 60's) of and discrimination against the indigenous population of the country. Critical treatment paying non-Inuit workers higher wages than the local people, the relocation of entire families from their traditional lands into settlements, and separating children from their parents and sending them away to Denmark for schooling has been practised.[41] Report published by the Greenland Reconciliation Commission Nevertheless, Denmark ratified, in 1996, to recognise the ILO-convention 169 on indigenous people recommended by the UN.

In regard to LGBT rights, Denmark was the first country in the world to grant legal recognition to same-sex unions in the form of in 1989. On 7 June 2012, the law was replaced by a new same-sex marriage law, which came into effect on 15 June 2012. The Copenhagen Post, 7 June 2012: Gay marriage legalised Retrieved 19 September 2012 and the legalised same-sex marriage in April 2016, and in July 2017 respectively. In January 2016, a resolution was implemented by the which prevented being classified as a . In doing so, Denmark became the first country in to go against the World Health Organisation (WHO) standards, which classified transgender identity as being a mental health issue until June 2018.

Danish date back to the 1540s, when handwritten fly sheets reported on the news. In 1666, , the father of Danish journalism, began a . In 1834, the first liberal, factual newspaper appeared, and the 1849 Constitution established lasting freedom of the press in Denmark. Newspapers flourished in the second half of the 19th century, usually tied to one or another political party or trade union. Modernisation, bringing in new features and mechanical techniques, appeared after 1900. The total circulation was 500,000 daily in 1901, more than doubling to 1.2 million in 1925.Kenneth E. Olson, The history makers: The press of Europe from its beginnings through 1965 (LSU Press, 1966) pp 50 – 64, 433 The German occupation during World War II brought informal censorship; some offending newspaper buildings were simply blown up by the Nazis. During the war, the underground produced 550 newspapers—small, surreptitiously printed sheets that encouraged sabotage and resistance.

Danish cinema dates back to 1897 and since the 1980s has maintained a steady stream of productions due largely to funding by the state-supported Danish Film Institute. There have been three big internationally important waves of Danish cinema: erotic melodrama of the ; the increasingly explicit sex films of the 1960s and 1970s; and lastly, the Dogme 95 movement of the late 1990s, where directors often used hand-held cameras to dynamic effect in a conscious reaction against big-budget studios. Danish films have been noted for their realism, religious and moral themes, sexual frankness and technical innovation. The Danish filmmaker Carl Th. Dreyer (1889–1968) is considered one of the greatest directors of .

Other Danish filmmakers of note include , the creator of the popular films; , an -winner for Babette's Feast in 1987; and , the -, Palme d'Or- and Golden Globe-winner for Pelle the Conqueror in 1988. In the modern era, notable filmmakers in Denmark include Lars von Trier, who co-created the Dogme movement, and multiple award-winners and Nicolas Winding Refn. is a world-renowned Danish actor, having starred in films such as King Arthur, Casino Royale, the Danish film The Hunt, and the American TV series Hannibal. Another renowned Danish actor Nikolaj Coster-Waldau is internationally known for playing the role of in the HBO series Game of Thrones.

Danish mass media and news programming are dominated by a few large corporations. In printed media JP/Politikens Hus and , between them, control the largest newspapers , Berlingske Tidende and and major tabloids B.T. and . In television, publicly owned stations DR and TV 2 have large shares of the viewers. TNS-Gallup meter ; Television station viewer statistics, figures for July 2012 (week 28). Retrieved 20 July 2012. DR in particular is famous for its high quality TV-series often sold to foreign broadcasters and often with leading female characters like internationally known actresses Sidse Babett Knudsen and Sofie Gråbøl. In radio, DR has a near monopoly, currently broadcasting on all four nationally available channels, competing only with local stations.

Denmark and its multiple outlying islands have a wide range of folk traditions. The country's most famous classical composer is (1865–1931), especially remembered for his six symphonies and his Wind Quintet, while the Royal Danish Ballet specialises in the work of the Danish choreographer August Bournonville. The Royal Danish Orchestra is among the world's oldest orchestras. Danes have distinguished themselves as musicians, and the Copenhagen Jazz Festival has acquired international recognition.

The modern and rock scene has produced a few names of international fame, including Aqua, , , , Kashmir, , Mew, Michael Learns to Rock, MØ, , and , among others. , the drummer of the band , has become the first Danish musician to be inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.

Roskilde Festival near Copenhagen is the largest music festival in Northern Europe since 1971 and Denmark has many recurring music festivals of all genres throughout, including Aarhus International Jazz Festival, Skanderborg Festival, The Blue Festival in Aalborg, Esbjerg International Chamber Music Festival and among many others. Festivalguide Gaffa Musikfestivaler i Danmark VisitDenmark

Denmark has participated in the Eurovision Song Contest since 1957 and has won the contest three times, in 1963, 2000 and 2013.

