Subiaco suffered severe bomb damage in World War II. The monastery of S Scolastica was extensively restored in the 16th century, but the bell-tower built in 1053 by Abbot Umberto on a 10th-century base, with two upper storeys added in the ...
The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture (GEMAA) offers unparalleled coverage of all aspects of art and architecture from Medieval Western Europe, from the 6th century to the early 16th century. Drawing upon the expansive scholarship in the celebrated Grove Dictionary of Art and adding hundreds of new entries on topics not previously covered, as well as fully updated and expanded entries and bibliographies, GEMAA offers students, researchers, and the general public a reliable, up-to-date, and convenient resource covering this field of major importance in the development of Western history and international art and architecture. The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture offers scholarly material on Medieval art for library users, scholars, students, and the general reader in intelligent, well-written, and informative articles (each of which is followed by a bibliography to support further research). These include a mixture of shorter, more factual articles and larger, multi-section articles tracing the development of the arts in major regions. There are articles on all subject areas in Medieval art including: biographies of major artists, architects and patrons; countries, cities, and sites; cultures and styles (Anglo-Saxon art, Carolingian art, Coptic art, Early Christian art, Romanesque, Gothic, Insular art, Lombard art, Merovingian art, Ottonian art, and Viking art); ivories, books and illuminated manuscripts, metalwork, architecture, painting, tapestries, sculpture, mosaics, reliquaries, and more. GEMAA is lavishly illustrated with more than 460 halftones and 170 color plates. The 6 volumes are organized into a cohesive A-Z format, with a comprehensive index. This title is part of the acclaimed Grove Art family of print encyclopedias.