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   » » Wiki: Alexandre Yersin
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Alexandre Emile Jean Yersin (22 September 1863 – 1 March 1943) was a dual national and and . He is remembered as the co-discoverer of the responsible for the or pest, which was later named in his honour: . Another bacteriologist, the Japanese physician Kitasato Shibasaburō, is often credited with independently identifying the bacterium a few days earlier, but may have identified a different bacterium and not the pathogen-causing plague. Yersin also demonstrated for the first time that the same bacillus was present in the as well as in the human disease, thus underlining the possible means of transmission.

Yersin was born in 1863, to French parents, in , Canton of Vaud, . From 1883 to 1884, Yersin studied at , Switzerland; and then at , and (1884–1886). In 1886, he entered 's research laboratory at the École Normale Supérieure, by invitation of , and participated in the development of the anti- serum. In 1888 he received his doctorate with a dissertation titled Étude sur le Développement du Tubercule Expérimental and spent two months with in Germany. He joined the recently created Pasteur Institute in 1889 as Roux's collaborator and discovered with him the (produced by the Corynebacterium diphtheriae bacillus).

In order to be able to practice medicine in France, Yersin applied for and obtained French nationality in 1888. Soon afterwards (1890), he left for (current Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia) in as a physician for the Messageries Maritimes company, on the - line and then on the Saigon- line. He participated in one of the missions. In 1894 Yersin was sent by request of the French government and the Pasteur Institute to , to investigate the plague happening there.

There, in a small hut (according to Plague by Wendy Orent) since he was denied access to British hospitals at his arrival, he made his greatest discovery: that of the which causes the disease. Dr Kitasato Shibasaburō, also in Hong Kong, had identified a bacterium several days earlier. There is controversy whether this was the same pneumococci or a mix of the two. Because Kitasato's initial reports were vague and somewhat contradictory, some give Yersin sole credit for the discovery. However, a thorough analysis of the morphology of the organism discovered by Kitasato has determined that "we are confident that Kitasato had examined the plague bacillus in Hong Kong in late June and early July 1894", only days after Yersin announced his own discovery on 20 June. Therefore, Kitasato "should not be denied this credit". The plague bacillus develops better at lower temperatures, so Yersin's less well-equipped lab turned out to be an advantage in the race with Kitasato, who used an incubator. Therefore, although at first named “Kitasato-Yersin bacillus” by the scientific community, the microbe will later assume only the latter's name because of the one identified by Kitasato, a type of , cannot be found in the . Yersin was also able to demonstrate for the first time that the same bacillus was present in the as well as in the human disease, thus underlining the possible means of transmission. This important discovery was communicated to the French Academy of Sciences in the same year, by his colleague , in a classic paper titled "La peste bubonique à Hong-Kong".

From 1895 to 1897, Yersin further pursued his studies on the bubonic plague. In 1895 he returned to the Institute Pasteur in Paris and with Émile Roux, and Amédée Borrel, prepared the first anti-plague . In the same year, he returned to , where he installed a small laboratory at to manufacture the serum (in 1905 this laboratory became a branch of the Pasteur Institute). Yersin tried the serum received from Paris in and , in 1896, and in , , in 1897, with disappointing results. Having decided to stay in his country of adoption, he participated actively in the creation of the Medical School of in 1902, and was its first director, until 1904.

Yersin tried his hand at and was a pioneer in the cultivation of ( Hevea brasiliensis) imported from into Indochina. For this purpose, he obtained in 1897 a concession from the government to establish an agricultural station at . He opened a new station at in 1915, where he tried to acclimatize the tree ( Cinchona ledgeriana), which was imported from the in by the , and which produced the first known effective remedy for preventing and treating (a disease which prevails in Southeast Asia to this day).

Alexandre Yersin is well remembered in Vietnam, where he was affectionately called Ông Năm (Mr. Nam/Fifth) by the people.

On 8 January 1902, Yersin was accredited to be the first Headmaster of Hanoi Medical University by the Governor-General of French Indochina, . Following the country's independence, streets named in his honor kept their designation and his tomb in Suoi Dau was graced by a pagoda where rites are performed in his worship. His house in Nha Trang is now the , and the epitaph on his tombstone describes him as a "Benefactor and humanist, venerated by the Vietnamese people". In , a French lycée has his name. A private university founded in 2004 in was named "Yersin University" in his honour.

In 1934 he was nominated honorary director of Pasteur Institute and a member of its Board of Administration. He died during World War II at his home in , in 1943.

Dr. Yersin was credited with finding the site for the new town of in 1893. Because of the high altitude and European-like climate, Da Lat became an R&R spot for French officers. There was a high school named after him which was built in the 1920s, the Lycée Yersin, aka Grand Lycée (grade 6 to 12), the Petit Lycée (elementary to grade 5), and a university named after him which was built in the 2000s.

While in Hong Kong, Yersin was helped in his research by an Italian priest of the PIME order named Bernardo Vigano. He provided cadavers and assisted with his quest to find a remedy for the plague.

Notes and references



  • , Peste et choléra, éditions du Seuil, collection « Fiction & Cie », 2012 ().

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