Architecture and design
Denmark's architecture became firmly established in the when first , then churches and cathedrals sprang up throughout the country. From the 16th century, Dutch and Flemish designers were brought to Denmark, initially to improve the country's fortifications, but increasingly to build magnificent royal castles and palaces in the Renaissance style. During the 17th century, many impressive buildings were built in the Baroque style, both in the capital and the provinces. Neoclassicism from France was slowly adopted by native Danish architects who increasingly participated in defining architectural style. A productive period of Historicism ultimately merged into the 19th-century National Romantic style., Visit Denmark. Retrieved 3 September 2011.

The 20th century brought along new architectural styles; including expressionism, best exemplified by the designs of architect Peder Vilhelm Jensen-Klint, which relied heavily on Scandinavian brick Gothic traditions; and Nordic Classicism, which enjoyed brief popularity in the early decades of the century. It was in the 1960s that Danish architects such as entered the world scene with their highly successful Functionalist architecture. This, in turn, has evolved into more recent world-class masterpieces including Jørn Utzon's Sydney Opera House and Johan Otto von Spreckelsen's de la Défense in Paris, paving the way for a number of contemporary Danish designers such as to be rewarded for excellence both at home and abroad., Embassy of Denmark, Hanoi. Retrieved 3 October 2011.

Danish design is a term often used to describe a style of functionalistic design and architecture that was developed in the mid-20th century, originating in Denmark. Danish design is typically applied to industrial design, furniture and household objects, which have won many international awards. The is famous for the quality of its ceramics and export products worldwide. Danish design is also a well-known brand, often associated with world-famous, 20th-century designers and architects such as Børge Mogensen, , , , and . "Danish by Design", DDC. Retrieved 4 September 2011. Other designers of note include Kristian Solmer Vedel (1923–2003) in the area of industrial design, (1919–2008) for kitchen furniture and implements and (1903–1985) who had a classical approach to furniture design.

Literature and philosophy
The first known Danish literature is myths and from the 10th and 11th century. , normally considered the first Danish writer, worked for bishop on a chronicle of Danish history ( ). Very little is known of other Danish literature from the . With the Age of Enlightenment came whose comedy plays are still being performed.

In the late 19th century, literature was seen as a way to influence society. Known as the Modern Breakthrough, this movement was championed by , Henrik Pontoppidan (awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature) and J. P. Jacobsen. influenced the renowned writer and poet Hans Christian Andersen, known for his stories and , e.g. The Ugly Duckling, The Little Mermaid and The Snow Queen. In recent history Johannes Vilhelm Jensen was also awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature. is famous for her novels and short stories. Other Danish writers of importance are , , , Martin Andersen Nexø, Piet Hein, , , Dan Turèll, , Inger Christensen and Peter Høeg.

Danish philosophy has a long tradition as part of Western philosophy. Perhaps the most influential Danish philosopher was Søren Kierkegaard, the creator of Christian existentialism. Kierkegaard had a few Danish followers, including Harald Høffding, who later in his life moved on to join the movement of . Among Kierkegaard's other followers include who was impressed with Kierkegaard's views on the individual, and , who helped create humanistic psychology. Another Danish philosopher of note is Grundtvig, whose philosophy gave rise to a new form of non-aggressive nationalism in Denmark, and who is also influential for his theological and historical works.

Painting and photography
While Danish art was influenced over the centuries by trends in Germany and the Netherlands, the 15th and 16th century church frescos, which can be seen in many of the country's older churches, are of particular interest as they were painted in a style typical of native Danish painters. Wall Paintings in Danish Churches from . Retrieved 12 August 2009. Adopting the approach, they present many of the most popular stories from the and .

The Danish Golden Age, which began in the first half of the 19th century, was inspired by a new feeling of nationalism and romanticism, typified in the later previous century by Nicolai Abildgaard. Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg was not only a productive artist in his own right but taught at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts where his students included notable painters such as , Christen Købke, Martinus Rørbye, Constantin Hansen, and Wilhelm Marstrand.

In 1871, and visited in the far north of where they quickly built up one of Scandinavia's most successful specialising in Naturalism and Realism rather than in the traditional approach favoured by the academy. Hosted by and his wife , they were soon joined by P.S. Krøyer, and . All participated in painting the natural surroundings and local people. Art Encyclopedia: Skagen. Retrieved 9 December 2008. Similar trends developed on Funen with the who included , and Peter Hansen, "The Funish Art Colony" , Johannes Larsen Museet. Retrieved 12 August 2011. and on the island of Bornholm with the Bornholm school of painters including , Kræsten Iversen and Oluf Høst. The Bornholm School from the Rough Guide to Denmark. Retrieved 10 December 2008.

Painting has continued to be a prominent form of artistic expression in Danish culture, inspired by and also influencing major international trends in this area. These include and the modernist styles of , abstract painting and . While international co-operation and activity has almost always been essential to the Danish artistic community, influential art collectives with a firm Danish base includes (1909–1912), (1930s and 1940s), COBRA (1948–1951), (1960s and 1970s), (1980s) and more recently (founded in 1993). Most Danish painters of modern times have also been very active with other forms of artistic expressions, such as sculpting, ceramics, art installations, activism, film and experimental architecture. Notable Danish painters from modern times representing various include Theodor Philipsen (1840–1920, impressionism and naturalism), Anna Klindt Sørensen (1899–1985, expressionism), Franciska Clausen (1899–1986, Neue Sachlichkeit, cubism, surrealism and others), (1907–1993, naivism), (1912–1993, abstract painting), Carl Henning Pedersen (1913–2007, abstract painting), (1914–1973, Situationist, abstract painting), Bjørn Wiinblad (1918–2006, art deco, orientalism), (b. 1938, neo-expressionism, abstract painting), (b. 1941, pop art), (b. 1955, neo-surrealism) and Simone Aaberg Kærn (b. 1969, superrealism).

