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Cake is a form of or bread-like . In its modern forms, it is typically a sweet . In its oldest forms, cakes were normally fried breads or , and normally had a disk shape. Determining whether a given food should be classified as bread, cake, or can be difficult.

Modern cake, especially layer cakes, normally contain a combination of , , , and or , with some varieties also requiring liquid (typically or ) and leavening agents (such as or ). Flavorful ingredients like fruit , , or , or are often added, and numerous substitutions for the primary ingredients are possible. Cakes are often filled with or dessert sauces (like ), iced with or other icings, and decorated with , piped borders or candied fruit. Cake finishes. Youtube.com. Retrieved on 2011-12-23.

Cake is often the dessert of choice for meals at ceremonial occasions, particularly , , and . There are countless cake recipes; some are bread-like, some rich and elaborate, and many are centuries old. Cake making is no longer a complicated procedure; while at one time considerable labor went into cake making (particularly the of egg foams), baking equipment and directions have been simplified so that even the most amateur cook may bake a cake.


Varieties

Cakes are broadly divided into several categories, based primarily on ingredients and cooking techniques.

  • Yeast cakes are the oldest and are very similar to yeast . Such cakes are often very traditional in form, and include such pastries as and .
  • , despite their name, aren't really cakes at all. Cheesecakes are in fact custard , with a filling made mostly of some form of cheese (often , , or the like), and have very little flour added, although a flour-based or graham cracker crust may be used. Cheesecakes are also very old, with evidence of honey-sweetened cakes dating back to ancient Greece.
  • are thought to be the first of the non-yeast-based cakes and rely primarily on trapped air in a protein matrix (generally of beaten eggs) to provide , sometimes with a bit of or other chemical leaven added as insurance. Such cakes include the Italian/Jewish pan di Spagna and the French . Highly decorated sponge cakes with lavish toppings are sometimes called gateau; the French word for cake.
  • , including the and , rely on the combination of butter, eggs, and sometimes baking powder or bicarbonate of soda to provide both lift and a moist texture.

Beyond these classifications, cakes can be classified based on their appropriate accompaniment (such as ) and contents (e.g. or ).

Some varieties of cake are widely available in the form of cake mixes, wherein some of the ingredients (usually flour, sugar, flavoring, baking powder, and sometimes some form of fat) are premixed, and the cook needs add only a few extra ingredients, usually eggs, water, and sometimes vegetable oil or butter. While the diversity of represented styles is limited, cake mixes do provide an easy and readily available homemade option for cooks who are not accomplished bakers.


Special-purpose cakes
Cakes may be classified according to the occasion for which they are intended. For example, , , cakes for first , Christmas cakes, cakes and Passover plava (a type of sponge cake sometimes made with meal) are all identified primarily according to the celebration they are intended to accompany. The cutting of a wedding cake constitutes a social ceremony in some cultures. The Ancient Roman marriage ritual of originated in the sharing of a cake.

Particular types of cake may be associated with particular festivals, such as or (at ), and (at ), or . There has been a long tradition of decorating an iced cake at Christmas time; other cakes associated with Christmas include and .


Shapes
Cakes are frequently described according to their physical form. Cakes may be small and intended for individual consumption. Larger cakes may be made with the intention of being sliced and served as part of a meal or social function. Common shapes include:


Cake flour

Special cake flour with a high starch-to-gluten ratio is made from fine-textured, soft, low-protein wheat. It is strongly bleached, and compared to all-purpose flour, cake flour tends to result in cakes with a lighter, less dense texture. Types of Flour. Whatscookingamerica.net. Retrieved on 2011-12-23. Therefore, it is frequently specified or preferred in cakes meant to be soft, light, and or bright white, such as . However, if cake flour is called for, a substitute can be made by replacing a small percentage of all-purpose flour with cornstarch or removing two tablespoons from each cup of all-purpose flour. Cake flour properties and substitutions. Gourmetsleuth.com. Retrieved on 2011-12-23. Is cake flour necessary?. Aww.ninemsn.com.au (2007-08-01). Retrieved on 2011-12-23. ξ1 Some recipes explicitly specify or permit all-purpose flour, notably where a firmer or denser cake texture is desired.


Cake decorating

A finished cake is often enhanced by covering it with , or frosting, and toppings such as , which are also known as "jimmies" in certain parts of the United States and "hundreds and thousands" in the United Kingdom. Frosting is usually made from powdered (icing) sugar, sometimes a fat of some sort, milk or cream, and often flavorings such as or . Some decorators use a rolled icing. Commercial bakeries tend to use for the fat, and often whip the lard to introduce air bubbles. This makes the icing light and spreadable. Home bakers either use lard, , or some combination thereof. Sprinkles are small firm pieces of sugar and oils that are colored with . In the late 20th century, new cake decorating products became available to the public. These include several specialized sprinkles and even methods to print pictures and transfer the image onto a cake.

Special tools are needed for more complex , such as or syringes, and various piping tips. To use a piping bag or syringe, a piping tip is attached to the bag or syringe using a coupler. The bag or syringe is partially filled with icing which is sometimes colored. Using different piping tips and various techniques, a cake decorator can make many different designs. Basic decorating tips include open star, closed star, basketweave, round, drop flower, leaf, multi, petal, and specialty tips.

, (or a less sweet version, known as almond paste), fondant icing (also known as sugarpaste) and buttercream are used as covering icings and to create decorations. Floral or wired sugar flowers are an important part of cake decoration. Cakes for special occasions, such as wedding cakes, are traditionally rich fruit cakes or occasionally , that are covered with marzipan and iced using royal icing or sugar-paste. They are finished with piped borders (made with royal icing) and adorned with a piped message, wired sugar flowers, hand-formed fondant flowers, marzipan fruit, piped flowers, or crystallized fruits or flowers such as or .


History
The term "cake" has a long history. The word itself is of Viking origin, from the Old Norse word "kaka". The history of cakes. Devlaming.co.za. Retrieved on 2011-12-23.

Although clear examples of the difference between cake and are easy to find, the precise classification has always been elusive. ξ2 For example, may be properly considered either a or a cake.

The Greeks invented beer as a , in , and using .Castella, Krystina (2010). A World of Cake: 150 Recipes for Sweet Traditions From Cultures Around the World, pp. 3–4. ISBN 978-1-60342-576-6. In , basic bread dough was sometimes enriched with butter, eggs, and honey, which produced a sweet and cake-like baked good. refers to the birthday of him and his brother with party and cake in his first book of exile, .Ov. Tris. IV. X:12.

Early cakes in England were also essentially bread: the most obvious differences between a "cake" and "bread" were the round, flat shape of the cakes, and the cooking method, which turned cakes over once while cooking, while bread was left upright throughout the baking process.

Sponge cakes, leavened with beaten eggs, originated during the Renaissance, possibly in Spain.Castella, Krystina (2010). A World of Cake: 150 Recipes for Sweet Traditions From Cultures Around the World, pp. 6–7. ISBN 978-1-60342-576-6.


See also


External links

References
    ^ (1975). 9780026045704, Simon and Schuster. .
    ^ (2018). 9780192803528, Oxford University Press.

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