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Collaborative software or groupware is application software designed to help people involved in a common task to achieve their goals. One of the earliest definitions of collaborative software is "intentional group processes plus software to support them".

In terms of the level of interaction it allows, collaborative software may be divided into: real-time collaborative editing () platforms that allow multiple users to engage in live, simultaneous and reversible editing of a single file (usually a document), and (also known as revision control and source control) platforms, which allow separate users to make parallel edits to a file, while preserving every saved edit by every user as multiple files (that are variants of the original file).

Collaborative software is a broad concept that overlaps considerably with computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW). According to Carstensen and Schmidt (1999) groupware is part of CSCW. The authors claim that CSCW, and thereby groupware, addresses "how collaborative activities and their coordination can be supported by means of computer systems." Software products such as email, calendaring, , , and bookmarking belong to this category whenever used for group work, whereas the more general term applies to systems used outside the workplace, for example, online dating services and social networking sites like and .

The use of collaborative software in the work space creates a collaborative working environment (CWE).

Finally, collaborative software relates to the notion of collaborative work systems, which are conceived as any form of human organization that emerges any time that collaboration takes place, whether it is formal or informal, intentional or unintentional.Beyerlein, M; Freedman, S.; McGee, G.; Moran, L. (2002). Beyond Teams: Building the Collaborative Organization. The Collaborative Work Systems series, Wiley. Whereas the groupware or collaborative software pertains to the technological elements of computer-supported cooperative work, collaborative work systems become a useful analytical tool to understand the behavioral and organizational variables that are associated to the broader concept of CSCW.Wilson, P. (1991). Computer Supported Cooperative Work: An Introduction. Kluwer Academic Pub. Aparicio, M and Costa, C. (2012) Collaborative systems: characteristics and features. In Proceedings of the 30th ACM international conference on Design of communication (SIGDOC '12). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 141-146.


Origins
Douglas Engelbart first envisioned collaborative computing in 1951 and documented his vision in 1962, Augmenting Human Intellect: A Conceptual Framework, Douglas C. Engelbart, 1962 with working prototypes in full operational use by his research team by the mid-1960s, A Research Center for Augmenting Human Intellect, Douglas C. Engelbart and William K. English, 1968. and held the first public demonstration of his work in 1968 in what is now referred to as "The Mother of All Demos." The following year, Engelbart's lab was hooked into the , the first computer network, enabling them to extend services to a broader userbase. See also Intelligence Amplification , Section on ARPANET Deployed, and the Doug Engelbart Archive Collection.

Online collaborative gaming software began between early networked computer users. In 1975, created Colossal Cave Adventure on a DEC PDP-10 computer. As internet connections grew, so did the numbers of users and multi-user games. In 1978 , a student at University of Essex in the United Kingdom, created the game MUD (Multi-User Dungeon).

The US Government began using truly collaborative applications in the early 1990s. One of the first robust applications was the Navy's Common Operational Modeling, Planning and Simulation Strategy (COMPASS). Https://www.cwid.js.mil/public/CWIDFctShtSuccesses21Mar08.doc" target="_blank" rel="nofollow"> Heritage of Delivering Successful Warfighting Solutions The COMPASS system allowed up to 6 users to create point-to-point connections with one another; the collaborative session only remained while at least one user stayed active, and would have to be recreated if all six logged out. MITRE improved on that model by hosting the collaborative session on a server that each user logged into. Called the Collaborative Virtual Workstation (CVW), this allowed the session to be set up in a virtual file cabinet and virtual rooms, and left as a persistent session that could be joined later. Collaborative virtual environments for analysis and decision support, Mark Mayburry

In 1996, , who had built MUDs at PARC, created PlaceWare, a server that simulated a one-to-many auditorium, with side chat between "seat-mates", and the ability to invite a limited number of audience members to speak. In 1997, engineers at used the PlaceWare engine in a commercial version of MITRE's CVW, calling it InfoWorkSpace (IWS). In 1998, IWS was chosen as the military standard for the standardized Air Operations Center. The IWS product was sold to and then later to Ezenia.


Groupware
Collaborative software was originally designated as groupware and this term can be traced as far back as the late 1980s, when Richman and Slovak (1987) wrote:

Even further back, in 1978 Peter and Trudy Johnson-Lenz coined the term groupware; their initial 1978 definition of groupware was, “intentional group processes plus software to support them.” Later in their article they went on to explain groupware as “computer-mediated culture... an embodiment of social organization in hyperspace." Groupware integrates co-evolving human and tool systems, yet is simply a single system.

