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C is the third letter in the and a letter of the of many other which inherited it from the . It is also the third letter of the ISO basic Latin alphabet. It is named cee (pronounced ) in ."C" Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "cee", op. cit.


History
"C" comes from the same letter as "G". The named it . The sign is possibly adapted from an Egyptian hieroglyph for a , which may have been the meaning of the name gimel. Another possibility is that it depicted a camel, the Semitic name for which was gamal. Barry B. Powell, a specialist in the history of writing, states "It is hard to imagine how gimel = "camel" can be derived from the picture of a camel (it may show his hump, or his head and neck!)".
(2009). 9781405162562, Wiley Blackwell. .

In the Etruscan language, plosive consonants had no contrastive , so the '' (Gamma) was adopted into the Etruscan alphabet to represent . Already in the Western Greek alphabet, Gamma first took a '' form in Early Etruscan, then '

' in Classical Etruscan. In Latin it eventually took the 'c' form in Classical Latin. In the earliest inscriptions, the letters 'c k q' were used to represent the sounds and (which were not differentiated in writing). Of these, 'q' was used to represent or before a rounded vowel, 'k' before 'a', and 'c' elsewhere.
(1995). 9780195083453, Oxford University Press. .
During the 3rd century BC, a modified character was introduced for , and 'c' itself was retained for . The use of 'c' (and its variant 'g') replaced most usages of 'k' and 'q'. Hence, in the classical period and after, 'g' was treated as the equivalent of Greek gamma, and 'c' as the equivalent of kappa; this shows in the romanization of Greek words, as in 'ΚΑΔΜΟΣ', 'ΚΥΡΟΣ', and 'ΦΩΚΙΣ' came into Latin as 'cadmvs', 'cyrvs' and 'phocis', respectively.

Other alphabets have letters to 'c' but not analogous in use and derivation, like the letter Es (С, с) which derives from the lunate sigma, named due to its resemblance to the crescent moon.


Later use
When the Roman alphabet was introduced into Britain, represented only , and this value of the letter has been retained in loanwords to all the insular Celtic languages: in , , Gaelic, represents only . The Old English Latin-based writing system was learned from the Celts, apparently of Ireland; hence in Old English also originally represented ; the Modern English words kin, break, broken, thick, and seek, all come from Old English words written with : cyn, brecan, brocen, þicc, and séoc. But during the course of the Old English period, before front vowels ( and ) were palatalized, having changed by the tenth century to , though was still used, as in cir(i)ce, wrecc(e)a. On the continent, meanwhile, a similar phonetic change had also been going on (for example, in ).

In Vulgar Latin, became palatalized to in Italy and Dalmatia; in France and the Iberian peninsula, it became . Yet for these new sounds was still used before the letters and . The letter thus represented two distinct values. Subsequently, the Latin phoneme (spelled ) de-labialized to meaning that the various Romance languages had before front vowels. In addition, used the letter so that the sound could be represented by either or , the latter of which could represent either or depending on whether it preceded a front vowel letter or not. The convention of using both and was applied to the writing of English after the , causing a considerable re-spelling of the Old English words. Thus while Old English candel, clif, corn, crop, cú, remained unchanged, Cent, cæ´ᵹ (cé´ᵹ), cyng, brece, séoce, were now (without any change of sound) spelled 'Kent', 'keȝ', 'kyng', 'breke', and 'seoke'; even cniht ('knight') was subsequently changed to 'kniht' and þic ('thick') changed to 'thik' or 'thikk'. The Old English 'cw' was also at length displaced by the French 'qu' so that the Old English cwén ('queen') and cwic ('quick') became 'quen' 'quik', respectively. The sound , to which Old English palatalized had advanced, also occurred in French, chiefly from Latin before 'a'. In French it was represented by the digraph , as in champ (from Latin camp-um) and this spelling was introduced into English: the Hatton Gospels, written about 1160, have in Matt. i-iii, child, chyld, riche, mychel, for the cild, rice, mycel, of the Old English version whence they were copied. In these cases, the Old English gave place to but, on the other hand, in its new value of came in largely in French words like processiun, emperice, grace, and was also substituted for 'ts' in a few Old English words, as miltse, bletsien, in early Middle English milce, blecien. By the end of the thirteenth century both in France and England, this sound de-affricated to ; and from that time has represented before front vowels either for reasons, as in lance, cent, or to avoid the ambiguity due to the "etymological" use of for , as in ace, mice, once, pence, defence.