Danish photography has developed from strong participation and interest in the very beginnings of the art of photography in 1839 to the success of a considerable number of Danes in the world of photography today. Pioneers such as and Georg Emil Hansen paved the way for a rapidly growing profession during the last half of the 19th century. Today Danish photographers such as Astrid Kruse Jensen and Jacob Aue Sobol are active both at home and abroad, participating in key exhibitions around the world. Contemporary Danish Photography. From Photography-Now . Retrieved 28 January 2010.

The traditional of Denmark, like that of the other Nordic countries and of , consists mainly of meat, fish and potatoes. Danish dishes are highly seasonal, stemming from the country's agricultural past, its geography, and its climate of long, cold winters.

The open sandwiches on rye bread, known as smørrebrød, which in their basic form are the usual fare for lunch, can be considered a national speciality when prepared and decorated with a variety of fine ingredients. Hot meals traditionally consist of , such as (meat balls of veal and pork) and hakkebøf (minced beef patties), or of more substantial meat and fish dishes such as flæskesteg (roast pork with crackling) and kogt torsk (poached cod) with mustard sauce and trimmings. Denmark is known for its and beers and for its and .

Since around 1970, chefs and restaurants across Denmark have introduced cooking, largely influenced by . Also inspired by continental practices, Danish chefs have recently developed a new innovative cuisine and a series of gourmet dishes based on high-quality local produce known as New Danish cuisine. As a result of these developments, Denmark now has a considerable number of internationally acclaimed restaurants of which several have been awarded . This includes Geranium and Noma in Copenhagen.

Sports are popular in Denmark, and its citizens participate in and watch a wide variety. The is football, with over 320,000 players in more than 1600 clubs. Denmark qualified six times consecutively for the European Championships between 1984 and 2004, and were crowned European champions in 1992; other significant achievements include winning the Confederations Cup in 1995 and reaching the quarter-final of the 1998 World Cup. Notable Danish footballers include , named the best player in Europe in 1977, , named the "World's Best Goalkeeper" in 1992 and 1993, and , named the best Danish player of all time by the Danish Football Union.

There is much focus on , too. The women's national team celebrated great successes during the 1990s and has won a total of 13 medals – seven gold (in 1994, 1996 (2), 1997, 2000, 2002 and 2004), four silver (in 1962, 1993, 1998 and 2004) and two bronze (in 1995 and 2013). On the men's side, Denmark has won 12 medals—four gold (in 2008, 2012, 2016 and 2019), four silver (in 1967, 2011, 2013 and 2014) and four bronze (in 2002, 2004, 2006 and 2007)—the most that have been won by any team in European Handball Championship history. In 2019, the Danish men's national handball team won their first World Championship title in the tournament that was co-hosted between Germany and Denmark.

In recent years, Denmark has made a mark as a strong nation, with Michael Rasmussen reaching King of the Mountains status in the Tour de France in 2005 and 2006. Other popular sports include golf—which is mostly popular among those in the older demographic; , The National Olympic Committee and Sports Confederation of Denmark —in which Denmark is successful on a professional level; —Denmark joined the international governing body in 1951; Profile | Denmark , Retrieved 24 September 2015. rugby—the Danish Rugby Union dates back to 1950;Bath, Richard (ed.) The Complete Book of Rugby (Seven Oaks Ltd, 1997 ) p66. Archived from July 2007 and Retrieved June 2012. — often competing in the top division in the Men's World Championships; rowing—Denmark specialise in lightweight rowing and are particularly known for their lightweight coxless four, having won six gold and two silver World Championship medals and three gold and two bronze medals; and several indoor sports—especially , and gymnastics, in each of which Denmark holds World Championships and Olympic medals. Denmark's numerous beaches and resorts are popular locations for fishing, canoeing, kayaking, and many other water-themed sports.

See also
  • Index of Denmark-related articles
  • Outline of Denmark
  • Religion in Denmark

Explanatory notes


General and cited sources
  • (2023). 9781741046694, Lonely Planet. .
  • (2023). 9788772889412, Aarhus Universitetsforlag.
  • (2023). 9789174869996, Atlantis.
  • (2023). 9780582064294, Pearson Education.
  • (1998). 9788723002808, Alinea.
  • (2023). 9789185057252, Historiska Media.
  • (1995). 9788778260314, Flachs.
  • Michaelsen, Karsten Kjer, "Politikens bog om Danmarks oldtid", Politikens Forlag (1. bogklubudgave), 2002,
  • Nationalencyklopedin, vol. 4, Bokförlaget Bra Böcker, 2000, .

External links

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