In the early 1990s the first commercial groupware products were delivered, and big companies such as and started using electronic meeting systems for key internal projects. Lotus Notes appeared as a major example of that product category, allowing remote group collaboration when the internet was still in its infancy. Kirkpatrick and Losee (1992) wrote then:


Design and implementation issues
The complexity of groupware development is still an issue. One reason for this is the socio-technical dimension of groupware. Groupware designers do not only have to address technical issues (as in traditional software development) but also consider the organizational aspects D'Atri A., De Marco M., Casalino N. (2008). “Interdisciplinary Aspects of Information Systems Studies”, pp. 1-416, Physica-Verlag, Springer, Germany, Doi 10.1007/978-3-7908-2010-2 . and the social group processes that should be supported with the groupware application. Some examples for issues in groupware development are:

  • Persistence is needed in some sessions. Chat and voice communications are routinely non-persistent and evaporate at the end of the session. Virtual room and online file cabinets can persist for years. The designer of the collaborative space needs to consider the information duration needs and implement accordingly.
  • Authentication has always been a problem with groupware. When connections are made point-to-point, or when log-in registration is enforced, it's clear who is engaged in the session. However, audio and unmoderated sessions carry the risk of unannounced 'lurkers' who observe but do not announce themselves or contribute. A Case Study in Technology Transfer of Collaboration Tools Collaborating securely - Can it be done?
  • Until recently, bandwidth issues at fixed location limited full use of the tools. These are exacerbated with mobile devices.
  • Multiple input and output streams bring concurrency issues into the groupware applications.
  • Motivational issues are important, especially in settings where no pre-defined group process was in place.
  • Closely related to the motivation aspect is the question of reciprocity. Ellis and others have shown that the distribution of efforts and benefits has to be carefully balanced in order to ensure that all required group members really participate.
  • Real-time communication via groupware can lead to a lot of noise, over-communication and information overload.

One approach for addressing these issues is the use of design patterns for groupware design.Till Schümmer and Stephan Lukosch. 2007. Patterns for Computer-Mediated Interaction (Wiley Software Patterns Series). John Wiley & Sons. The patterns identify recurring groupware design issues and discuss design choices in a way that all stakeholders can participate in the groupware development process.


Groupware and levels of collaboration
Groupware can be divided into three categories depending on the level of :Casalino N., Draoli M. (2009), “Governance and Organizational Aspects of an Experimental Groupware in the Italian Public Administration to Support Multi-Institutional Partnerships”, in Information Systems: People, Organizations, Institutions, and Trchnologies, D’Atri A., Saccà D. (Eds.), Physica-Verlag, Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, pp. 81-89, , doi 10.1007/978-3-7908-2148-2_11

  1. Communication can be thought of as unstructured interchange of information. A phone call or an IM Chat discussion are examples of this.
  2. Conferencing (or collaboration level, as it is called in the academic papers that discuss these levels) refers to interactive work toward a shared goal. Brainstorming or voting are examples of this.
  3. Co-ordination refers to complex interdependent work toward a shared goal. A good metaphor for understanding this is to think about a sports team; everyone has to contribute the right play at the right time as well as adjust their play to the unfolding situation - but everyone is doing something different - in order for the team to win. That is complex interdependent work toward a shared goal: collaborative management.


Collaborative management (coordination) tools
Collaborative management tools facilitate and manage group activities. Examples include:
  • Electronic calendars (also called software) — schedule events and automatically notify and remind group members
  • Project management systems — schedule, track, and chart the steps in a project as it is being completed
  • — share, review, approve, and reject web proofs, artwork, photos, or videos between designers, customers, and clients
  • — collaborative management of tasks and documents within a knowledge-based business process
  • Knowledge management systems — collect, organize, manage, and share various forms of information
  • Enterprise bookmarking — collaborative bookmarking engine to tag, organize, share, and search enterprise data
  • Prediction markets — let a group of people predict together the outcome of future events
  • systems (sometimes also known as 'project extranets') — collect, organize, manage and share information associated with the delivery of a project (e.g.: the construction of a building)
  • systems — quickly share company information to members within a company via Internet (e.g.: marketing and product info)
  • systems — organize social relations of groups
  • Online spreadsheets — collaborate and share structured data and information
  • — interact and share with your clients in a private online environment


Collaborative software and human interaction
The design intent of collaborative software (groupware) is to transform the way documents and are shared in order to enable more effective team collaboration.

Collaboration, with respect to information technology, seems to have several definitions. Some are defensible but others are so broad they lose any meaningful application. Understanding the differences in human interactions is necessary to ensure the appropriate technologies are employed to meet interaction needs.

There are three primary ways in which humans interact: conversations, transactions, and collaborations.

Conversational interaction is an exchange of information between two or more participants where the primary purpose of the interaction is discovery or relationship building. There is no central entity around which the interaction revolves but is a free exchange of information with no defined constraints, generally focused on personal experiences. Communication technology such as telephones, instant messaging, and e-mail are generally sufficient for conversational interactions.

Transactional interaction involves the exchange of transaction entities where a major function of the transaction entity is to alter the relationship between participants.

In collaborative interactions the main function of the participants' relationship is to alter a collaboration entity (i.e., the converse of transactional). When teams collaborate on projects it is called Collaborative project management.


See also


Closely related terms
  • Computer supported cooperative work
  • Integrated collaboration environment


Groupware type of applications
  • Content management system
  • Customer relationship management software
  • Document management system
  • Enterprise content management
  • Event management software


Other related type of applications
  • Massively distributed collaboration
  • Online consultation
  • Online deliberation


Other related terms
  • Collaborative innovation network
  • Commons-based peer production
  • Electronic business
  • Information technology management
  • Management information systems
  • Office of the future
  • Operational transformation
  • Organizational Memory System
  • Cloud collaboration
  • Document collaboration


Lists of collaborative software
  • List of collaborative software
  • List of social bookmarking websites
  • Enterprise portal


Citations

Sources


External links
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