Thus, to show etymology, English spelling has advise, devise (instead of advize, devize), while advice, device, dice, ice, mice, twice, etc., do not reflect etymology; example has extended this to hence, pence, defence, etc., where there is no etymological reason for using . Former generations also wrote sence for sense. Hence, today the Romance languages and have a common feature inherited from spelling conventions where takes on either a "hard" or "soft" value depending on the following letter.


Use in writing systems

English
In English orthography, generally represents the "soft" value of before the letters (including the Latin-derived digraphs and , or the corresponding ligatures and ), , and , and a "hard" value of before any other letters or at the end of a word. However, there are a number of exceptions in English: "" and "Celt" are words that have where would be expected.

The "soft" may represent the sound in the digraph when this precedes a vowel, as in the words 'delicious' and 'appreciate'.

The digraph most commonly represents , but can also represent (mainly in words of Greek origin) or (mainly in words of origin). For some dialects of English, it may also represent in words like loch, while other speakers pronounce the final sound as . The trigraph always represents .

The digraph is often used to represent the sound after short vowels.


Other languages
In the Romance languages , , , Romanian and Portuguese, generally has a "hard" value of and a "soft" value whose pronunciation varies by language. In French, Portuguese, Catalan and Spanish from Latin America and southern Spain, the soft value is as it is in English. In the Spanish spoken in northern and central Spain, the soft is a voiceless dental fricative . In and Romanian, the soft is .

All Balto-Slavic languages that use the Latin alphabet, as well as Albanian, Hungarian, , several , Esperanto, , Interlingua, and Americanist phonetic notation (and those aboriginal languages of North America whose practical orthography derives from it) use to represent , the voiceless alveolar or voiceless dental sibilant affricate. In , the letter represents an aspirated version of this sound, .

Among non-European languages that have adopted the Latin alphabet, represents a variety of sounds. Yup'ik, Indonesian, , and a number of African languages such as , , and Manding share the soft Italian value of . In , Crimean Tatar, , and stands for the voiced counterpart of this sound, the voiced postalveolar affricate . In and similar languages, such as , stands for a . and use this letter to represent the click . In some other African languages, such as Beninese , is used for . In , stands for a voiced dental fricative , while in it has the value of .

The letter is also used as a transliteration of Cyrillic in the Latin forms of , Macedonian, and sometimes Ukrainian, along with the digraph .


Other systems
As a symbol, lowercase is the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) and symbol for the voiceless palatal plosive, and capital is the X-SAMPA symbol for the voiceless palatal fricative.


Digraphs
There are several common digraphs with , the most common being , which in some languages (such as ) is far more common than alone. takes various values in other languages.

As in English, , with the value , is often used after short vowels in other Germanic languages such as German and (but some other Germanic languages use instead, such as Dutch and Norwegian). The digraph is found in Polish and in Hungarian, both representing . The digraph represents in Old English, Italian, and a few languages related to Italian (where this only happens before , while otherwise it represents ). The trigraph represents in German.


Related characters

Ancestors, descendants and siblings
  • 𐤂 : Semitic letter , from which the following symbols originally derive
    • Γ γ : letter , from which C derives
      • G g : Latin letter G, which is derived from Latin C
  • Phonetic alphabet symbols related to C:
    • : Small c with curl
    • ʗ : stretched C
  • ᶜ : Modifier letter small c
  • ᶝ : Modifier letter small c with curl
  • ᴄ : Small capital c is used in the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet.
  • C with : Ć ć Ĉ ĉ Č č Ċ ċ Ḉ ḉ Ƈ ƈ C̈ c̈ Ȼ ȼ Ç ç ꞔ Ꞓ ꞓ
  • Ↄ ↄ :


Derived ligatures, abbreviations, signs and symbols
  • © : copyright symbol
  • ℃ : degree Celsius
  • ¢ : cent
  • ₡ : colón (currency)
  • ₢ : Brazilian cruzeiro (currency)
  • ₵ : Ghana cedi (currency)
  • ₠ : European Currency Unit CE
  • ℂ : double struck C
  • ℭ : blackletter C
  • Ꜿ ꜿ : abbreviation for syllables con- and com-, Portuguese -us and -os


Computing codes
1


Other representations

See also
  • Hard and soft C


External links
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